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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

William & Mary

2018

Articles 1 - 13 of 13

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The Effect Of Internalizing Symptoms On Affect Recognition And Theory Of Mind Performance In A Community Sample Of Adolescents, Sarah Bottari Dec 2018

The Effect Of Internalizing Symptoms On Affect Recognition And Theory Of Mind Performance In A Community Sample Of Adolescents, Sarah Bottari

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Difficulties with social interaction are a hallmark feature of many clinical disorders, and one factor that may contribute to these difficulties is a deficit in social perception skills, such as affect recognition and theory of mind (ToM). The present study examines the effect of depressive and anxiety symptoms on social perception in a community sample of adolescents. Based on past research, we hypothesized that greater levels of internalizing symptoms would predict poorer performance on an affect recognition and ToM task. Twenty-nine adolescent participants completed dimensional measures of depressive symptoms, worry, and anxiety sensitivity, as well as a standardized neuropsychological assessment ...


Police Officers And Personality Characteristics, Isabel Marcovici Dec 2018

Police Officers And Personality Characteristics, Isabel Marcovici

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years, the public and media have raised their expectations for how police officers should conduct themselves but they sometimes only highlight the exceptional situations where officers made an egregious error on national news. Studying personality traits of officers may be one way to gain a more holistic perspective of the average police officer. Empathy and neuroticism were looked at in relation to job performance in 66 campus police officers. The findings did not support the hypothesis of a negative relation between neuroticism and job performance and a positive relation between job performance and empathy. However, there was a ...


The Magnificent Seven: A Narrative Analysis Of Suppressed Discourses In Psychiatric Diagnoses, Clayton Vance Martin Aug 2018

The Magnificent Seven: A Narrative Analysis Of Suppressed Discourses In Psychiatric Diagnoses, Clayton Vance Martin

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This study is a Narrative Analysis of the hidden strengths and positive qualities inherent to identified psychiatric diagnosis. Seven individuals were interviewed on two occasions and also corresponded with me via email and telephone. Analysis of individual narratives yielded common thematic elements and common plot points, these factors were further analyzed and contemplated in the light of their implications for the Counseling profession. an informed critique of the research design is presented, followed by implications and suggestions for future research.


The Effects Of Mating Strategy On Religiosity: Church Attendance As A Mating Strategy Component And The Role Of Religious Belief., Jacob Thomas Henicheck Jul 2018

The Effects Of Mating Strategy On Religiosity: Church Attendance As A Mating Strategy Component And The Role Of Religious Belief., Jacob Thomas Henicheck

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Contrary to traditional theories that religious morals influence sexual attitudes, recent research has found that controlling for sexual attitudes largely reduces associations between various moral views and religiosity. Based on these findings, the reproductive religiosity model was proposed in which being sexually restricted leads individuals to increase their religious involvement. However, the model a) does not account for religious belief and b) claims that sexual behavior mediates the effect of various variables on church attendance without employing a mediation model. to address these points, this study tests reproductive variables in a multiple regression to examine their ability to independently predict ...


Psychophysiology Of The Stress Response And The Hierarchical Structure Of Emotional Disorders, Molly Penrod Jun 2018

Psychophysiology Of The Stress Response And The Hierarchical Structure Of Emotional Disorders, Molly Penrod

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Physiological stress reactivity is closely linked to emotional disorders like depression and anxiety and is believed to play a causal role in their development. Similar patterns of exaggerated reactivity across a wide range of emotional disorders indicate that physiological hyperreactivity to stress may be a multifinal, or shared, risk factor for these disorders. However, current literature examines stress reactivity in only one or two disorders at a time and is based off categorical classification systems that assume mental disorders to be discrete entities. Recent research into the observed distribution of symptoms of mental illness contests this assumption and proposes that ...


Supporting Meaningful Career Paths: Effects Of Mentoring And Adulthood Perception On Vocational Outcomes For Emerging Adults, Mary Grutta May 2018

Supporting Meaningful Career Paths: Effects Of Mentoring And Adulthood Perception On Vocational Outcomes For Emerging Adults, Mary Grutta

Undergraduate Honors Theses

During the transition to adulthood, adolescents are faced with numerous developmental challenges, including increased rates of risk-taking, academic pressure, and greater struggles with low self-esteem. Naturally-occurring mentoring relationships can aid in providing guidance and advice as well as emotional and tangible support during this time (Ahrens et al., 2008). The present study examined how natural mentors during adolescence shape vocational outcomes during early adulthood, and whether this impact of mentoring can be explained by changes in perceived adulthood during the transition to adulthood. Analyses used data from a large, nationally representative sample, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add ...


From Bias To Behavior: Predicting Prejudice Towards Autistic Individuals, Caitlin Taylor May 2018

From Bias To Behavior: Predicting Prejudice Towards Autistic Individuals, Caitlin Taylor

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The present study sought to examine university students’ judgments about and behavior towards an individual they perceived to be on the autism spectrum versus an individual who they perceived not to be. Furthermore, the study measured implicit and explicit biases towards autistic individuals and the implications those biases had for behaviors directed towards individuals they perceived were autistic. Participants (n = 112) completed the study in two separate research sessions, spaced several weeks apart. In Part 1 of the study, participants completed measures of implicit and explicit bias. In Part 2, participants were asked to discuss a neutral prompt with a ...


Effect Of Implicit And Explicit Prejudice On Perceptions Of Drug Users Of Different Races, Yajna Jowaheer May 2018

Effect Of Implicit And Explicit Prejudice On Perceptions Of Drug Users Of Different Races, Yajna Jowaheer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Even to this day, members of the Black population involved in drug use are being subjected to high rates of imprisonment and are receiving a lower quality of health care in comparison to White drug users. This study proposes that the disparities in how society treats Black drug users are in part due to the way people’s perception of drug users differs based on the race of the target. In addition, this study sought to examine how these perceptions are predicted by implicit and explicit racial prejudice. To test these research questions, college students (n = 99) were randomly assigned ...


A Flash Of Creative Genius: The Effect Of Implicit Motives On Inspiration, Xiaoqing Wan Apr 2018

A Flash Of Creative Genius: The Effect Of Implicit Motives On Inspiration, Xiaoqing Wan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

There appears to be two types of creative processes reported by writers – one that is effortless and one that is effortful. Evidence suggests that an unconscious mechanism may underlie the passivity of inspired writing. We tested the hypothesis that activation of implicit motives is linked to inspired writing. A sample of college students (n = 206) attended lab sessions in which they wrote a “blog entry” on the meaning of life, and reported the extent to which they felt inspired or exerted effort. Participants’ implicit motives were measured using the Picture Story Exercise. Multiple regression analysis shows that inspiration predicts writing ...


Are Approach-Avoidance Emotions Represented In The Brain As Approach-Avoidance Actions?, Channing Everidge Apr 2018

Are Approach-Avoidance Emotions Represented In The Brain As Approach-Avoidance Actions?, Channing Everidge

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Spreading activation theory describes semantic memory as a network of connected nodes, in which activation of a concept triggers the subsequent activation of semantically related concepts, and has often been tested using a semantic priming methodology. Spreading activation is assumed when a target word is preceded by a semantically congruent prime word (congruent priming) that results in a quicker response time to the target word. This finding has been utilized by embodied cognition theorists, who posit that all semantic memory is deeply engrained within the perceptual-motor system by which it was encoded. But are abstract words also represented in this ...


Mental Health And Resource Utilization Among Underrepresented Students Transitioning To College, Yoojin Kook Apr 2018

Mental Health And Resource Utilization Among Underrepresented Students Transitioning To College, Yoojin Kook

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Underrepresented college students – including first-generation college students, students from lower-income backgrounds, and minority students – have lower rates of college completion (Fitzgerald & Delaney, 2002; Engle & Tinto, 2008; Choy, 2001). One set of factors that could play an important role in lower rates of college persistence for these students might involve higher rates of emotional distress, coupled with greater barriers to utilizing mental healthcare resources on campus (Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Eisenberg, Golberstein, & Hunt, 2009). The current study followed 59 underrepresented students (UR; 53 racial/ethnic minority; 12 immigrants; 20 first-generation; 23 low-income) and 62 non-underrepresented students (NR) during their first semester at a medium-sized, public southeastern university to compare rates of mental health problems, as well as stigma ...


The Serving Supervisor: Supervisor Servant Leadership As A Protective Factor For Counseling Residents’ Burnout And Secondary Traumatic Stress, Colleen Grunhaus Jan 2018

The Serving Supervisor: Supervisor Servant Leadership As A Protective Factor For Counseling Residents’ Burnout And Secondary Traumatic Stress, Colleen Grunhaus

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

According to Stamm (2010), variables in counselors’ work environment, personal environment, and client environment precipitate the development of compassion fatigue. Compassion fatigue, which comprises secondary traumatic stress and burnout, is an occupational hazard for counselors, and new counselors are especially vulnerable. A supervisory style that exhibits servant leadership traits may provide necessary support and counteract compassion fatigue symptoms for counseling residents. Servant leadership shares many philosophical assumptions of the counseling profession and addresses the administrative challenges many clinical supervisors face today (Evans, Wright, Murphy, & Maki, 2016). A sample of 241 counseling residents participated in the study and completed several instruments ...


Dissociating Alzheimer’S Disease From Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Time-Frequency Based Eeg Neurometrics, Wendel Matthew Friedl Jan 2018

Dissociating Alzheimer’S Disease From Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Time-Frequency Based Eeg Neurometrics, Wendel Matthew Friedl

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This work explores the utility of using magnitude (ERSP), phase angle (ITPC), and cross-frequency coupling (PAC) indices derived from electroencephalogram (EEG) recording using spectral decomposition as unique biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), respectively. The experimental protocol was a visual oddball discrimination task conducted during a brief (approximately 20 minute) recording session. Participants were 60 older adults from an outpatient memory clinic diagnosed with either aMCI (n=29; M=73.0; SD=9.32) or AD (n=31; M=78.29; SD=8.28) according to NIA-AA criteria. Results indicate that ITPC values differ ...