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Effects Of Preexposure To Shock On Autoshaping, Nancy L. Eldred May 1981

Effects Of Preexposure To Shock On Autoshaping, Nancy L. Eldred

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The safety signal hypothesis suggests that during the absence of stimuli predicting impending shock, the organism is not fearful. The stimuli which predict the absence of shock are therefore called safety signals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate some critical properties of safety signals. Such stimuli in an avoidance or escape situation, according to the opponent process model, are expected to acquire hedonic value opposite to shock.

This study examined differences in conditioning variables between safety signals predicting different intensities of shock, and between safety signals present in procedures using predicted shock, and procedures using unpredicted shock ...


Biofeedback: A Possible Substitute For Smoking, Earl Eugene Griffith May 1981

Biofeedback: A Possible Substitute For Smoking, Earl Eugene Griffith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Numerous agencies have accumulated evidence since 1964 which implicates habitual cigarette smoking as a causal or facilitating factor in the development of many circulatory and respiratory diseases. This study sought to identify those psychological variables which possibly contribute to the maintenance of cigarette smoking and therefore, had two main purposes. First, this study investigated the individual and simultaneous physiological changes, i.e., Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Skin Temperature that occurred during and immediately after the smoking of one cigarette. Second, the study investigated the hypothesis that smoking frequency would decrease when individuals were trained via biofeedback procedures ...


Retention And Attrition Factors Of Nonreturning Students At Utah State University, Amy L. Jordan May 1981

Retention And Attrition Factors Of Nonreturning Students At Utah State University, Amy L. Jordan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the factors which affected the decision of students not to return to Utah State University after completion of the previous quarter. The factors were determined by a mailed questionnaire which was a modification of the Withdrawing/ Nonreturning Student Survey developed by American College Testing (ACT).

One hundred twenty-two former Utah State University students who had attended fall quarter, 1979 but failed to register for winter quarter were randomly chosen for the study. The students were asked to complete the questionnaire and return it to Utah State University. The return rate through the ...


Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations, Alexander Mcnaughton Myers May 1981

Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations, Alexander Mcnaughton Myers

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under controlled conditions, and failed to do so. Experiment 5a presented infant subjects with a discrete-trial operant procedure (having the identical temporal parameters as the ...


The Effect Of Item Format On Computation Subtest Scores Of Standardized Mathematics Achievement Tests, Larry Carcelli May 1981

The Effect Of Item Format On Computation Subtest Scores Of Standardized Mathematics Achievement Tests, Larry Carcelli

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effect on childrens' scores of different item formats used in standardized mathematics achievement tests was investigated. Second grade students were given a mathematics computation test using formats derived from five standardized achievement tests. Identical content was tested with each format . Differences in test scores between types r0f formats were statistically significant at p(.001 (F = 45.25). These results indicate that what a student appears to know is substantially influenced by the format of the particualar test used in measuring achievement. These differences are not accounted for by the rno~mative scaling of the different tests. Greater attention should ...


Cause And Perceived Seriousness Of Deviant Behavior And Attribution Of Responsibility, Mary Kathryn Morris May 1981

Cause And Perceived Seriousness Of Deviant Behavior And Attribution Of Responsibility, Mary Kathryn Morris

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between differing stated causes of deviant behavior which is commonly labelled mental illness, and the perceived seriousness of these behaviors in determining judgments of the degree of responsibility attributed to described deviant individuals. This was accomplished by having subjects rate four different vignettes as to degree of perceived seriousness and degree of responsibility for behavior.

The subjects were 76 undergraduate students enrolled in either introductory psychology and/or introductory anthropology. The subjects were divided into four groups. Each group of 19 subjects received the same four vignettes. Each vignette gave ...


The Effectiveness Of Electronic Games (Atari) Reinforcers For Increasing Appropriate Behavior In Handicapped Children, James M. Payant May 1981

The Effectiveness Of Electronic Games (Atari) Reinforcers For Increasing Appropriate Behavior In Handicapped Children, James M. Payant

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ten subjects ranging from 9 to 16 years in age wi.th IQ's ranging from 23 to 62 were randomly selected as contingent or noncontingent subjects for two experiments. Five subjects received contingent access to two electronic games for performance within a specified learning session, while five subjects received noncontingent access to the games. These experiments were designed to determine the effect on performance, attending, and compliance skills in the classroom, when contingent access to the electronic games was based on performance. The development of fine motor skills and/or eye-hand coordination skills as a result of game usage ...


Marital Roles And Their Relationship To Marital Happiness And Self Concept, Gary L. Devries May 1981

Marital Roles And Their Relationship To Marital Happiness And Self Concept, Gary L. Devries

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Marital roles have become a subject of major concern in recent years. Many critiques consider traditional marriage roles to be responsible for hindering appropriate social-emotional development of the wife, in particular, and also the husband. Past research in assessing the relationship between marital roles and the happiness and well-being of husbands and wives is limited in quantity and generally is inconclusive or controversial. This study was designed to clarify the relationship between marriage roles and two dependent variables, marital happiness and self concept.

The sample population consisted of 124 volunteer couples selected from the teaching staffs of eight school districts ...


Locus Of Control: Effects On The Reported Gains Made In Assertion Training, Eugene Earl Campbell May 1981

Locus Of Control: Effects On The Reported Gains Made In Assertion Training, Eugene Earl Campbell

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forty-nine Cache Valley residents, between the ages of 18 and 45, who volunteered to participate in an assertion training class were assigned to one of seven groups. Subjects were administered pre- and posttests and a two month follow-up evaluation. Measures included Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, the Rathus Assertive Scale, and the Berger Self-Acceptance Scale. The results obtained indicate that self-acceptance and assertiveness changed as a result of assertion training and that these changes were maintained at follow-up. No difference between internals and externals was observed as a result of semi-structured assertion training.


Metaphorical Interpretations Of The Neurotic Paradox, Mark J. Weaver May 1981

Metaphorical Interpretations Of The Neurotic Paradox, Mark J. Weaver

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This is a theoretical/philosophical paper which is intended to bring to the reader's attention an emerging literature and discussion which holds potentially productive consequences for the understanding of man. This thesis does not offer completed formulations or empirical groundings. The purpose is to create a basis for dialogue.

This paper will initially specify a current conflict in psychology around the different metaphors used to define the image of man. A theoretical/philosophical basis for viewing the process of generating models of man and his behavior as essentially "metaphorical" is then presented. A specific category of human behavior known ...


Inter- And Intra-Sensory Modality Stimulus Scaling: A Method For The Determination Of The Relative Salience Of Stimuli In Poison-Based Aversion Learning By Pigeons, David L. Pounds May 1981

Inter- And Intra-Sensory Modality Stimulus Scaling: A Method For The Determination Of The Relative Salience Of Stimuli In Poison-Based Aversion Learning By Pigeons, David L. Pounds

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One of the most rapidly expanding areas of research in psychology has been poison-based aversion learning (PBAL). The PBAL paradigm typically involves: exposing an animal to a novel substance; inducing illness following ingestion of that substance; and then providing access to the substance at a later time. The initial reaction to the novel substance is generally to reduce consumption, a finding labeled neophobia. The reduction of substance intake on test day is called learned aversion.

Following demonstrations of cue-to-consequence specificity (i.e., the differential associability of some stimuli with certain consequences) in PBAL research with rats, recent research has focused ...


Ego Strengthening Hypnotic Suggestions Versus Specific Hypnotic Suggestions In The Treatment Of Obesity, Richard A. Hutchison May 1981

Ego Strengthening Hypnotic Suggestions Versus Specific Hypnotic Suggestions In The Treatment Of Obesity, Richard A. Hutchison

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A comparison was made of two types of hypnotic suggestions. Twenty seven subjects in two groups participated in eight weekly one-hour group hypnotic sessions. All subjects were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and were weighed pre, post and at four month follow-up. Both types of hypnotic suggestions were equally effective in helping individuals lose weight. The average weight loss was 10 pounds at follow up. Both groups showed improvement on the personality tests. Those who received the ego-strengthening hypnotic suggestions showed more improvement and more long lasting improvement than did those who received the specific ...


A Peer-Managed Self-Control Program For Reduction Of Alcohol Consumption In High School Students, Richard A. Carpenter May 1981

A Peer-Managed Self-Control Program For Reduction Of Alcohol Consumption In High School Students, Richard A. Carpenter

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Three treatments designed to reduce the consumption of alcohol by native American high school students were assessed and compared. Selfreferred and staff-referred clients were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: (1) alcohol education and a peer-assisted selfcontrol procedure, (2) a peer-assisted self-control procedure, and (3) a self-monitoring only procedure. All three treatments were conducted by trained peer counselors for 14 weeks. The alcohol education and peer-assisted self-control and the peer-assisted self-control demonstrated reductions in peak blood alcohol concentration, frequency of drinking incidents, and alcohol consumption. The self-monitoring only group demonstrated changes only in frequency of drinking incidents. No significant differences ...


Comparison Of The Standard And Computerized Versions Of The College Level Examination Program General Examination In English Composition, Alan L. Muhlestein May 1981

Comparison Of The Standard And Computerized Versions Of The College Level Examination Program General Examination In English Composition, Alan L. Muhlestein

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to test whether the computer-administered College Level Examination Program (CLEP) General Examination in English Composition produced scores equivalent to those obtained from the traditional paper-and-pencil version. The CLEP examination and its adaptation for computer administration and the results of a pilot study are presented. The subjects in this study were volunteers who took the CLEP English Composition Examination in order to earn college credit and were randomly assigned to either the computer-first or paper-and-pencil-first groups. Each subject took both forms of the examination with approximately one half of the subjects taking each version first ...


Lifestyle As A Determinant Of Participation Among Dispersed Forest Recreationists, John R. Butler May 1981

Lifestyle As A Determinant Of Participation Among Dispersed Forest Recreationists, John R. Butler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study assesses the usefulness of lifestyle as a determinant of outdoor recreation behavior. Two objectives of the study are: (1) develop an operationalized concept of lifestyle that is based on theory, and (2) apply this concept in a model which uses lifestyle as a variable influencing recreation behavior.

The first objective was approached through an integrative review of the literature. Lifestyle was set in context of cultural theory. The basic postulate of the proposed theory of lifestyle is: If an individual's lifestyle is similar to that of another, certain social psychological processes are similar. Therefore, their patterns of ...


Diagnostic Considerations In The Identification Of The Hyperactive Child, Barbara Jagoda Draheim May 1981

Diagnostic Considerations In The Identification Of The Hyperactive Child, Barbara Jagoda Draheim

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The hyperactive disorder of childhood and the enumeration of its features were described in two papers published in the mid-1950's, by Laufer and his colleagues (Laufer, 1957; Laufer, Denhoff & Solomons, 1956). It was a list that has since become familiar; short attention span, impulsivity, irritability, low frustration tolerance, poor academic achievement, and visual-motor difficulties. Like many who have since searched for definers of the syndrome, Laufer and his colleagues remarked upon the perplexing variability displayed by these children, and they noted that no single symptom could be considered diagnostic. They described the development of "secondary psychological difficulties" due to the irritating effect of the child's symptoms on parents and ...


Single...Chance Or Choice, Karen Robinson May 1981

Single...Chance Or Choice, Karen Robinson

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

"It is said to be the largest unrecognized minority group in America, but it has no lobbying efforts, central organization or focus. The group is singles - divorced, widowed or never married - and there is an estimated l 190,000 of them in Kansas City Area." One out of every three adults in the United States is single. That is 43 million. Yet in spite of their great numbers, single people find that social pressures still call for "settling down" and raising a family.