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“Get Tough!”: A Case Study On The Development Of The Sport Ethic In Youth Lacrosse, Ross Budziszewski May 2019

“Get Tough!”: A Case Study On The Development Of The Sport Ethic In Youth Lacrosse, Ross Budziszewski

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

While participation in youth sport is often linked with positive psychosocial and physical outcomes (Holt et al., 2017), this context can also cultivate ideals that lead to the development of unethical beliefs as well as unsafe sport practices (Al-Yaarbi & Kavussanu, 2017). The sport ethic is described as the deviant overconformity by an athlete to fit societal expectations of a sport’s high-performance culture (Hughes & Coakley, 1991). Strong beliefs in the sport ethic can lead to moral disengagement, antisocial behavior, and viewing sport like warfare (Shields, Funk, & Bredemeier, 2015). Although the sport ethic has been examined in competitive adult sport (Coakley ...


Participation In Dual Language Immersion Programs: Using Theory Of Planned Behavior To Explore Enrollment Factors, Andrea Call May 2015

Participation In Dual Language Immersion Programs: Using Theory Of Planned Behavior To Explore Enrollment Factors, Andrea Call

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The theory of planned behavior is used to explain and predict human behavior in a variety of situations. The theory proposes that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control influence behavioral intention, which then influences behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Research has found that this model is useful in education for predicting teacher behavior in instruction, student participation in coursework, and parental involvement in education (Bracke & Corts, 2012; Campbell, 2010; Cheng & Chu, 2014; Lee et al., 2010). Dual Language Immersion consists of two languages being used for instruction in the same classroom (Alanis & Rodriguez, 2008). The goals of such programs included bilingualism, cultural understanding and academic achievement for all participants (Palmer, 2007). Utah is a recognized leader in the field ofDual Language Immersion and has a unique curriculum focused on early immersion (Leite, 2013; Utah Dual Language Immersion, n.d.). Utah also asserts five benefits of participation ...


Relations Between Teachers' Implicit Theories Of Intelligence, Standardized Achievement Testing, And Classroom Goals, Sydnie W. Ringle May 2014

Relations Between Teachers' Implicit Theories Of Intelligence, Standardized Achievement Testing, And Classroom Goals, Sydnie W. Ringle

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

An achievement gap between ethnic minorities and whites continues to exist within the US, as well as between the US and varying countries (Peterson, Woessmann, Hanushek, & Lastra-Anadon, 2011). Research has identified several factors that contribute to this gap, such as differences in curricula across countries, teacher quality, and school funding. In addition to these factors, teachers’ implicit theories of intelligence may also contribute to the achievement gap. Whether teachers view intelligence as fixed (entity theory) or malleable (incremental theory) can impact instructional practices, specifically the use of performance and learning goals. Performance goals focus on evaluation, ability, and performance rather than mastery of material, growth, and overall learning as seen in learning goals are (Dweck, 1999; Shim, Cho, & Cassady, 2013). Research is limited regarding the development of implicit theories of intelligence; however, there is evidence culture may be involved. Identifying specific cultural practices that influence the development of implicit theories of intelligence may provide a unique perspective on pedagogy and how teachers interact with students. This review of the literature discusses one cultural practice that may be related to the development of implicit theories of intelligence, mainly standardized achievement testing. First, this literature review defines the construct of implicit theories of intelligence; then ...


The Definition, Identification, And Cause Of Specific Learning Disabilities: A Literature Review, Joseph M. Cottrell May 2014

The Definition, Identification, And Cause Of Specific Learning Disabilities: A Literature Review, Joseph M. Cottrell

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) currently make up approximately 40% of students receiving special education. The definition of SLD has not changed since the original special education law was implemented in 1975. Even with the recent changes to special education law in 2004, the definition stayed the same. Some professionals believe this lack of change reveals consistency while other scholars believe this lack of change reveals a lack of knowledge about what SLDs really are. The definition of SLD gives little insight regarding the etiology of the disorder. There are three prominent theories regarding the cause of SLDs: (a ...


A Synthesis Of Math Interventions For Elementary Students, Stephanie Toone May 2012

A Synthesis Of Math Interventions For Elementary Students, Stephanie Toone

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

One major concern when developing a Response to Intervention (RTI) multi-tier program is the procedural elements required to ensure effective instruction. Ten studies were reviewed to gain an understanding of the components that result in positive RTI outcomes in mathematics. Elements analyzed included RTI program procedures , tier administration and tier outcomes . Results suggest that several empirically-based math interventions are being used in RTI programs in the literature and the researchers are implementing options as part of the Classwide , Tier 2 and Tier 3 instructional programs. Intervention progress is monitored primarily using Curriculum Based Measurement procedures to evaluate performance levels and ...


The Male Gender Role And Depression, Tom Liljegren May 2010

The Male Gender Role And Depression, Tom Liljegren

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Although depression is a common mental health disorder, less research has been devoted to men's experience with depression compared to women's experiences. Although men may exhibit similar patterns of depression as women, men often have unique pattern of exhibiting depression characterized by substance abuse, irritability, aggression, and interpersonal conflict. The paper presents a review of the relevant literature on male depression and, in particular, how it is potentially affected by male gender role factors. Biological, psychological, social, and artifact theories have been proposed to explain gender differences in how depression is expressed. It is hypothesized that the male ...


Teacher Treatment Integrity In School Based Interventions, Gregory A. Simpson May 2009

Teacher Treatment Integrity In School Based Interventions, Gregory A. Simpson

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Identifying effective treatments to address undesirable behaviors is one major

goal of research in changing human behavior. Researchers want to demonstrate that it is

indeed the treatment that is effecting a change in the target behavior and not some

extraneous influence. When researchers examine the effectiveness of an intervention the

treatment is implemented with the attempt to decrease the influence of other factors that

may explain behavior change that occurs in hopes to see the desired effect of the

independent variable (treatment) on the dependent variable (behavior). For this type of

research, it is important to keep all variables except ...


A Synthesis Of Empirically Supported Classwide Interventions: Matching Interventions To Common Functions Of Classroom Behavior Problems, Bethanie Monsen-Ford May 2009

A Synthesis Of Empirically Supported Classwide Interventions: Matching Interventions To Common Functions Of Classroom Behavior Problems, Bethanie Monsen-Ford

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The most common forms of intervention for behavioral concerns of students in the school setting are schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) systems and individualized interventions based upon functional behavior assessment (FBA). Research has shown positive outcomes for both schoolwide PBS systems and individual interventions utilizing FBA. However, less research has been done with classwide behavior interventions. A review of the literature was conducted to indentify classwide behavior interventions conducted in a regular education classroom with primarily regular education students. Studies identified to meet inclusion criteria were assessed to determine the possible function or combination of functions served. Twenty-one studies were ...


Peer Observation Methods To Estimate Classroom Behavior, John Hughes May 2009

Peer Observation Methods To Estimate Classroom Behavior, John Hughes

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

School behavior observations are a data collection tool that allows systematic observation and coding of a student's behavior. They are typically used to determine the degree that behavior affects academic learning. Behavior observations are a widely used and important part of a school evaluation. Observations are required by law for some special education evaluations (IDEIA , 2004) and are a common form of assessment tool used by school psychologists (Shapiro ~ Heick , 2004; Wilson & Reschly, 1996)


Representation Of English Language Learners In Special Education: An Overview, Rachel M. Morley May 2008

Representation Of English Language Learners In Special Education: An Overview, Rachel M. Morley

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Possible misrepresentation of English Language Learners (ELLs) in special education is a concern for many school districts across the U.S. This paper discusses language and cultural factors that affect assessment and classification of ELL students, focusing on classifications of Learning Disability (LD) and Mental Retardation (MR). Empirical studies and review articles regarding representation of ELLs in special education are summarized. Methods of avoiding inappropriate placement are presented, and implications for school psychologists are discussed.


A Synthesis Of The Literature On Reading Interventions To Improve Oral Reading Rates, Kelley Douglass May 2008

A Synthesis Of The Literature On Reading Interventions To Improve Oral Reading Rates, Kelley Douglass

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The traditional model of identification and eligibility assessment in Special Education often is to refer-test-place, which is based on a "wait to fail" procedure. Research has shown positive outcomes for the use of a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of assessment as an alternative method of learning disability identification. However, challenges exist in the selection of high-quality, research-based, effective interventions. A review of the literature was conducted to identify reading intervention options based on Curriculum-Based Measurement outcomes that may be selected for RTI use within the model and the potential barriers of their use. Twenty-one studies were identified examining 31 ...


Examination Of The Issues And Scientific Evidence For The Identification Process Of Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Individuals With Learning Disabilities To Enhance Academic Outcomes, Scot Ferre May 2006

Examination Of The Issues And Scientific Evidence For The Identification Process Of Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Individuals With Learning Disabilities To Enhance Academic Outcomes, Scot Ferre

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Although the identification of learning disabilities (LD) is a viable means to provide appropriate

instructional and support services for students with academic difficulties, there is a limited

knowledge base about the identification, assessment, and intervention of and for LD in deaf and

hard of hearing (D/HH) students. Given the potential consequences of test results, this review

examined current and recent developments in the field of learning disabilities concerning the

conceptualization of learning disability and the validity and empirical support of earlier

identification methods and various assessment identification options with D/HH students.

Challenges to the process and the need ...


A Review Of School-Based Interventions For Children And Adolescents Who Suffer From Depressive Symptoms, Sherry L. Hlavaty May 2005

A Review Of School-Based Interventions For Children And Adolescents Who Suffer From Depressive Symptoms, Sherry L. Hlavaty

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

This paper provides a brief review of childhood and adolescent depressive disorders and the importance of treating such symptoms within a school setting. The purpose of this paper was to examine published studies that were conducted in schools and were designed to treat symptoms of depression in children and adolescents. Active treatments utilized in this review were shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of depression. Most active treatment conditions involved intervention components that are commonly used in conjunction with typical cognitive-behavioral therapies . Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of specific programs and program components. Implications of the ...


Cognitive Assessment Of School Age Spanish Speaking English Language Learners, Casey Johnson May 2005

Cognitive Assessment Of School Age Spanish Speaking English Language Learners, Casey Johnson

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The number of students who speak a language other that English in schools across the U.S. is rapidly increasing. The Spanish speaking student population, in particular, has grown considerably in recent years. One way to examine the extent of this growth is to consider demographic data at the national and state levels.


Parent Training Programs, Values, And Related Issues Concerning The Culturally Diverse, Raina Ilen Jones May 2005

Parent Training Programs, Values, And Related Issues Concerning The Culturally Diverse, Raina Ilen Jones

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Few parent training programs that address the improvement of coercive or negative parent-child interactions in culturally diverse populations exist in the literature; of the few that do exist, there is sparse empirical information on program effectiveness. Because parent training is an effective way to address parent-child interaction, parent training programs are discussed in the context of the values of African Americans, Asian Americans, Caucasian Americans, Latino Americans, and Native Americans. A review of the literature on values and culturally-specific and culturally adapted parenting programs was conducted as was a review of programs that have been modified for culturally diverse groups ...


Review Of Social Competency Training For Pre-School And Elementary School Age Students At Risk For Developing Or Classified With Emotional/Behavioral Disorders, Cristine C. Sosa May 2004

Review Of Social Competency Training For Pre-School And Elementary School Age Students At Risk For Developing Or Classified With Emotional/Behavioral Disorders, Cristine C. Sosa

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Social competency training is a common intervention for students at risk for developing

or classified with emotional/behavioral disorders. However, a review of research indicated that it

is only mildly effective in producing significant outcomes for these students. A number of

factors have been identified as possibly impacting the success of social competency training,

including: the intervention setting, the timing of intervention, characteristics of participants,

characteristics of interventions and the outcome measurements ~d. A review of literature was

conducted to evaluate these factors. Findings of the review indicate that there are not significant

differences between interventions conducted in regular education ...


Brain Injury In Children: Assessment And School-Based Interventions, Deanne Smith May 2002

Brain Injury In Children: Assessment And School-Based Interventions, Deanne Smith

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

A traumatic brain injury is an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical

force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment that adversely

affects a child's educational performance. It is considered the leading cause of mortality and

disability among children with estimates of over one million occurrences each year. The 1990

revision of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act included Traumatic Brain Injury as a

special education diagnostic category. Although this allowed students greater access to

appropriate services, it pointed out the need for additional knowledge and training for educators

working with this ...


Parents Of Children With Severe Disabilities: Parental Stress, Depression, And The Marital Relationship, Melinda W. Christensen May 2002

Parents Of Children With Severe Disabilities: Parental Stress, Depression, And The Marital Relationship, Melinda W. Christensen

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

This paper provides an overview of parental stress and depression in families with

children diagnosed with severe cognitive disabilities. Previous research on parents with

children with disabilities was reviewed. Studies were selected from peer-reviewed journal

articles that specifically included children with an IQ below 70 or a noted cognitive

impairment of a severe degree. Children in the study had to be living at home and below

the age of 21. Significant levels of stress and depression were not found consistently in

the studies reviewed. Parents of children with disabilities did report levels of stress and

depression above the control groups ...


Research Treatments For Self Injurious Behavior With Unclear Or Automatically Reinforced Causes And Their Correlation To Least Restrictive Behavioral Interventions, Valarie Blamires May 2002

Research Treatments For Self Injurious Behavior With Unclear Or Automatically Reinforced Causes And Their Correlation To Least Restrictive Behavioral Interventions, Valarie Blamires

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Self injurious behavior (SIB) is one of the most perplexing and frightening behaviors exhibited by some students. SIB is defined as behavior wherein the individual is engaging in repetitive or stereotypical behaviors that may and in some cases does result in physical harm to the individual (Jacob-Timm, 1996). The behaviors are displayed in a variety of topographies. They can range from fingernail picking to head banging, and can be so destructive that the student can cause severe injury to themselves or even death. Individuals who display this type of behavior also display a variety of medical and clinical diagnosis which ...


Exploring The Effectiveness Of Self-Management Programs For Students With Disruptive Behaviors: A Comprehensive Literature Review, Heidi Kupiec May 2001

Exploring The Effectiveness Of Self-Management Programs For Students With Disruptive Behaviors: A Comprehensive Literature Review, Heidi Kupiec

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Disruptive behaviors exhibited by children and youth pose a major problem for

students exhibiting the behaviors, their peers, parents, and teachers. Disruptive behaviors

including shouting, aggression, off-task behaviors, and noncompliance, correlate with

poor social skills, low peer acceptance, higher rates of academic deficiencies, and in

adulthood instability in relationships and employment. Self-management programs

employ traditional behavior management methods and with self-management

components to teach students to self-monitor or evaluate their behavior. By teaching

students to be aware of and to manage their own behavior students may be better able to

generalize appropriate behaviors to other less supervised settings, complete more ...


A Review Of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Interventions Used With School-Aged Children And Adolescents, Christopher Laypath May 2001

A Review Of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Interventions Used With School-Aged Children And Adolescents, Christopher Laypath

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) techniques have been used since the early

twentieth century as a means of inducing relaxation and decreasing muscle tension.

However, only in the last twenty five years have systematic studies of these techniques to

treat children and adolescents appeared with any regularity in the research literature.

The last major review of the literature was published in 1989. The purpose of this

paper was to examine studies published since the last review of the literature. A special

emphasis was placed on studies set in schools or that were relevant to mental health

professionals in those settings. The ...


The Relationship Of Human Psychological Characteristics With Athletic Performance, Grant P. Murray May 2000

The Relationship Of Human Psychological Characteristics With Athletic Performance, Grant P. Murray

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a literature review summary on the topic

of the relationship of human psychological characteristics with athletic performance. Two research

questions guided its development: (1) Is there any evidence that there is a relationship between

individual human psychological characteristics and athletic performance? (2) If there is any evidence

that there is a relationship between individual human psychological characteristics and athletic

performance, is there further evidence that those individual characteristics translate in some way into

group dynamics or attributes that may similarly influence team performance?


Is It Time For Cooperative Learning To Enter American Classrooms?, Donna Sewell May 2000

Is It Time For Cooperative Learning To Enter American Classrooms?, Donna Sewell

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Education's raison d'etre is to prepare students with the skills necessary for a

productive and happy life within society. The fact that many educational institutions are

experiencing a disconcerting number of students dropping out of school (and sometimes

life itself) may be an indicator that this preparation is less than adequate in meeting their

needs. In fact, the needs of a high school graduate today are so different and far-reaching

than what they were 30-50 years ago, it will be easier to group them according to a

change in economics, transformed demographics and changes in social situations and ...


Treatment Of Separation Anxiety Disorder And School Refusal: A Comprehensive Review Of The Literature, Nicole Petersen May 2000

Treatment Of Separation Anxiety Disorder And School Refusal: A Comprehensive Review Of The Literature, Nicole Petersen

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Separation anxiety disorder is a condition in which a child or adolescent

experiences severe anxiety when separation from a parent or caregiver is imminent. A

possible symptom of separation anxiety disorder or other psychological conditions is that

the child may refuse to attend school or run away from school during the day, an

occurrence commonly referred to as school refusal. Children with separation anxiety

disorder or school refusal may, as a result, be limited in their social and educational

opportunities. Therefore, a review of published studies on the treatment of separation

anxiety disorder and school refusal was completed. To adequately ...


Adolescent Suicide: A Review Of School-Based Suicide Prevention In Middle And High School Settings, Stephanie Anne Alberico May 2000

Adolescent Suicide: A Review Of School-Based Suicide Prevention In Middle And High School Settings, Stephanie Anne Alberico

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Suicide has been named a leading cause of death for 15 to 24 year-olds and it is evident that this public health concern warrants specific attention. The purpose of this paper was to review school-based suicide prevention programs. Prior to this review, background information on suicide including prevalence rates and general information on suicide is presented. It has been determined that adolescent males are four times as likely than females to complete suicide while females are twice as likely to attempt suicide. The most common methods of adolescent suicide completion are firearms and explosives while the most common mean of ...


School-Based Primary Prevention Of Internalizing Disorders, Carol M. Moore May 2000

School-Based Primary Prevention Of Internalizing Disorders, Carol M. Moore

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

This paper provides an overview of childhood internalizing disorders, including the symptomatology, prevalence rates, comorbidity of other psychopathologies, correlated factors, treatment, and prognosis. Previous research in the area of primary and secondary prevention of depression and anxiety is reviewed, and the need for school-based prevention programs discussed. Several curricular and comprehensive elementary-level programs that are currently available and supported by research are reviewed to highlight their efficacy, theoretical rationale, targeted risk factors, and implementation concerns. Conclusions and recommendations for implementation and future research are presented.


A Comparative Analysis Of Seven Published Self-Report Measures For Assessing Internalizing-Type Symptoms In Children And Adolescents, Kathryn E. Anderson May 1997

A Comparative Analysis Of Seven Published Self-Report Measures For Assessing Internalizing-Type Symptoms In Children And Adolescents, Kathryn E. Anderson

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The broad domain of internalizing disorders encompasses a variety of symptoms that are specific to child and adolescent populations and generalizable to adult populations. Internalizing disorders, commonly referred to as " emotional problems," include such problems as depression, anxiety, social withdrawal, somatic complaints, and low self-esteem. The other side of this classification dichotomy is that of externalizing disorders (e.g., conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), which involve overt behaviors considered as "undercontrolled". In contrast, internalizing problems involve behaviors that possess an "overcontrolled" quality. Such a covert nature leads to difficulty in identification and diagnosis, as they often go unnoticed by the ...


The Influence Of Adoption On Self-Related Social-Emotional Characteristics Of Adopted Children And Adolescents, H. Norman Ames May 1996

The Influence Of Adoption On Self-Related Social-Emotional Characteristics Of Adopted Children And Adolescents, H. Norman Ames

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Many families in our society have been created through adoption. In 1990, there were approximately 119,000 adoption placements in the United States (Flango & Flango, 1990). Over the past decade, the majority of adoptions were infants placed with White couples who ranged in age from 25 to 34 (Bachrach, Adams, Sambrano, & London, 1990).


Characteristics Of College Students Seeking Mental Health Services And Reasons Given For Choosing The Mental Health Service Provider, Ann Leslie Athorp May 1993

Characteristics Of College Students Seeking Mental Health Services And Reasons Given For Choosing The Mental Health Service Provider, Ann Leslie Athorp

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The literature related to college mental health counseling suggested

numerous possible factors which were hypothesized to play a significant

role in choosing a mental health care agency. A questionnaire was

constructed to measure demographics of students utilizing the Utah State

University Counseling Center, spontaneous reasons for choosing the center

as the preferred mental health agency, and literature-based reasons for

the same. Subjects reported that they chose the university counseling

center for practical reasons such as cost and location. However, factor

analysis of the literature - based reasons endorsed by these subjects

suggested that trust in the counseling center and its professionals ...


Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain And Marital Adjustment Effects On The Spouse, Marilyn Matson Jones May 1991

Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain And Marital Adjustment Effects On The Spouse, Marilyn Matson Jones

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Chronic musculoskeletal pain can fundamentally alter a marital relationship and have significant effects on marital satisfaction for both the chronic pain patient and spouse. This paper is a critical review of literature on chronic musculoskeletal pain and marital adjustment. Nineteen empirical studies are evaluated and serve as the data base for conclusions and recommendations. Variables which may effect marital satisfaction such as sexual function, spouse solicitousness, effects on the psychological and physical health of the spouse and gender differences are identified. The impact of these variables on marriage and the spouse in particular, is discussed. Implications for further research in ...