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The Union Of Opposites: Carl Jung, Folklore, And The Caduceus And Ouroboros In Alchemy, Jack Daly Dec 2020

The Union Of Opposites: Carl Jung, Folklore, And The Caduceus And Ouroboros In Alchemy, Jack Daly

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

This thesis advocates for the use of Carl Jung’s psychoanalytic theory in folkloristics by examining the role of the caduceus and the ouroboros in alchemy as a case study. Although a Jungian lens has not been widely accepted by folklorists, it can and should be applied to folklore, particularly in the context of binary oppositions. Folklorists such as Alan Dundes have been harshly critical of this perspective. However, Dundes also stressed the importance of binaries in folklore. Furthermore, Dundes championed the theory of symbolic equivalences, and in my paper I argue that the caduceus and the ouroboros are examples ...


Nicotine And Alcohol Interactions, Charles C. J. Frye Dec 2020

Nicotine And Alcohol Interactions, Charles C. J. Frye

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Charles C.J. Frye, a graduate student in the Behavior Analysis program at Utah State University, completed this dissertation as part of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology.

Alcohol and Nicotine are the two most commonly abused drugs in the United States, often used at the same time. The goal of the dissertation was to more fully understand how exposure to one drug alters motivation for the other. In Chapter I, we investigated how exposure to nicotine affects relapse for alcohol in rats. Nicotine did not affect relapse for alcohol, possibly due to the method ...


Using Video Modeling To Teach Staff How To Implement Preference Assessments, Megan Weaver Aug 2020

Using Video Modeling To Teach Staff How To Implement Preference Assessments, Megan Weaver

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Identification of reinforcers through preference assessments for individuals with disabilities is an important task because it increases the probability of skill development, including academic tasks, self-help skills, social skills, and behavior modification. Teachers of students with disabilities often experience problems with training paraprofessionals to implement preference assessments using written instructions alone. In this study, researchers will investigate whether video modeling will be more effective than written instruction to staff to implement preference assessments. Participants will include three to five paraprofessionals in a classroom setting with no previous behavior analysis training on preference assessments and three to five students in a ...


A Brief Online Acceptance And Commitment Training For Enhancing Outcomes Of A Cultural Competence Intervention, Elizabeth Tish Hicks Aug 2020

A Brief Online Acceptance And Commitment Training For Enhancing Outcomes Of A Cultural Competence Intervention, Elizabeth Tish Hicks

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In an increasingly diverse and multicultural society, there is a pressing and practical need for interventions to help professionals improve their cultural competence. Cultural competence trainings that target psychological flexibility in addition to knowledge, awareness, and skills may produce more efficacious results. The current study will examined the utility of targeting psychological flexibility (the ability to maintain contact the present moment and current internal experiences and to choose contextually appropriate, values-consistent behaviors, regardless of what one’s internal experiences are) as a process to enhance the impact of a cultural competence intervention with an Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT)-enhanced ...


A Translational Examination Of Alternative-Response Discrimination Training And Resurgence, Kaitlyn O. Browning Aug 2020

A Translational Examination Of Alternative-Response Discrimination Training And Resurgence, Kaitlyn O. Browning

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders often engage in severe forms of problem behavior. Reward-based behavioral interventions are highly effective at reducing levels of problem behavior and teaching more appropriate and adaptive alternative behaviors. Despite successful reduction in problem behavior during treatment, problem behaviors are susceptible to reoccurrence or relapse. Resurgence is a type of behavioral relapse that is particularly relevant to the treatment of problem behavior and may occur following the worsening of conditions of a more recently learned alternative behavior. That is, if the rewards that were used to teach the alternative behavior are removed ...


Psychosocial Effects Of Shared Book Reading, Amy Halling Aug 2020

Psychosocial Effects Of Shared Book Reading, Amy Halling

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many studies have examined the academic benefits of parents reading with their children, but few studies have looked at the psychological and social benefits, and even fewer have related the quality of shared book reading to psycho-social benefits. This study looked at whether positive and negative reading interactions during shared book reading predicted parent-child relationships, child social skills and child academic skills. Twenty-five parents of 4-year-olds read a story with their child and completed parent relationship and child social skills questionnaires. The reading interactions were then coded into two separate composite scores: positive and negative. Positive interactions did not significantly ...


Gratitude In Adolescents: Examining The Role Of Attachment, Parental Gratitude, And Discounting, Savannah C. Rupp Aug 2020

Gratitude In Adolescents: Examining The Role Of Attachment, Parental Gratitude, And Discounting, Savannah C. Rupp

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

From early childhood, parents often teach their children to use their manners by saying “Thank you”; however, are there any benefits from experiencing gratitude during youth? Understanding the relationship between gratitude and other areas, such as happiness and decision-making, can potentially help researchers in planning interventions for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between gratitude and decision-making in youth, as well as the role of maternal gratitude and the mother-child attachment in determining gratitude in youth. Two hundred four participants (102 mothers, 102 adolescents) completed an online survey. Mothers and adolescents completed two gratitude ...


A Translational Investigation Of Reinforced Behavioral Variability: Implications For Promoting Behavioral Variability In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Ann Galizio Aug 2020

A Translational Investigation Of Reinforced Behavioral Variability: Implications For Promoting Behavioral Variability In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Ann Galizio

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Behavioral variability is sometimes adaptive and can be maintained by the delivery of reinforcement. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often show restricted and repetitive behaviors. Therefore, interventions to promote behavioral variability in individuals with ASD are needed. The present line of research was designed to inform such interventions by investigating reinforced behavioral variability from basic, applied, and translational perspectives. Each of these laboratory studies involved participants making sequences of well-defined responses, which were compared to previous responses. Responses that meet a variability contingency (i.e., were sufficiently different from previous responses) produced rewards. Studies 1 and 2 were basic ...


Rumination And Quality Of Life Among Northern Plains Indians, Devon S. Isaacs Aug 2020

Rumination And Quality Of Life Among Northern Plains Indians, Devon S. Isaacs

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Native Americans (NAs) share unique risk factors for poor mental health. In response, mental health providers must address barriers to treatment while making the most of low resource situations. One way to increase usefulness of treatment is to address the mechanisms underlying multiple mental health disorders. Rumination is a style of thinking marked by repeated thoughts about distress and is well-recognized as a diagnostic factor for underlying disorders in the general population. Secondary data from the Mood Disorder Assessment Validation with Northern Plains Indians (NPI) pilot study was used to examine the relationship between rumination and anxiety, depression, and substance ...


Examining The Effects Of Aspects Of Resiliency And Vulnerability On The Relationship Between Experiencing Microaggressions And Mental Health Among Persons Of Color, Amanda K. Blume Aug 2020

Examining The Effects Of Aspects Of Resiliency And Vulnerability On The Relationship Between Experiencing Microaggressions And Mental Health Among Persons Of Color, Amanda K. Blume

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ethnic minorities experience discrimination frequently, especially a subtle form of discrimination called microaggressions—which are linked with poorer mental health. This study examined protective factors against microaggressions. In this study, responding to microaggressions actively (as opposed to ignoring the situation) was linked with better mental health. When use of active coping strategies was low, microaggressions were associated with lower self-esteem and higher depression and anxiety. Alternatively, when use of active coping styles was high, microaggressions were associated with higher self-esteem and less depression, anxiety, and drug use. Responding to microaggressions is a disengaged way (such as attempting to ignore or ...


Cultural And Contextual Influences On Mental Health, Stigma, And Substance Use Among Mena U.S. College Students, Molly Mechammil Aug 2020

Cultural And Contextual Influences On Mental Health, Stigma, And Substance Use Among Mena U.S. College Students, Molly Mechammil

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this dissertation was to investigate whether certain cultural and contextual factors influence Middle Eastern/North African (MENA) college students’ mental health, alcohol/marijuana use, and experiences with mental health stigma and help seeking. Research with MENA college students is very limited, which leaves mental health providers with limited information on how to best support MENAs. MENAs report high rates of discrimination, and other research shows that many they may use religion as a way to cope with stressors such as discrimination. I examined whether religious coping might buffer the effects of discrimination on mental health outcomes ...


Impacts Of Racial Microaggressions On White American And Ethnic Minority Students In The College Classroom, Lesther A. Papa Aug 2020

Impacts Of Racial Microaggressions On White American And Ethnic Minority Students In The College Classroom, Lesther A. Papa

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The racial and ethnic makeup of college is becoming more diverse as the general trend heads towards more bachelor’s degrees being conferred to ethnic minority students. However, ethnic minority students often experience racial and ethnic microaggressions (REMAs) on campus either in the classroom or in the dorms. REMAs are subtle, chronic, and negative verbal and nonverbal exchanges that communicate hostility, degradation, or dismissiveness towards a member of an ethnic minority group. From the literature, REMAs have been found to impact both White and ethnic minority students and both White and ethnic minority professors commit microaggressions towards student of color ...


College Prescription Opioid Misuse: An Exploration Of Social Learning, Social Control, And Strain Theories, Julie Murray Aug 2020

College Prescription Opioid Misuse: An Exploration Of Social Learning, Social Control, And Strain Theories, Julie Murray

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prescription opioids, when used as medically intended, can be effective in pain management. However, the consequences and costs of widespread misuse of prescription opioids in the United States are cause for concern. Prescription opioids are related to increased risk of death and injury. Young adults, between the ages of 18 and 25, have the highest rates of misuse nationally and within this age group, college students may be particularly at risk. In order to effectively curb the growing misuse of prescription opioids within college populations, we must have a better understanding of the factors that potentially lead to misuse.

This ...


Making A Decision On Ethical Decision-Making Models, Melanie K. Johnson Aug 2020

Making A Decision On Ethical Decision-Making Models, Melanie K. Johnson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Those in the helping professions, like psychology, counseling, and social work, have numerous ethical guidelines and codes to dictate ethical behavior. These codes, while extensive, do not encompass all situations. When professionals find themselves in an ambiguous situation, it is called an ethical dilemma. Many of the professional organizations that create ethical codes also recommend the use of ethical decision-making models. Ethical decision-making models provide steps, or instructions, on how to make an ethical decision when presented with an ethical dilemma.

Little research has been done on ethical decision-making models, so it cannot be concluded that these models actually help ...


Harmonic Delay Reduction, Jay E. Hinnenkamp Aug 2020

Harmonic Delay Reduction, Jay E. Hinnenkamp

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stimuli which, during the life of an organism, acquire the ability to increase the probability of behavior that they follow are called conditioned reinforcers. The concurrent-chains procedure has been used to study conditioned reinforcement for over 60 years. During this time several different models have been developed to explain how stimuli become conditioned reinforcers. The three experiments of this dissertation introduced a new quantitative model of conditioned reinforcement (DRTH) and tested its predictions against four existing models. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that DRTH improves upon the accuracy of its predecessor, delay reduction theory (Fantino, 1969), when ...


Temporal Bisection Dynamics, Mahdi Shafiei Aug 2020

Temporal Bisection Dynamics, Mahdi Shafiei

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Temporal bisection is a behavioral task used to study how we perceive time. However, it is not fully clear how time perception should be interpreted in different variations of this task. Moreover, it is not understood why the results of this task are often different for human and animal subjects. Understanding parameters of this task and making a connection between human and animal experiments may help researchers to understand how time is perceived in the brain and consequently disorders involving time perception.

In this thesis, I propose a computational model that A) provides researchers with a framework to study the ...


The Art Of Seduction: Male Perceptions Of Sexual Willingness, Lisa Starrett May 2020

The Art Of Seduction: Male Perceptions Of Sexual Willingness, Lisa Starrett

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

The body of sexual assault research historically focuses on survivors, specifically female survivors. Examining male perpetrators is an important gap in the literature. Research demonstrates that men often misperceive the sexual willingness of female partners. Additionally, men predominantly react with guilt, shame, and depression when accused of sexual assault (Brennan, Swartout, Cook, & Parrot, 2018). The current study examined men’s perceptions of non-consensual dating advice as provided by a best-selling men’s dating book. We found several factors that related to higher endorsement of the non-consensual tactics, including past or present involvement in a fraternity, knowing a sexual assault perpetrator ...


Parenting Styles And Child Outcomes In Puerto Rican Families: A Comparison Of Individual And Dyadic Coding, Jeisianne Rosario Colón May 2020

Parenting Styles And Child Outcomes In Puerto Rican Families: A Comparison Of Individual And Dyadic Coding, Jeisianne Rosario Colón

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Parenting styles are comprised from three dimensions: warmth, autonomy granting, and demandingness. These dimensions combined form four parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. Forty-nine Puerto Rican families with children 6-11 years participated. Families engaged in several tasks that were coded using the Parenting Style Observation Rating Scale and child outcomes were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist. Overall, parents received high ratings in warmth, autonomy granting, and supportive demandingness, and low scores in nonsupportive demandingness. There were some differences between parents, with mothers exhibiting higher levels of warmth with girls than boys, and higher levels of autonomy granting and ...


A Temporal Information-Theoretic Model Of Suboptimal Choice, Paul J. Cunningham May 2020

A Temporal Information-Theoretic Model Of Suboptimal Choice, Paul J. Cunningham

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Humans and animals often make decisions not in their long-term best interest. In one example, called suboptimal choice, pigeons sacrifice food for food-predictive stimuli. The study of suboptimal choice can reveal insights into the role of reward-predictive stimuli in maladaptive decision-making that characterizes numerous behavioral disorders. However, there is currently little evidence that rats engage in suboptimal choice, thereby raising questions about the species-generality of suboptimal choice. According to the temporal information-theoretic model, developed in Chapter 2, suboptimal choice emerges when pigeons pay more attention to the bits of temporal information conveyed by food-predictive stimuli than the rate of food ...


Biological Sex As A Moderator Of The Association Of Military Sexual Trauma And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Total And Symptom Cluster Severity, Hallie S. Tannahill May 2020

Biological Sex As A Moderator Of The Association Of Military Sexual Trauma And Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Total And Symptom Cluster Severity, Hallie S. Tannahill

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a multifaceted disorder comprised of distinct symptom clusters and is commonly diagnosed in military service members/veterans (SM/Vs), particularly in those with history of military sexual trauma (MST). Evidence and theory suggest that females and males may have different traumatic responses following MST, though research investigating this association has limitations, such as modeling the sexes separately or not covarying for MST severity. The current study examined the moderating role of sex on the association of MST severity and PTSD total and symptom cluster severity. Participants were 1,161 SM/Vs (female: n = 782, 67 ...


Technology In Parenting Programs: A Systematic Review And Pilot Study Of An App-Based Intervention For Latinx Families, Samantha M. Corralejo Dec 2019

Technology In Parenting Programs: A Systematic Review And Pilot Study Of An App-Based Intervention For Latinx Families, Samantha M. Corralejo

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Technology and psychological treatments have increasingly been used together to increase the reach of psychotherapy and potentially reduce treatment costs. This research focused on how technology has been used to deliver or facilitate treatments focused on behavioral parent training. Behavioral parent training is a research-supported method of improving parenting skills and child behavior. We first reviewed any existing research on the topic, and found that treatments that used technology to teach parenting skills were generally successful at improving parent and child behavior. The review also identified many research questions that have yet to be answered about the cost of such ...


Parent Knowledge Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kandice J. Benallie Dec 2019

Parent Knowledge Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Kandice J. Benallie

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Parent knowledge of ASD may be relevant to early identification and intervention services for children with ASD. By understanding how knowledgeable parents of young children are about ASD, researchers and practitioners can intervene and educate this population. This study sought to determine the knowledge base of ASD among parents with children five years and younger and if developmental, behavioral, and autism-related concerns predict knowledge of ASD. The sample of parents consisted of 167 mothers and fathers. All participants completed a knowledge questionnaire (i.e., ASKSG) and reported their level of developmental, behavioral, and autism-related concerns of their oldest child between ...


Konaway Nika Tillicum Native American Youth Academy: Cultural Identity, Self-Esteem, And Academic Optimism, Tamara Barrett Dec 2019

Konaway Nika Tillicum Native American Youth Academy: Cultural Identity, Self-Esteem, And Academic Optimism, Tamara Barrett

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Through using a Positive Youth Development framework and culturally based education program, Konaway Nikka Tillicum Native American Youth Academy aspires to mentor and prepare Native youth through high school and on to higher education. This collaborative research partnership investigated cultural identity, self-esteem, and academic optimism of Native American youth attending the academy. The results of this program evaluation found that cultural identity, self-esteem, and academic optimism were all closely related to each other as well as that they increased significantly when measured before and after the academy. GPA was found to not be predictive of cultural identity, self-esteem, or academic ...


Tacting Of Function In College Student Mental Health: An Online And App-Based Approach To Psychological Flexibility, Benjamin Pierce Dec 2019

Tacting Of Function In College Student Mental Health: An Online And App-Based Approach To Psychological Flexibility, Benjamin Pierce

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mental and emotional health concerns among college students are prevalent and diverse in their symptom presentations. With increasing demands on counseling centers to provide efficient care and to address students with higher acuity or risk for harm, there has been an increased focus on identifying therapeutic targets that underlie a wide breadth of concerns to broaden the scope and impact of mental health services. Psychological inflexibility is one such target and refers to a combination of excessive avoidance of internal experiences coupled with a lack of actions that align with a person’s values. Interventions for psychological inflexibility aim to ...


Relationship Maintenance Behaviors And Marital Stability In Remarriage: The Examination Of Stepfamily Constellations And Associated Challenges, Ron C. Bean Dec 2019

Relationship Maintenance Behaviors And Marital Stability In Remarriage: The Examination Of Stepfamily Constellations And Associated Challenges, Ron C. Bean

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research on stepfamily life in the 21st century reveals unexplored variables at every turn. This is important because around half of American adults report close step-relationships and the challenges and demographic and relational differences for different types of stepfamilies remains unexplored. The first of these studies explored data for 879 husbands and wives couples to explore how positivity, negativity, and sexual interest levels differ depending which of the couple, both partners, or neither had previous children. Wives reported higher levels of marital instability and positivity than husbands. Marital instability was linked with one’s own and one’s partners’ negativity ...


Activity Tracker Measurement Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Time In The Workplace Including An Intervention Involving Reminders To Move, Cassie Dance Dec 2019

Activity Tracker Measurement Of Physical Activity And Sedentary Time In The Workplace Including An Intervention Involving Reminders To Move, Cassie Dance

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sedentary time and physical inactivity have negative impacts on health and health costs as well as an impact on workplace wellbeing. There is evidence that people are more sedentary and engage in less physical activity on work days. Additionally, sedentary behavior has been found to increase distress and negative mood. Activity trackers such as Fitbits are a useful way to collect and intervene on sedentary behavior and potentially impact other factors of workplace wellbeing in real time and promote self-monitoring. The reminder to move prompts that are now part of Fitbit models provide an innovative and simple way to intervene ...


Responding To Microaggressions: Evaluation Of Bystander Intervention Strategies, Tianyi Xie Dec 2019

Responding To Microaggressions: Evaluation Of Bystander Intervention Strategies, Tianyi Xie

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ethnic minorities often experience microaggressions that cause psychological distress and increase health risks. Bystander interventions are good ways to intervene when microaggressions take place and provide emotional support for ethnic minority targets. White interveners and interventions that pose low threats to White aggressors are perceived more positively than ethnic minority interveners and interventions that are more confrontational and direct. Furthermore, a support-based intervention that validates White aggressors’ good intention and effort without judgement may help White aggressors feel less defensive and more receptive to the intervention. Asian Americans face unique microaggressive themes and their racial experiences are influenced by the ...


Treatment Of Clinical Perfectionism Using Acceptance And Commitment Therapy, Clarissa W. Ong Dec 2019

Treatment Of Clinical Perfectionism Using Acceptance And Commitment Therapy, Clarissa W. Ong

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Clinical perfectionism is characterized by rigidly pursuing unrealistically high standards on which self-worth is contingent and experiencing distress when these standards are not met. Because clinical perfectionism is associated with many psychological diagnoses, understanding how to treat it may help streamline available treatments. The aim of this dissertation was to test the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a cognitive-behavioral therapy, on 53 individuals with clinical perfectionism. Participants in the ACT group received 10 therapy sessions and those in the control group were on a waitlist for 14 weeks. The first study supported the effectiveness of ACT relative to ...


A Structural Equation Modeling Approach Combining Multitrait-Multimethod Designs With Moderated Mediation Analysis, Kaylee Litson Aug 2019

A Structural Equation Modeling Approach Combining Multitrait-Multimethod Designs With Moderated Mediation Analysis, Kaylee Litson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Researchers who study clinical and developmental psychology are often interested in answering questions such as how interventions work, when treatment begins to improve health outcomes, or for whom treatment has the greatest impact. Answers to these and similar questions impact the general understanding of health and behavior, and can be imperative for effectively implementing intervention and prevention programs. To evaluate such complex relationships among variables, researchers have turned to moderated mediation analysis. Moderated mediation analysis is a statistical tool used to identify the conditional processes among observed or latent variables. However, in developmental and clinical psychology, variables are regularly measured ...


Resurgence Of Cocaine-Seeking In Rats Following Long Access And Punishment, Rusty W. Nall Aug 2019

Resurgence Of Cocaine-Seeking In Rats Following Long Access And Punishment, Rusty W. Nall

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Strategies that provide access to alternative non-drug rewards are among the most effective at reducing substance use in individuals with substance use disorders, but relapse often occurs when alternative rewards are removed. Relapse induced by the loss of alternative rewards is called resurgence, and represents a challenge to otherwise effective strategies for reducing drug use. An animal model has been useful for studying resurgence, but the extant model has two limitations. First, humans usually refer to the negative consequences of drug use as the reason they stop taking drugs, but the extant model uses drug unavailability to reduce drug seeking ...