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Measuring Emotional Reactivity, Alexithymia, And Emotion Regulation As Clinically Relevant Emotional Constructs: Theoretical Considerations And The Development Of New Psychometric Measures, David A. Preece Jan 2019

Measuring Emotional Reactivity, Alexithymia, And Emotion Regulation As Clinically Relevant Emotional Constructs: Theoretical Considerations And The Development Of New Psychometric Measures, David A. Preece

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Many psychopathologies are characterised by abnormalities in emotional functioning, so clinicians and researchers need to assess emotional functioning to inform case conceptualisations and treatments, and to develop theoretical understanding of the mechanisms behind these psychopathologies. A comprehensive profile of emotional functioning requires information about at least three constructs, emotional reactivity, alexithymia, and emotion regulation, as each has been independently identified as an important transdiagnostic risk factor. Clinicians’ and researchers’ ability to assess these three constructs is, however, currently hampered by a lack of conceptual or definitional clarity, and consequently a lack of comprehensive or accurate psychometric measures. My research project ...


Living With Autism: The Experience Of Developmentally Healthy Adolescents And Youths Who Have A Sibling Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jessica Michel Jan 2019

Living With Autism: The Experience Of Developmentally Healthy Adolescents And Youths Who Have A Sibling Diagnosed With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jessica Michel

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Researchers have proposed that typically developing siblings of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or target siblings, are at increased risk of experiencing psychological distress particularly when compared to other clinical and community sibling groups. To date, evidence drawn from quantitative studies, utilising the target siblings’ mothers as the primary informants has been mixed. These studies have primarily focused on risk factors, while the role of protective factors in the experiences of target siblings remains unexplored in quantitative investigations. However, qualitative studies utilising target siblings as informants have emerged providing insights regarding the processes of coping and adaptation that ...


Their Sorrow, Their Story: The Lived Experience Of Individuals Impacted By The Death Of Special Forces Members In The 1996 Black Hawk Accident, Marion Ann Smyth Jan 2019

Their Sorrow, Their Story: The Lived Experience Of Individuals Impacted By The Death Of Special Forces Members In The 1996 Black Hawk Accident, Marion Ann Smyth

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

On the 12 June 1996, the Australian Special Forces were conducting night-time counterterrorism training when two Black Hawk helicopters transporting Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) troops collided mid-air. Eighteen personnel were killed, including members from the elite SASR and crew from the 5th Aviation Regiment. In the aftermath of this accident a charity, the Special Air Service Resources Trust, was established to provide ongoing support to the dependants of those killed. This trust is now the Special Air Service Resources Fund (SASRF), and it continues to support the dependants of those killed and the injured from the accident.

There is ...


The Role Of Culture In Theory Of Mind, Leslie Linares Pava Jan 2019

The Role Of Culture In Theory Of Mind, Leslie Linares Pava

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to understand our own and otherpeople’s mental representations, characterised by individual perspectives and motives,with potential for directing human behaviour (Kuntoro, Saraswati, Peterson & Slaughter,2013). Over the past 30 years this concept has captured the attention of cognitive anddevelopmental psychologists and it has been established that typically developed childrenfrom individualistic, mainly from Anglo (English-speaking) countries are most likely toacquire this ability at the age of four.

In the past decade, a growing interest in differences between children fromindividualistic and collestivistic cultural orientations led researchers to question the extentto which ToM is influenced by culture. Many cross-cultural studies that examined theToM performance have mainly focused on reporting on children from individualisticdominant cultures (mostly from English speaking countries) and countries frompredominantly collectivistic dominant cultures, and have found that children from theformer are more likely to develop advanced and earlier ToM, fuelling deeperinvestigation into sociocultural mechanisms influencing ToM performance incollectivistic children.

In the present study, a narrative literature review was conducted to identify theevidence for differences and similarities in ToM performance of children from differentcultures; the potential sociocultural factors influencing ToM; and gaps in the currentliterature that will benefit from future research. The review comprised 131 studies andrevealed two main findings. Firstly, little is known about the mechanisms underlyingcultural variations in ToM. Secondly, parenting might be an important culturaltransmission mechanism that has only been partially investigated in past cross-culturalToM research.

These gaps in the literature sparked my interest in advancing our understanding ...


The Development Of Social–Emotional Skills In Pre-Primary Children: A Comparison Of Parent, Teacher And Combined Coaching Programs, Nichola Lucia Webb Jan 2019

The Development Of Social–Emotional Skills In Pre-Primary Children: A Comparison Of Parent, Teacher And Combined Coaching Programs, Nichola Lucia Webb

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

The development of social–emotional skills is pivotal in generating positive outcomes for mental health and wellbeing throughout the childhood period and into later life (Hertzman, 2004; Moore, 2006; Sosna & Mastergeorge, 2005). While research has explored the effects of parent and teacher influences on young children’s social–emotional skills, most studies have either focussed on high-risk child populations, compared single influences with each other (e.g., parent versus teacher) or compared one combined group of influences with a control group. Few studies have directly compared the separate effects of parent, teacher and peer components to assess which are more ...


Apology Effectiveness: The Impact Of Prior Wrongful Behaviour And Voluntariness Of Apologies Within Juvenile Justice, Isolde Larkins Jan 2018

Apology Effectiveness: The Impact Of Prior Wrongful Behaviour And Voluntariness Of Apologies Within Juvenile Justice, Isolde Larkins

Theses : Honours

The justice system diverts young offenders away from further contact through restorative justice processes. Juvenile justice conferencing allows for the goals of restorative justice to be met, including meeting the needs of victims and offenders. Apologies, when offered by offenders to victims within a conferencing setting, can assist with meeting these restorative goals. Apologies, however, need to be effective to have the desired outcome. Several variables influence the effectiveness of apologies, including the perceived voluntariness of apologies, with prompted apologies reducing apology effectiveness. The reduced effectiveness of prompted apologies might be an issue during conferencing as some offenders are prompted ...


Saving Behaviour In The Australian Dream: Its Relationship With Aspiration And Motivation, Financial Literacy, And Materialism, Ming D’Iapico-Bien Jan 2018

Saving Behaviour In The Australian Dream: Its Relationship With Aspiration And Motivation, Financial Literacy, And Materialism, Ming D’Iapico-Bien

Theses : Honours

In Australia, most people aspire to achieve the “Australian dream” of owning their homes. Australian house prices have risen dramatically in comparison to people’s incomes, but despite this, many Australians still strive to enter the property market. The aim of this correlational study was to investigate the relationships between saving behaviour (with the ultimate goal of spending accumulated savings on a house deposit) and various psychological variables over and above sex, age, education, employment status, and income. The investigated predictor variables were motivation, extrinsic aspiration, financial literacy, and materialism. Previous research grounded in self-determination theory (SDT) has shown that ...


Using Eeg Data To Predict Engagement In Face-To-Face Conversations, Brooke Maddestra Jan 2018

Using Eeg Data To Predict Engagement In Face-To-Face Conversations, Brooke Maddestra

Theses : Honours

To date engagement in face-to-face conversation has been studied almost exclusively through the post event measurement of self-reporting surveys or questionnaires. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used for decades to examine brain activity for both research and diagnostic purposes. Medical grade EEG equipment is both costly and confined to being used within laboratory settings. With the recent advent of off-the-shelf consumer grade portable EEG-devices, novel psychological research on cognitive computations that have traditionally been confined to self-report, is now a reality. Although it is well documented that people use their cognitive abilities during conversations, an extensive literature search found no studies ...


Using Physiological Measures To Measure Changes In Cognitive Load Associated With Automaticity And Transfer, Joanna Verden Jan 2018

Using Physiological Measures To Measure Changes In Cognitive Load Associated With Automaticity And Transfer, Joanna Verden

Theses : Honours

This study investigated the ability of two physiological measures, galvanic skin response and heat flux, to reflect changes in cognitive load using a variation of the dot counting task developed by Lassaline and Logan (1993). Concurrently, the robustness of the dual processing theory of automaticity was evaluated via disruption. The utilised task was designed to create a shift from controlled to automatic processing via practice, followed by a return to controlled processing via the introduction of a 6-digit memory recognition task designed to increase working-memory load and disrupt automaticity. As reaction time has previously been demonstrated to be a reliable ...


Holistic Health: Shaping Women’S Experiences Of Positive Body Image, Helen Elizabeth Monks Jan 2018

Holistic Health: Shaping Women’S Experiences Of Positive Body Image, Helen Elizabeth Monks

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

This PhD thesis seeks to contribute to a nuanced understanding of positive body image and how it is expressed among a group of women participating in holistic health culture in a modern Western society. Qualitative data were collected from in-depth ethnographic interviews with 25 women in Perth, Western Australia, to illuminate an understanding of their holistic health beliefs and practices, perceptions of appearance and health ideals, as well as their understandings of positive body image. Thematic analysis of the data through Nvivo revealed several overarching themes, demonstrating how certain aspects of holistic health culture may encourage or dissuade the development ...


Comparing Live To Recorded Music And Stories Using Multiple Psychoneuroendocrine And Psychological Measures, Ronniet Orlando Jan 2018

Comparing Live To Recorded Music And Stories Using Multiple Psychoneuroendocrine And Psychological Measures, Ronniet Orlando

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Listening to music brings health benefits, according to an expanding opus of empirical research. Studies to date cover a wide range of music interventions and outcome measures. Music has been applied to healthy participants, as well as clinical populations to target anxiety and pain. But little is known about whether live music is more effective than recorded music as an intervention for these common symptoms.

This exploratory study sought answers with the emerging science of saliva analysis, which focuses on biomarkers that indicate stress and immune function. In this case salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin-A, interleukin- 1beta, and pH levels were ...


Effects Of Long-Term Participation In Tennis On Cognitive Function In Elderly Individuals, Scott Culpin Jan 2018

Effects Of Long-Term Participation In Tennis On Cognitive Function In Elderly Individuals, Scott Culpin

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Many studies have reported the relationship between exercise and cognition with conflicting results. This may be due to differences in intervention durations, session lengths, intensities, and type of exercise. It has been suggested that exercises requiring greater cognitive demand such as football, basketball and racquet sports, are protective against cognitive decline, compared to less cognitively demanding exercises such as swimming, cycling and running, however, research concerning exercise types are currently limited. The present study tested the hypothesis that elderly individuals who had been regularly playing tennis more than 10 years, would have greater cognitive function than those who had been ...


Breathing New Life: Investigating Ways To Improve The Mental Health Of People Living With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease In Western Australia, Tina Phan Jan 2018

Breathing New Life: Investigating Ways To Improve The Mental Health Of People Living With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease In Western Australia, Tina Phan

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), contributing to greater morbidity and mortality in an already vulnerable population. Despite the prevalence, few recommendations exist in global management guidelines for the detection and treatment of these comorbidities, reflecting the limited literature available on effective strategies for dealing with mental health issues in COPD populations. There is promising evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) improves mental health outcomes in people with COPD. However, investigational studies have commonly reported participants’ lack of transport, lack of time and illness as barriers to recruitment and successful completion. This ...


Exploring The Preparedness Of Novice (Student) Paramedics For The Mental Health Challenges Of The Paramedic Profession: Using The Wisdom Of The Elders, Lisa Holmes Jan 2018

Exploring The Preparedness Of Novice (Student) Paramedics For The Mental Health Challenges Of The Paramedic Profession: Using The Wisdom Of The Elders, Lisa Holmes

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

This study investigates the preparedness of novice (student) paramedics for the mental health challenges of the paramedic profession and identifies the coping strategies used by veteran paramedics to successfully meet these challenges. The lived experience of veteran paramedics is utilised to provide this important assistance.

Initially, two surveys were developed and administered to 16 course coordinators and 302 students of the 16 accredited undergraduate degree paramedicine courses across Australia and New Zealand, to identify the perceived need (for preparation) within the curriculum. In addition, the anticipations, confidence and fears of novice (student) paramedics, course coordinators and veteran paramedics were also ...


The Classification Of The Finger Frames Method In Violin Playing, Brittany Williams Jan 2017

The Classification Of The Finger Frames Method In Violin Playing, Brittany Williams

Theses : Honours

From the first stage of learning new repertoire, string pedagogy aims to present violinists with effective strategies to achieve accurate intonation in performance. The search for new teaching and learning strategies, whilst running the risk of being seen as unconventional compared to more tried and tested methods (i.e. Suzuki), can on the other hand provide the tutor with new tools for enhancing their teaching practice. Western Australian violinist Fleur Challen has developed a method titled Finger Frames; a learning strategy that uses a colour coding system to prepare a violinist for changes in left hand position, reducing the cognitive ...


Accommodation For Adults With Intellectual Disability: Exploring The Lived Experiences Of Ageing Parent Carers And The Reasons Behind Their Decision To Continue To Care In The Family Home, Wendy Simpson Jan 2017

Accommodation For Adults With Intellectual Disability: Exploring The Lived Experiences Of Ageing Parent Carers And The Reasons Behind Their Decision To Continue To Care In The Family Home, Wendy Simpson

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

As life expectancy increases and mortality rates decrease, Australia is faced with an ageing population. This is particularly true of the population of people living with intellectual disability. Australian research has found that there is an increasing number of ageing parent-carers continuing to provide care for their adult child with an intellectual disability in the family home. Since deinstitutionalisation, many families made the choice to provide care at home, which may become a concern as they age and ask the question “who will care when I am gone?” The purpose of this study was to explore the reasoning behind decisions ...


Transfer Of Automatic Skills: The Role Of Automaticity In Skill Acquisition And Transfer, Katrina Louise Muller-Townsend Jan 2017

Transfer Of Automatic Skills: The Role Of Automaticity In Skill Acquisition And Transfer, Katrina Louise Muller-Townsend

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Skill acquisition theories suggest that automaticity of lower-level processes is required before the acquisition of higher-level skills can be attempted. However, there is a disparity between the theoretical expectations of skill acquisition and the empirical findings in the transfer of training research. Research has found that when a change is made to the contextual conditions in which a skill is acquired, the learned response becomes less skilled. When skill transfer occurs performance is disrupted so that reaction times are slower than observed prior to the context change. This observation has been made with several different tasks, however no research has ...


School Social Work: Supporting Children’S Primary Education In The South West Of Western Australia, Karen Mcdavitt Jan 2017

School Social Work: Supporting Children’S Primary Education In The South West Of Western Australia, Karen Mcdavitt

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

In many countries, social workers play a role in the education of children. In Australia, this is evident in the state of Victoria which has a long history of school social work. However, it is not the case in Western Australia where there are very few government-funded social work roles in public schools. With the barriers to education rising for increasing numbers of students, the social work profession could be one component in a multi-disciplinary whole that supports students and the broader community so that each child has the best chance of reaching their full potential.

This thesis poses the ...


The Human Factors Associated With Responding To Emergency Vehicles, Pauline Grant Jan 2017

The Human Factors Associated With Responding To Emergency Vehicles, Pauline Grant

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Emergency vehicles undertake emergency driving, using lights and sirens, to move rapidly through traffic in response to situations where life and property are at risk. For the emergency driving to be effective, other motorists need to drive in a manner that facilitates their passage. Despite laws to support this, problematic encounters can result in emergency vehicles being unable to get through. The current research expanded on earlier exploratory research into motorists’ encounters with emergency vehicles (Grant, 2010) to examine psychological factors involved with motorists’ responses to emergency vehicles. A construct validity approach was used to develop a scale through ...


Workplace Bullying: An Exploratory Study In Australian Academia, Manish Sharma Jan 2017

Workplace Bullying: An Exploratory Study In Australian Academia, Manish Sharma

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Workplace bullying is a behaviour which adversely affects individuals, organisations and the community at large. While substantial research has been conducted on workplace bullying in different work settings, limited research exists on this behaviour at universities; no comprehensive studies have to date been conducted in the context of Australian academia. This study therefore contributes through breaking new ground by exploring bullying within the increasingly corporatised and competitive Australian higher education sector. New Public Management (NPM) practices, diminished government funding, and limited resources risk transforming this sector into a full-fledged industry focused on corporate objectives to achieve operational profitability. Universities’ primary ...


Exploring The Experience Of Separation In Australia: Perspectives From Formerly Married And Cohabiting Parents, Sarah M. Barbas Jan 2017

Exploring The Experience Of Separation In Australia: Perspectives From Formerly Married And Cohabiting Parents, Sarah M. Barbas

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

The increase in separation and divorce rates during the 20th century brought with it many far-reaching social implications for all involved, sparking a high level of interest among researchers. Most research in this area has been approached from stress frameworks that have conceptualised separation and divorce as a stressful life transition that individuals must adjust to. Yet, attempts to understand separation and divorce to date have been dominated by quantitative methods that have resulted in a relatively static and objective understanding of this experience; particularly in Australia. Furthermore, although international rates of divorce are declining, rates of separation following cohabiting ...


Survival After Violence: The Post-Separation Journey Of Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence, Sarah Jayne Parkin Jan 2017

Survival After Violence: The Post-Separation Journey Of Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence, Sarah Jayne Parkin

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a complex social issue that remains highly prevalent in communities across the world. The impact of IPV includes short-term and long-term psychological, physical, financial and social consequences for women who experience it as well at their immediate and extended families, networks and communities. As research has continued to evolve there has been a move towards exploring the interaction of systemic factors that influence the occurrence of IPV and consequences of IPV long-term. Although researchers have identified that the long-term outcomes for women after leaving an IPV relationship can vary, it appears more research is required ...


The Lived Experience Of Non-Offending Mothers In Cases Of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: Towards A Preliminary Model Of Loss, Trauma And Recovery, Amanda Jean Thompson Jan 2017

The Lived Experience Of Non-Offending Mothers In Cases Of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: Towards A Preliminary Model Of Loss, Trauma And Recovery, Amanda Jean Thompson

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

The non-offending mother in cases of intrafamilial child sexual abuse has received limited empirical attention in comparative to the considerable body of literature examining victims and perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There is growing evidence that demonstrates that nonoffending mothers’ experience significant loss and trauma following the discovery of their children’s sexual victimisation by a family member, particularly where the perpetrators are their partners. An understanding of the non-offending mother’s experience is crucial to guiding statutory agencies and therapeutic interventions when working with these families. However, there is currently not a model or framework that conceptualises mothers’ post-discovery ...


The Connection Between Drug Use And Crime In Western Australia, Kathryn Riordan Jan 2017

The Connection Between Drug Use And Crime In Western Australia, Kathryn Riordan

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Despite decades of research, there is no consensus as to the factors that explain the association between drug use and criminal behaviour. While the evolving sophistication in research methodology has identified factors that are associated with involvement in both drug use and crime, exploration of the idiosyncratic factors that contribute to initiation, maintenance and desistence in drug use and criminal behaviour over time, across culture and social context remains unknown. In this research a grounded theory approach was used to develop an explanatory model based on the reported experiences of 22 non-Aboriginal and 11 Aboriginal adult male offenders, incarcerated in ...


Pedagogy In Performance: An Investigation Into Decision Training As A Cognitive Approach To Circus Training, Jonathan Burtt Jan 2016

Pedagogy In Performance: An Investigation Into Decision Training As A Cognitive Approach To Circus Training, Jonathan Burtt

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

This research project represents the first formal research conducted into the potential application of Decision Training in an elite circus arts school environment. The research examines the effects of the introduction of Decision Training—a training model developed for sports applications—into the elite circus arts training program at the National Circus School (NCS), a key circus arts school in one of the world’s most vital circus domains, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Decision Training, a cognitive-based training model, has been shown through extensive sports-based research to support the development of decision-making ability and self-regulatory learning behaviour, both of which are ...


Factors Influencing Resilience Among Haematological Cancer Survivors, Katherine S. Gallager Jan 2016

Factors Influencing Resilience Among Haematological Cancer Survivors, Katherine S. Gallager

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Haematological cancers in bone marrow (leukaemia) and the immune system (lymphomas or myeloma) represent the sixth most common adult tumour group in Australia. These cancers often develop without warning and require intensive treatment regimes that last on average eight months, but may continue for a lifetime depending on the diagnosis. Encouragingly, advancing cancer treatments, a key accomplishment of cancer research over the past 40 years, have resulted in a growing community of cancer survivors. Approximately two in three adults diagnosed with haematological cancer (HC) can now expect to survive more than five years. However, they must attempt to navigate the ...


Factors Influencing Young Bystanders' Decisions To Intervene When Witnessing Cyber-Aggression: A Mixed Methods Exploration, Lisa Jodi Patterson Jan 2016

Factors Influencing Young Bystanders' Decisions To Intervene When Witnessing Cyber-Aggression: A Mixed Methods Exploration, Lisa Jodi Patterson

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

With the modern proliferation of computers, the Internet and smart phones, adolescents are at increased risk of cyber-aggression: negative, harmful behaviour expressed through electronic means and aimed at an individual (or group of individuals). Cyber-aggression can have serious consequences for the social, emotional and physical health of both targets and perpetrators. Some experts recommend tackling cyberaggression using the strategies applied to face-to-face forms of aggression and bullying in school environments. One such strategy is to encourage peer bystanders to intervene in a positive way, which has been demonstrated to influence both the duration and severity of bullying episodes in the ...


The Role Of Awareness Of Repetition During The Development Of Automaticity, Emma Shadbolt Jan 2015

The Role Of Awareness Of Repetition During The Development Of Automaticity, Emma Shadbolt

Theses : Honours

Investigation into the influence of contextual information on performance of an automatic task has found inconsistent results. The majority of studies have investigated whether changing the context of a simple cognitive task can inhibit an automatic response, but do not review whether context can help the development of automatic responding. The current study examined whether bringing awareness to the context of a simple numerosity task could aid the development of automaticity. It also examined whether participants were aware of when automaticity developed for them via a post-test interview. The numerosity task used in this study was a simple counting task ...


Early Maladaptive Schemas In An Australian Adult Alcohol Dependent Clinical Sample: Differences Between Men And Women, Diana Lanie Janson Jan 2015

Early Maladaptive Schemas In An Australian Adult Alcohol Dependent Clinical Sample: Differences Between Men And Women, Diana Lanie Janson

Theses : Honours

Recent literature suggests that there are widespread differences between men and women’s Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and that EMSs are highly prevalent in alcohol dependent populations. The present study examined differences between men and women’s EMSs in an Australian clinical sample who had sought treatment specifically for alcohol dependence. A total of 111 men and 114 women completed the Young Schema Questionnaire – Long Form (YSQ-L3) between 2012 and 2015 in order to assess them on 18 EMSs. Despite previous findings suggesting that women report higher levels on a number of EMSs the present study found that women only ...


Eye Movement Patterns As An Indicator Of Task Automaticity, Olga Clarke Jan 2015

Eye Movement Patterns As An Indicator Of Task Automaticity, Olga Clarke

Theses : Honours

Automaticity is a vital aspect of daily living, as it allows for tasks to be completed quickly and with the fraction of the cognitive load required for tasks that cannot be completed automatically. Task automaticity is commonly measured with reaction time, which is considered to be an indirect measure of behaviour. As more direct measures are becoming available, there is an opportunity to assess task automaticity in greater detail. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether eye movements change as participants reach task automaticity. The study involved 16 participants who were asked to complete the dot counting ...