Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 31 - 60 of 215

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

An Examination Of The Reciprocal Association Of Collective Efficacy And Community Violence Exposure In Low-Resourced, Urban African American Adolescents, Christopher R. Whipple Aug 2018

An Examination Of The Reciprocal Association Of Collective Efficacy And Community Violence Exposure In Low-Resourced, Urban African American Adolescents, Christopher R. Whipple

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

African American adolescents are exposed to community violence at alarming rates. Compared to Caucasian adolescents, African American adolescents are 112% more likely to be exposed to community violence and 6 to 9 times more likely to be victims of homicide. There are many risk factors and behavioral/emotional issues associated with community violence exposure. Collective Efficacy Theory posited that collective efficacy (i.e., social cohesion and informal social control) influence community violence, and that a reciprocal association exists between collective efficacy and community violence. While the influence of collective efficacy on community violence exposure is established, the influence of community ...


Housing, Relationships, And Substance Use Among Female Ex-Offenders, Arturo Soto-Nevarez Aug 2018

Housing, Relationships, And Substance Use Among Female Ex-Offenders, Arturo Soto-Nevarez

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Female ex-offenders with histories of substance abuse face many difficulties upon reentry into the general population, such as acquiring adequate housing. The purpose of this proposal is to explore the relations between housing settings, relationships, and substance use. Two hundred adult females participated in the initial baseline study. Two methods of data analyses were proposed to predict substance use: one clustering participants into groups based on the endorsement of those settings and relationships, and one using multi-level modeling examining housing settings and relationships both independently as well as unique settings comprised of housing setting and relationship. Participants fell into one ...


Biological Stress Response And Cognitive Vulnerability To Depression In Adolescence, Bridget M. Brush Aug 2018

Biological Stress Response And Cognitive Vulnerability To Depression In Adolescence, Bridget M. Brush

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Depression is the leading cause of worldwide disability. Rates of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) increase exponentially over the adolescent transition, suggesting adolescence represents a key period of risk for the onset of depression. Previous research has associated both biological stress response and cognitive vulnerability with symptoms of depression; however, there is little research examining the joint effects of these two risk factors and symptoms of depression, especially during adolescence. The present study examined the association between symptoms of depression and two established risk factors for depression: cognitive vulnerability, as measured by negative cognitive style, and biological stress response, as measured ...


Dialectical Thinking And Smoking Outcomes In Asian Americans, Amber Pham Aug 2018

Dialectical Thinking And Smoking Outcomes In Asian Americans, Amber Pham

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Cigarette smoking is the leading health problem in the United States. Recent literature has discussed risk perception and acculturation as possible protective factors against this risky health behavior. However, there is little research regarding dialectical thinking as a potential barrier for smoking cessation. The current study examined smoking outcomes, which include expectancies, attitudes, and intentions in Asian American males. Specifically, we examined acculturation and dialectical thinking as major factors influencing smoking outcomes. We hypothesized that dialectical thinking mediates the relationship between acculturation and smoking outcomes. We also hypothesized that Asian Americans who were primed to think dialectically would hold more ...


Executive Functioning In Pediatric Youth: A Meta-Analysis, Draycen D. Decator Aug 2018

Executive Functioning In Pediatric Youth: A Meta-Analysis, Draycen D. Decator

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Executive functioning (EF) represents a set of cognitive skills that are important for daily functioning. EF can be influenced by a number of biopsychosocial factors, many of which are present in the pediatric population (i.e., youth with at least one medical condition). It is important to understand EF in this population as it affects aspects of their physical health (e.g., treatment adherence). Previous meta-analyses have been conducted to examine EF in the pediatric population, and they have generally found deficits in EF compared to healthy peers. However, these previous meta-analyses have only focused on specific medical conditions (e ...


Justice, Trust, And Team Performance A Comparison Of Leader Selection Methods On The Development Of Team Trust, Jake Alexander Weiss Jun 2018

Justice, Trust, And Team Performance A Comparison Of Leader Selection Methods On The Development Of Team Trust, Jake Alexander Weiss

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Throughout the past few decades, organizations have shifted from a management mandated, top down approach to a more collaborative, team based, horizontal structure (Miles & Snow, 1992). As a result, work teams are on the rise, which has led to an increase in leadership roles within organizations. The relationships between procedural justice and trust in leadership, and trust in leadership and performance are well established in current literature. The former relationship, however, has been analyzed only at the individual level. Given the prevalence of teams in academic and applied settings, it is imperative to understand how this relationship exists, if at all, at the team level. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine and establish the procedural justice, trust in leadership, and team performance relationship at the team level. Additionally, this study indirectly examines the impact of the leader selection process on procedural justice perceptions, and its ensuing influence on trust in leadership and team performance.

Data was collected from 252 participants encompassing 60 teams with appointed group leaders engaged in a semester long Strategic Management group project. After removing data from teams with two or fewer individuals responding, the final sample used for analyses included 132 participants encompassing 47 teams. Data collection occurred at two time points during the semester. Time 1 data collection occurred during weeks 9 and 10 of the 16-week semester, and time 2 data collection occurred during weeks 15 and 16. Measures targeting participants’ procedural justice perceptions regarding the leader selection method were collected, as well as participants’ trust in their team leader; these measures were aggregated to the team level. Mediated regression was used to analyze the data. This study hypothesized that trust in leadership would mediate the relationship between procedural justice and team performance, and trust in leadership would lead to increased team performance. Contrary to expectations, however, the aforementioned hypotheses did not receive support. Theoretical and practical implications regarding the findings are detailed further in the discussion section.


Sold A Dream: An Experimental Test Of The Predictions Of The Elaboration Likelihood Model Of Persuasion In A Predatory Student Lending Scenario, Lauren M. Pytel Jun 2018

Sold A Dream: An Experimental Test Of The Predictions Of The Elaboration Likelihood Model Of Persuasion In A Predatory Student Lending Scenario, Lauren M. Pytel

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Understanding why consumers fall prey to fraud and scams is a critically important area of research. Yet few comprehensive models of fraud victimization exist. The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM; Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) is a possible exception (e.g., Rusch, 1999; Langenderfer & Shimp, 2001; Lea et al., 2009), but the predictions of ELM remain to be empirically tested in a fraud-related decision context. Here, four experiments testing the predictions of ELM in a predatory student lending scenario are presented. Although results only partially supported the predictions of ELM, it is suggested that ELM can continue to serve as a useful framework to better understand consumers’ vulnerability to fraud. With 44 million ...


Economic Pressure And Depressive Symptoms Among Latino Youth: The Role Of Control Beliefs And Family Obligation, Ashley Castro Jun 2018

Economic Pressure And Depressive Symptoms Among Latino Youth: The Role Of Control Beliefs And Family Obligation, Ashley Castro

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Latino youth in the United States experience high rates of both poverty and of depressive symptoms and disorders (CDC, 2012; DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith, 2014). According to the Adaptation to Poverty Related Stress model (APRS; Wadsworth, Raviv, Compas, & Connor-Smith, 2005), economic pressure is positively linked to adolescent depression via coping. Using a resilience perspective, the present study extends the APRS model by exploring the role that cultural values, namely family obligation, and control beliefs play in the relation between economic pressure and depressive symptoms for Latino youth. Participants in this study were 404 Latino children and adolescents (M age=12.02; 52.5 % girls), who were predominantly of low-income and Mexican American backgrounds. Results indicated that greater economic pressure predicted more depressive symptoms through decreased primary and secondary control beliefs, which were evaluated separately. In addition, family obligation was found to buffer against the impact of having lower secondary control beliefs on increased depressive symptoms, but did not significantly moderate any other independent path of the mediational models. Finally, family obligation was found to be a ...


Teacher-Directed Violence: The Role Of Disempowerment In Turnover, Eric A. Peist Jun 2018

Teacher-Directed Violence: The Role Of Disempowerment In Turnover, Eric A. Peist

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Teacher turnover is a significant issue in education, creating great economic cost and affecting students in the form of academic performance and instructional continuity. While many factors impact turnover, the effects of teacher-directed violence have rarely been explored. Violence directed against teachers has been linked to negative outcomes, such as emotional distress and professional disengagement. The construct of empowerment, or disempowerment, can help researchers to better understand the relationship between teacher-directed violence and teacher turnover, allowing for an ecological approach that explores the context around teachers’ experiences of violence. The current study uses mixed methods to analyze this relationship, based ...


Defensive Pessimism And Goal Setting, Elizabeth Anna Guth Jun 2018

Defensive Pessimism And Goal Setting, Elizabeth Anna Guth

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Studies have found that the defensive pessimism cognitive strategy which involves going into situations with unrealistically low expectations despite previous high performance, leads to lower levels of performance when individuals taking on this strategy have expectations placed upon them in the form of encouragement (Norem & Cantor, 1986a, 1986b). Thus far, no one has applied goal setting theory to this phenomenon to try to investigate the possible interactive effects of goal setting and encouragement on performance (Locke & Latham, 2002). This study hypothesized that specific difficult goals would have negative effects on individuals more likely to take on a defensive pessimistic strategy ...


Assessing The Experience Of Awe: Validating The Situational Awe Scale, William L. Krenzer Jun 2018

Assessing The Experience Of Awe: Validating The Situational Awe Scale, William L. Krenzer

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Awe is an overwhelming feeling of admiration sometimes mixed with wonder or fear. Inspired by a cross-disciplinary review of perspectives on awe, we constructed a new measure that would reflect all of these perspectives. In this dissertation, I introduce the Situational Awe Scale (SAS) and report a set of studies designed to validate the measure. An exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 suggested a four-factor structure (i.e., liberation/connection, oppression/isolation, chills, and small-self/vast-world); the study also provided initial evidence of the measure’s convergent and criterion validity. Study 2 provided evidence for the structural validity of the ...


Contextual Perspectives On Heroin Addiction And Recovery: Classic And Contemporary Theories, Sarah L. Callahan Jun 2018

Contextual Perspectives On Heroin Addiction And Recovery: Classic And Contemporary Theories, Sarah L. Callahan

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Drug use and recovery have received considerable attention from social scientists over the past few decades. However, many studies involving heroin use continue to focus on person-centered risk factors surrounding use and, to a lesser extent, recovery processes. There is a need to further develop and use theories that focus on contextual approaches that include opportunity structures and behavioral economic factors. In this article, two classic criminological theories (Differential Opportunity and Subcultural) are reviewed as well as the more recent Social Resource theory (SRT). Differential Opportunity theory focuses on the fact that those involved in illegitimate means of opportunity require ...


Who Are The Elis Of Today? Examining The Adults Present During The Religious Identity Development Of Catholic-Raised Youth, Danielle S. Vaclavik Jun 2018

Who Are The Elis Of Today? Examining The Adults Present During The Religious Identity Development Of Catholic-Raised Youth, Danielle S. Vaclavik

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Given that a large percentage of former-Catholic adults report leaving the Church before reaching adulthood, and the percentages of Catholic-raised youth retaining their religious identity into adulthood are decreasing, a pressing question currently facing the modern Catholic Church is how to minister to, and retain, Catholic-raised adolescents into adulthood. Current religious and secular literature suggests that adults (both parental and non-parental) may play a crucial role in youths’ religious identity development. However, who these adults are and how their presence influences the experience of growing up Catholic is unexplored in the current literature.

In depth oral history narrative interviews were ...


Impact Of Maternal Depression On Offspring, Fatima Sozzer Jun 2018

Impact Of Maternal Depression On Offspring, Fatima Sozzer

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Depression can go beyond influencing the livelihood of a woman, Mothers with depression often have difficulty paying attention to their children, and can fail to establish a bond with them (Delaney, 2017). The current study looked for a relation between children’s internalizing symptoms and their mothers’ depressive symptoms, and whether or not strength of the mother-child bond mediates that relation. Significant effects of maternal depression were found on child’s internalizing symptoms. Barron and Kenny’s four step method to establishing mediation was used (Barron & Kenny, 1983; Mackinnon et al., 2007). Based on Barron and Kenny’s criterion for establishing mediation ...


Gender Role Congruity In Negotiation: The Impact Of Task Framing And Communication Mode, Kaitlyn R. Gallagher Jun 2018

Gender Role Congruity In Negotiation: The Impact Of Task Framing And Communication Mode, Kaitlyn R. Gallagher

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated that gender influences negotiation behavior and outcomes. Using role congruity theory, this study examined if the context of the negotiation, specifically the type of negotiation (integrative vs. distributive), minimized gender effects in choice of negotiation medium. The relationship between fear of backlash, anxiety, and self-efficacy on preference for negotiation medium (virtual vs. face-to-face) was also examined. This study used a 2 Gender: (Male, Female) x 2 Negotiation Type: (Distributive, Integrative) between-participants design with 206 undergraduate students from a voluntary research pool. Multiple logistic regression revealed a main effect of gender on negotiation medium, but no significant ...


Pride’S Influence On Perception Of Control And Risky Decision-Making, Andrea Sanders Jun 2018

Pride’S Influence On Perception Of Control And Risky Decision-Making, Andrea Sanders

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Incidental emotion can powerfully impact risky decision-making processes, yet the specific mechanisms that drive this relationship require further exploration. The appraisal theory of emotion suggests that emotional valence alone cannot accurately predict an emotion’s effect on risk-taking. Rather, specific appraisal dimensions of an emotional experience—particularly the perception of control—have been found to critically influence risk-taking across settings. Previous literature indicates that guilt, a negative emotion characterized by high personal control, led to higher risk preferences. The current study sought to replicate these findings and test whether a similar relationship would be found for the positive emotion of ...


Toward Pay Equity: A Motivational Intervention To Reduce Gender Differences In Salary Negotiations, Mary Margaret Keegin Jun 2018

Toward Pay Equity: A Motivational Intervention To Reduce Gender Differences In Salary Negotiations, Mary Margaret Keegin

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

A persistent wage gap exists between women and men in the United States (Catalyst, 2015; Hegewisch, Ellis, & Hartmann, 2015). Although the reasons behind the wage gap are extremely complex, one of the methods through which pay equity may be reached could involve altering the way people approach their goals at the bargaining table, especially since women tend to underperform relative to men in salary negotiations (Mazei, Hüffmeier, Freund, Stuhlmacher, Bilke, & Hertel, 2015). Salary negotiations represent a critical piece of the pay equity puzzle, particularly when individuals are starting their careers. If equally qualified men and women begin their careers negotiating ...


Variation In Emotion Eliciting Events And Display Rules As A Function Of Individualism And Collectivism: A Cross Cultural Comparison Of Pakistanis And Americans, Serah Saleem Fatani Mar 2018

Variation In Emotion Eliciting Events And Display Rules As A Function Of Individualism And Collectivism: A Cross Cultural Comparison Of Pakistanis And Americans, Serah Saleem Fatani

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Culture not only influences the conditions under which we will experience an emotion, but also may have bearing on its manner of outward expression. This study investigated cultural differences in the construction of emotion-eliciting events and the associated display rules for exhibiting those emotional responses to others within the context of the cultural classification system known as Individualism/Collectivism (I/C) (Triandis, 1994, 1995; Triandis et al., 1988). In this comparative study, individualists were represented by a sample of participants from the United States whereas collectivists were represented by a Pakistani participant sample.

I/C tendencies of the Pakistani and ...


The Effects Of Psychological Home And Place Attachment On Life Satisfaction In Women Of Color, Kendall Patricia Crum Mar 2018

The Effects Of Psychological Home And Place Attachment On Life Satisfaction In Women Of Color, Kendall Patricia Crum

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The cognitive judgments individuals make to evaluate their quality of life (i.e. life satisfaction), are vital to understanding how individuals perceive their overall well-being. Predictors, such as, gender, ethnicity, and external environmental factors may influence life satisfaction. Few studies examined the relations between psychological home, place attachment, and life satisfaction. The present study was the first to examine these concepts in women of color. For the present study, data were taken from a larger nationwide study of 1,394 adults (M = 53.94 years old) examining the relationship between home, clutter, and well-being. The current study explored the influence ...


The Longitudinal Relation Between Housing Insecurity And Negative Parenting Practices, Saidah Chambers Mar 2018

The Longitudinal Relation Between Housing Insecurity And Negative Parenting Practices, Saidah Chambers

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

National and state level data show that families experiencing housing insecurity, especially homelessness, exhibit higher rates of child welfare involvement as compared to low-income housed families; and suggest that certain factors may increase risk of child welfare involvement for housing insecure families. The interplay between housing insecurity, social support, and depression can affect family systems in several ways including through financial and emotional transactions; however, the relation between these factors and the range of housing problems remains unclear. This dissertation assessed how negative parenting practices were impacted by the complexity of circumstances that converge under the umbrella of housing insecurity ...


Individual And Contextual Factors And The Efficacy Of An Experiential Sexism Intervention, Samantha M. Smith Nov 2017

Individual And Contextual Factors And The Efficacy Of An Experiential Sexism Intervention, Samantha M. Smith

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a sexism-focused diversity training program. More specifically, this study examined the direct and indirect relationships between individual characteristics (i.e., gender, self-efficacy, and reactance), contextual factors (i.e., organizational diversity climate) and diversity training outcomes and training transfer. To test hypotheses, graduate and undergraduate students participated in a two-stage study (baseline and intervention stages), with the intervention consisting of a 90-minute sexism-focused diversity training workshop. Data from one hundred and forty participants were retained for regression analyses. Results suggest the workshop was generally effective at reducing endorsement of sexist ...


Effects Of Pedagogical Agent Design On Training Evaluation Measures: A Meta-Analysis, Timothy J. Quesnell Nov 2017

Effects Of Pedagogical Agent Design On Training Evaluation Measures: A Meta-Analysis, Timothy J. Quesnell

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Pedagogical agents are, "conversational virtual characters employed in electronic learning environments to serve various instructional functions" (Veletsianos & Miller, 2008). They can take a variety of forms, and have been designed to serve various instructional roles, such as mentors, experts, motivators, and others. Given the increased availability and sophistication of technology in recent decades, these agents have become increasingly common as facilitators to training in educational settings, private institutions, and the military. Software to aid in the creation of pedagogical agents is widely available. Additionally, software use and agent creation often requires little formal training, affording nearly anyone the opportunity to ...


Coping Among Advocates With And Without Lived Experience Of Sexual Assault, Martina Mihelicova Nov 2017

Coping Among Advocates With And Without Lived Experience Of Sexual Assault, Martina Mihelicova

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Volunteer sexual assault survivor advocates are vital to the provision of services by rape crisis centers. Volunteer advocates are exposed to trauma by witnessing the emotional and psychological impact of sexual assault on survivors. Trauma exposure places providers at risk for experiencing negative outcomes, such as vicarious trauma or secondary traumatic stress. Additionally, advocates who are survivors of sexual assault may be at higher risk for these negative outcomes. However, trauma exposure can also be a source of positive outcomes, such as posttraumatic growth. Focusing on advocate strengths, such as coping and self-care strategies that help advocates overcome distress during ...


The Longitudinal Effects Of Violence Exposure On Delinquency And Academic Outcomes For African-American Youth, Adina Cooper Nov 2017

The Longitudinal Effects Of Violence Exposure On Delinquency And Academic Outcomes For African-American Youth, Adina Cooper

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

There are millions of violent crimes reported each year in communities across the United States, disproportionately affecting ethnic minority and low-income communities. Violence exposure has harmful effects on residents and significant implications for adolescent development. Youth who are exposed to violence are at greater risk for problem behaviors and experiences, including delinquency and low academic performance (Baskin & Sommers, 2014; Patton, Wooley, & Hong, 2012). Many of the consequences of violence exposure impact trajectories of adolescent development and can be observed well into adulthood. However, some youth overcome the challenges associated with violence exposure and successfully transition into adulthood. Resilience theory and the protective factors model provide a lens to examine how positive social environmental influences may lessen the impact of contextual risk factors and promote desirable outcomes for youth exposed to violence (Fergus & Zimmerman, 2005; Lösel & Farrington, 2012). In this study, I used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the role of perceptions of neighborhood connectedness and school belonging as protective factors for the effects of violence exposure on delinquency, criminal involvement, academic behavioral engagement and educational attainment over time, for a sample of African-American youth. It was hypothesized that connectedness to one’s neighborhood and sense of belonging to school would moderate the mediational associations among violence exposure, adolescent adjustment measures (i.e., delinquency and academic behavioral engagement) and adult outcomes, demonstrating a protective effect for the influence of violence exposure on developmental outcomes for youth. The findings indicated that the model was a good fit for the data. More violence exposure significantly predicted more delinquency; violence exposure did not predict academic behavioral engagement, however. More delinquency predicted lower academic behavioral engagement, and school belonging predicted less delinquency. The mediational hypotheses were not supported, and the results showed that neighborhood connectedness and school belonging did ...


The Impact Of Social Norms On Bystander Behaviors To Prevent Campus Sexual Violence, Kelly Collins Nov 2017

The Impact Of Social Norms On Bystander Behaviors To Prevent Campus Sexual Violence, Kelly Collins

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

High incidence rates of sexual violence (SV) on college campuses and the limited effectiveness of traditional prevention programs has created a need for innovative prevention programing. In recent decades, bystander intervention approaches that target broader campus community norms have gained popularity. These programs aim to prevent SV by equipping student bystanders with the skills to intervene before, during, and after instances with the risk of SV. Student bystanders’ ability to effectively intervene hinges on their ability to recognize SV risk situations as problematic and worthy of intervention. However, situational ambiguities and mixed social norms messages often create challenges to recognizing ...


Inferring Character Emotions During Text Comprehension: A Divided Visual Field Study, Blaine Tomkins Aug 2017

Inferring Character Emotions During Text Comprehension: A Divided Visual Field Study, Blaine Tomkins

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

During reading, individuals often need to activate mental representations of a character’s emotional state. Currently, little is known about how readers infer positive and negative character emotional states. Furthermore, the selective involvement of the two cerebral hemispheres in generating emotional inferences is unclear. In the current study, participants read texts that primed either a positive (Experiment 1) or negative (Experiment 2) emotion of a character in a text. Using a divided visual-field paradigm, participants performed a lexical decision task for target words congruent with the character’s emotional state, which were presented to either the left visual field-right hemisphere ...


The Effects Of Perceived Danger, Fear Of Heterosexism, And Internalized Homonegativity On Public Displays Of Affection Among Gender And Sexual Minorities, John Patrick Brady Aug 2017

The Effects Of Perceived Danger, Fear Of Heterosexism, And Internalized Homonegativity On Public Displays Of Affection Among Gender And Sexual Minorities, John Patrick Brady

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Among the gender and sexual minority (GSM/GSMs plural) population, public displays of affection (PDA) “out” the participants to observers. Any minor display of affection - such as holding hands or comforting a partner - can lead to verbal harassment or physical assault. In addition to this perceived danger, GSM couples must take into account the possibility of less dangerous and direct forms of heterosexism, such as the denial of business services or poor response from authorities to discrimination. This fear of nonviolent prejudice and discrimination is referred to as a fear of heterosexism. Due to a negative view of their minority ...


Maternal Trauma Experience On Infant Cortisol Reactivity At 12 Months, Michelle Anne Gilchrist Aug 2017

Maternal Trauma Experience On Infant Cortisol Reactivity At 12 Months, Michelle Anne Gilchrist

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health concern in the United States (US). One third of women in the US have experienced rape, physical assault or stalking by a former or current partner (Black et al., 2011). Evidence suggests that women experience increased risk for IPV during the perinatal period and exposure to IPV during and after pregnancy increases risk for adverse physical and mental health outcomes for victims. The “fetal programming” hypothesis proposes that prenatal experiences are also particularly impactful for offspring development in the short and long term; prenatal poor nutrition and stress have been linked ...


The Role Of Therapeutic Engagement, Oral Language Proficiency, And Core Learning Indicators On The Effects Of Therapy For Youth With Depression, Amanda E. Wagstaff Aug 2017

The Role Of Therapeutic Engagement, Oral Language Proficiency, And Core Learning Indicators On The Effects Of Therapy For Youth With Depression, Amanda E. Wagstaff

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Youth with depression, particularly ethnic minority youth, have low rates of engagement in mental health services, indicating a large need to better understand the role of engagement in effective treatments for depression (Merikangas et al., 2011). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the leading psychotherapeutic treatments available for youth with depression (Weisz, McCarty, & Valeri, 2006), but several questions still remain regarding why and in what circumstances this therapy is most appropriate. CBT posits that part of the positive treatment effects is accounted by learning certain cognitive and behavioral skills during and outside of session (i.e., through active homework assignments). This study examined: a) the association between engagement (i.e., homework completion and consumer satisfaction) in a school-based group CBT program and changes in depressive symptoms; b) the mediational role of core learning indicators (social functioning and negative cognitions) in the relationship between engagement and change in depressive symptoms; and c) the moderational role of youth English oral language proficiency. The sample of 99 predominantly low-income ethnic minority youth (66.0% female ...


Proactive Workplace Bullying In Teams: Test Of A Rational And Moral Model Of Aggression, Anthony S. Colaneri Aug 2017

Proactive Workplace Bullying In Teams: Test Of A Rational And Moral Model Of Aggression, Anthony S. Colaneri

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

This study tested part of a recently developed theoretical model of proactive workplace aggression put forth by Dixon, Chang, and Johnson (2015). The model postulates distinct motives underlying why perpetrators will morally justify their aggressive behavior, dependent upon the relative in/out-group status and relative hierarchical status of the target. Participants from Amazon’s MTurk community were shown one of four vignettes that described a team workplace scenario where the participant was presented with the choice to act aggressively toward a coworker in order to help facilitate the team’s goal. All four of the model’s dyadic perpetrator-target relationships ...