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Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

DePaul University

Depression

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The Cost Of Being A “Strong Black Woman”, Alescia Maraboushontrell Hollowell Jun 2019

The Cost Of Being A “Strong Black Woman”, Alescia Maraboushontrell Hollowell

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The current study explored how internalization of the Strong Black Woman (SBW) race-gender ideology contributes to poor health behaviors and outcomes in Black women. The SBW ideology is associated with maladaptive eating patterns and psychological distress, but less is known about the other physical health implications of this endorsement. The current study sought to better understand the mechanisms that contribute to this relationship and examine the association between endorsement of the SBW ideology and outcomes of physical activity and eating behaviors, weight satisfaction, chronic stress, and depression. Participants were 91 African American women aged 18-65 years recruited from the south ...


Biological Stress Response And Cognitive Vulnerability To Depression In Adolescence, Bridget M. Brush Aug 2018

Biological Stress Response And Cognitive Vulnerability To Depression In Adolescence, Bridget M. Brush

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Depression is the leading cause of worldwide disability. Rates of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) increase exponentially over the adolescent transition, suggesting adolescence represents a key period of risk for the onset of depression. Previous research has associated both biological stress response and cognitive vulnerability with symptoms of depression; however, there is little research examining the joint effects of these two risk factors and symptoms of depression, especially during adolescence. The present study examined the association between symptoms of depression and two established risk factors for depression: cognitive vulnerability, as measured by negative cognitive style, and biological stress response, as measured ...


Economic Pressure And Depressive Symptoms Among Latino Youth: The Role Of Control Beliefs And Family Obligation, Ashley Castro Jun 2018

Economic Pressure And Depressive Symptoms Among Latino Youth: The Role Of Control Beliefs And Family Obligation, Ashley Castro

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Latino youth in the United States experience high rates of both poverty and of depressive symptoms and disorders (CDC, 2012; DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, & Smith, 2014). According to the Adaptation to Poverty Related Stress model (APRS; Wadsworth, Raviv, Compas, & Connor-Smith, 2005), economic pressure is positively linked to adolescent depression via coping. Using a resilience perspective, the present study extends the APRS model by exploring the role that cultural values, namely family obligation, and control beliefs play in the relation between economic pressure and depressive symptoms for Latino youth. Participants in this study were 404 Latino children and adolescents (M age=12.02; 52.5 % girls), who were predominantly of low-income and Mexican American backgrounds. Results indicated that greater economic pressure predicted more depressive symptoms through decreased primary and secondary control beliefs, which were evaluated separately. In addition, family obligation was found to buffer against the impact of having lower secondary control beliefs on increased depressive symptoms, but did not significantly moderate any other independent path of the mediational models. Finally, family obligation was found to be a ...


Impact Of Maternal Depression On Offspring, Fatima Sozzer Jun 2018

Impact Of Maternal Depression On Offspring, Fatima Sozzer

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Depression can go beyond influencing the livelihood of a woman, Mothers with depression often have difficulty paying attention to their children, and can fail to establish a bond with them (Delaney, 2017). The current study looked for a relation between children’s internalizing symptoms and their mothers’ depressive symptoms, and whether or not strength of the mother-child bond mediates that relation. Significant effects of maternal depression were found on child’s internalizing symptoms. Barron and Kenny’s four step method to establishing mediation was used (Barron & Kenny, 1983; Mackinnon et al., 2007). Based on Barron and Kenny’s criterion for establishing mediation ...


The Role Of Therapeutic Engagement, Oral Language Proficiency, And Core Learning Indicators On The Effects Of Therapy For Youth With Depression, Amanda E. Wagstaff Aug 2017

The Role Of Therapeutic Engagement, Oral Language Proficiency, And Core Learning Indicators On The Effects Of Therapy For Youth With Depression, Amanda E. Wagstaff

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Youth with depression, particularly ethnic minority youth, have low rates of engagement in mental health services, indicating a large need to better understand the role of engagement in effective treatments for depression (Merikangas et al., 2011). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the leading psychotherapeutic treatments available for youth with depression (Weisz, McCarty, & Valeri, 2006), but several questions still remain regarding why and in what circumstances this therapy is most appropriate. CBT posits that part of the positive treatment effects is accounted by learning certain cognitive and behavioral skills during and outside of session (i.e., through active homework assignments). This study examined: a) the association between engagement (i.e., homework completion and consumer satisfaction) in a school-based group CBT program and changes in depressive symptoms; b) the mediational role of core learning indicators (social functioning and negative cognitions) in the relationship between engagement and change in depressive symptoms; and c) the moderational role of youth English oral language proficiency. The sample of 99 predominantly low-income ethnic minority youth (66.0% female ...


An Examination Of Depression And Social Support Among African American Women In Substance Use Recovery, Jocelyn Rose Droege Aug 2017

An Examination Of Depression And Social Support Among African American Women In Substance Use Recovery, Jocelyn Rose Droege

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Depression is responsible for widespread functional impairment and disability in 16 million individuals across the United States, as well as societal costs that exceed $36 billion. There are numerous risk factors for depression, such as female gender, ethnic minority status, poverty, incarceration, and comorbid substance use disorders. Thus, low-income, criminal-justice-involved African American women in recovery from substance use problems represent a population that is particularly vulnerable to depression. Social support has been established as a protective factor against depression; however, the relationship between social support and depression has been understudied in such high-risk African American populations. The present study examined ...


The Reciprocal Effects Of Language Proficiency And Depression Among Low Income Latino Youth, Nicole Colon Quintana Mar 2017

The Reciprocal Effects Of Language Proficiency And Depression Among Low Income Latino Youth, Nicole Colon Quintana

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Extant research suggests that language plays an important role in both social processes and emotional encoding and regulation. In dual language youth, the maternal tongue has been observed as a protective factor against maladaptive outcomes (Toppelberg & Collins, 2010). Although Latino youth are at a heightened risk for depression (CDC, 2013), and a majority grow in Spanish-English speaking households (Pumariega et al., 2013), the impact of dual language development in their psychosocial well-being remains poorly understood. It is known that limited English language proficiency during early school years is predictive of maladaptive outcomes such as externalizing problems (Dawson & Williams, 2008). Previous studies have reported associations between Spanish and English self-reports of language proficiency and youth adjustment (Polo & Lopez, 2009). However, research has not examined objective measures of language proficiency and their relation with depression among Latino youth. Further, although some researchers have proposed that language difficulties precede depressive symptoms, the inverse has not been explored. Given the cognitive deficits often associated with depression, it is imperative to disentangle the directionality of this relation and explore the factors of depression that may hinder critical language processes. This study, which included two time points, addressed these gaps by investigating the relation between language proficiency and depression in a community sample of dual language Latino adolescents. Participants included 397 Latino students ages 10-15 years (M = 12.0; 51.9% female), the majority of whom (82.4%) were from families reporting household incomes below $40,000. Results indicate that, at baseline, a majority of the students (58.9%) exhibited higher levels of English proficiency compared to Spanish, and approximately one in five (21.7%) showed limited proficiency in both languages. Also at baseline, youth with limited language proficiency were found to be ...


Patterns And Predictors Of Parent-Child Endorsement Discrepancies Among Youth At Chronic-Risk For Depression, Bridget A. Makol Aug 2016

Patterns And Predictors Of Parent-Child Endorsement Discrepancies Among Youth At Chronic-Risk For Depression, Bridget A. Makol

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Depressive disorders are some of the most common mental health problems among U.S. adolescents, particularly among Latino youth (Merikangas et al., 2010; Twenge & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2002). When parents and their children provide ratings on the presence and severity of the child’s depressive symptoms, their ratings show only low to moderate agreement (Mascendaro et al., 2012). Research has shown that parent–child discrepancies in ratings of youth emotional and behavioral problems are linked to factors such as parental depression and ethnicity. However, discrepancies research has focused primarily on European American families in clinical settings. Subsequently, research has failed to examine ...


Intimate Partner Violence And Victim Blaming, Christine A. Weingarten Aug 2016

Intimate Partner Violence And Victim Blaming, Christine A. Weingarten

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent within the United States leading to millions of people each year being exposed to violence directly, through involvement in a violent relationship, or indirectly, by witnessing or being close to someone who is in a violent relationship. A common societal response to IPV is victim blaming which attributes fault and responsibility to survivors of abuse. Survivors of IPV report victim blaming as one of the least helpful responses when disclosing to an informal social support. Personal experiences of IPV, either directly or indirectly, can affect levels of victim blame because a person who ...


An Examination Of The Specificity Of Economic Loss And Deprivation And Community Violence On Depressive Symptoms And Aggressive Behavior In Urban, Low-Income Adolescents, Jarrett T. Lewis Mar 2016

An Examination Of The Specificity Of Economic Loss And Deprivation And Community Violence On Depressive Symptoms And Aggressive Behavior In Urban, Low-Income Adolescents, Jarrett T. Lewis

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Based on the current literature examining associations of stress and psychopathology in adolescents, several types of stress (e.g., violence exposure, economic-related stress) have been identified as particularly salient in lowincome, urban adolescent populations (Grant et al., 2003; Natz et al., 2012). This population also has been shown to be at heightened risk for problems including internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Identifying specific pathways through which urban, low-income adolescents develop specific emotional and behavior problems in response to particular stressors would be helpful in the development and selections of as the targets of interventions that disrupt mediators that link particular stressors ...


Meaning As A Buffer Against Adolescent Psychopathology, Ellen Shaina Dulaney Nov 2015

Meaning As A Buffer Against Adolescent Psychopathology, Ellen Shaina Dulaney

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

This thesis investigates the function of meaning in life in adolescence to ascertain whether specific psychological resources may protect youths against threats to subjective well-being. Meaning in life and the search for the meaning in stressful occurrences were independently examined for their influence on stress impact and depression symptomatology. 201 American middle-school and high-school students between 12 and 19 years of age were recruited for this study. Participants reported on questionnaires targeting frequency of negative life events; depressive symptoms; sense of meaning; and tendency to reframe stressors in terms of their meaning, termed “stressor meaning seeking”. It was expected that ...


An Evaluation Of The Perfectionistic Social Disconnect Model Among Ethnic Minority Youth, Ana Belen Goya Arce Nov 2015

An Evaluation Of The Perfectionistic Social Disconnect Model Among Ethnic Minority Youth, Ana Belen Goya Arce

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Interpersonal aspects of perfectionism, particularly perfectionistic self-presentation, have been identified as specific vulnerability factors in the development of depressive disorders during the early adolescent years. The Perfectionistic Social Disconnect Model (PSDM) offers a theoretical framework explaining the relationship between perfectionistic self-presentation (PSP) and depressive disorders. The PSDM suggests that perfectionistic self-presentation leads to depressive symptoms indirectly through interpersonal problems and social disconnection. While previous studies have supported the hypothesized role of social disconnection as a mediator in the relation between perfectionistic self-presentation and suicidal ideation, no studies have explored the role that interpersonal problems play in the model. Furthermore, the ...


The Importance Of Family Meals And Sedentary Behavior In Understanding Childhood Depression And Obesity, Draycen D. Decator Jun 2015

The Importance Of Family Meals And Sedentary Behavior In Understanding Childhood Depression And Obesity, Draycen D. Decator

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The ongoing obesity epidemic within the United States is a problem that has received a lot of attention, but is still inadequately understood. Understanding the epidemic requires examining BMI from a larger perspective, with an ecological mindset (Rosenkranz & Dzewaltowski, 2008). A bidirectional relationship between depression and obesity, which has been found in the past, might be due to family meals. Sedentary behaviors has been linked to both outcomes, and is predicted by family meal frequency, suggesting that it may play a mediational role. In order to help clarify the relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity, a sample of 120 youth ...


Parenting Dimensions And Internalizing Symptoms Among Low-Income Latino Adolescents: Cultural Values As Moderators, Crystalia Sulaiman Aug 2014

Parenting Dimensions And Internalizing Symptoms Among Low-Income Latino Adolescents: Cultural Values As Moderators, Crystalia Sulaiman

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Among ethnic minority youth, Latino adolescents disproportionately report higher levels of depression and anxiety than their peers of other ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the present study is to better understand the familial and sociocultural factors that impact mental health among Latino adolescents. Specifically, the present study examines how youth cultural values (i.e., family obligation and affiliative obedience) moderate the relation between parenting dimensions (i.e., parental acceptance and parental psychological control) and youth internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety) cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Latino adolescents (n = 115) from a Chicago public school categorized as "lowincome" participated in a ...