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Neighborhood And School Influences On Academic Achievement And Educational Attainment, Crystal Monique Coker Jun 2016

Neighborhood And School Influences On Academic Achievement And Educational Attainment, Crystal Monique Coker

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that poverty is a greater predictor of educational disparities than race, despite the national focus on racial disparities. Further, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods that are characterized by qualities such as high poverty and unemployment can place a double burden on already poor students, further undermining educational achievement and future success. Neighborhood disadvantage is linked to a range of poor academic outcomes, yet only recently has research begun to explore the processes underlying the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and these outcomes. Drawing on ecological theory, the following study proposes to examine how multiple settings relate to student outcomes ...


Naturalistic Allocation: Working Memory And Cued-Attention Effects On Resource Allocation, Shanique G. Brown Jun 2016

Naturalistic Allocation: Working Memory And Cued-Attention Effects On Resource Allocation, Shanique G. Brown

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The allocation of resources is a ubiquitous decision making task. In the workplace, resource allocation, in the context of multiple task and/or work demands, is significantly related to task performance as the commitment of more resources generally results in better performance on a given task. I apply both resource and naturalistic decision making theories to better understand resource allocation behavior and related performance. Resource theories suggest that individuals have limited cognitive capacity: limited capacity may limit performance in dynamic situations such as situations that involve the allocation of attentional resources. Additionally, the naturalistic decision making framework highlights the role ...


Effects Of Multinational Team And Team Member Characteristics On Subgroup Formation, Group Identification, And Trust In Team, Gamze Arman-Incioglu Jun 2016

Effects Of Multinational Team And Team Member Characteristics On Subgroup Formation, Group Identification, And Trust In Team, Gamze Arman-Incioglu

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Multinational teams (MNTs) consist of members from different national backgrounds who work interdependently to achieve a shared objective (Earley & Gibson, 2002). These teams are frequently employed in global organizations because they provide several advantages, such as meeting the needs of customers from different cultures and getting diverse perspectives on how to lead projects and approach problems (Connaughton & Shuffler, 2007; Earley & Mosakowski, 2000). Much of the previous research on MNTs has focused on whether members’ national background diversity has an impact on MNT effectiveness (Connaughton & Shuffler, 2007; Stahl, Mäkelä, Zander, & Maznevski, 2010a; Stahl, Maznevski, Voigt, & Jonsen, 2010b). Recent research, however, suggests that defining the conditions under which diversity increases team effectiveness is a more fruitful approach than trying to reach rigid conclusions about the overall effectiveness of diverse teams (Roberge & van Dick, 2010; van Knippenberg, De Dreu, & Homan, 2004a; van Knippenberg, Haslam, & Platow, 2007).

In the present study, perceptions and behaviors of MNT members were examined using the Input-Mediator-Output-Input (IMOI) framework of team effectiveness (Ilgen, Hollenbeck, Johnson, & Jundt, 2005). Specifically, the salient team-level inputs in MNTs were defined as national diversity (Earley & Gibson, 2002){Roberge, 2010 #298} and reliance on virtual communication (Gibson & Gibbs, 2006), and the salient individual-level inputs were defined as team members’ collectivism orientation (Mockaitis, Rose, & Zettinig, 2012) and diversity beliefs (van Dick, van Knippenberg, Hägele, Guillaume, & Brodbeck, 2008). Critical mediators that were tested include identification with one’s in-group, out-group, and the team as a unit; and one’s trust in the team, since those mediators are components of team cohesion. Team commitment was examined as the output.

Data were collected from 184 participants via an online survey. During the time the data were collected, the participants were working as MNT members at multinational organizations such as consulting firms. Results of the study did not support a majority of the hypothesized relationships. However ...


An Examination Of The Specificity Of Economic Loss And Deprivation And Community Violence On Depressive Symptoms And Aggressive Behavior In Urban, Low-Income Adolescents, Jarrett T. Lewis Mar 2016

An Examination Of The Specificity Of Economic Loss And Deprivation And Community Violence On Depressive Symptoms And Aggressive Behavior In Urban, Low-Income Adolescents, Jarrett T. Lewis

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Based on the current literature examining associations of stress and psychopathology in adolescents, several types of stress (e.g., violence exposure, economic-related stress) have been identified as particularly salient in lowincome, urban adolescent populations (Grant et al., 2003; Natz et al., 2012). This population also has been shown to be at heightened risk for problems including internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Identifying specific pathways through which urban, low-income adolescents develop specific emotional and behavior problems in response to particular stressors would be helpful in the development and selections of as the targets of interventions that disrupt mediators that link particular stressors ...


Exploring The Self-Referent Meaning Mechanisms Of Terror Management Theory And Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, Joseph A. Galluzzo Mar 2016

Exploring The Self-Referent Meaning Mechanisms Of Terror Management Theory And Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, Joseph A. Galluzzo

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Two theories of mortality threat management propose distinct psychological mechanisms to cope with mortality concerns. Terror management theory suggests death prompts existential concern whereas socioemotional selectivity theory suggests a limited lifetime prompts hedonic concerns. Both reminders of the finality of life threaten self-existence, yet only terror management theory research has investigated the capacity for art to reaffirm self-referent meaning compromised by death awareness. In two studies, we explored the potential existential nature within death and limited-lifetime awareness and then examined self-referent meaning reaffirmation through naturalistic and surrealistic art in response to death awareness and limited-lifetime awareness. We found that limited-lifetime ...


Effects If Clarity And Locus Of Control On Outcomes Of Rjps, Gregory F. Fernandes Mar 2016

Effects If Clarity And Locus Of Control On Outcomes Of Rjps, Gregory F. Fernandes

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Realistic job previews (RJPs) are a common method of providing information about a job to an employee pre-hire. However, there is little understanding around how the way this information is presented might affect some of the well-research outcomes of RJPs, including decision to accept a job offer and organizational commitment. This study explores two potential issues of information presentation, clarity of the information and the locus of control that it activates, to determine whether they have an effect on job attitude outcomes of RJPs.


The Influence Of Parish Factors In Catholic Deacon Ministry Assignments: An Ecological Model Perspective, Danielle S. Vaclavik Mar 2016

The Influence Of Parish Factors In Catholic Deacon Ministry Assignments: An Ecological Model Perspective, Danielle S. Vaclavik

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Abstract Permanent deacons are a population within the Catholic Church whose numbers have been growing significantly in the last 50 years, with an estimated 18,000 men serving as deacons in the U.S. alone (Gautier, 2013). Deacons are ministers of charity and social justice, ordained to serve their local community for its religious, economic, and social needs through a commitment to their faith. In their growing importance and influence in the Catholic Church, little research examined permanent deacons as individuals or in relationship to the communities they serve.

For this thesis, data was taken from a larger nationwide study ...