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Executive Functioning In The Context Of Urban Poverty: An Examination Of Poverty Related Stress And Its Relationships To Academic Achievement, Jacquelyn L. Doxie Nov 2014

Executive Functioning In The Context Of Urban Poverty: An Examination Of Poverty Related Stress And Its Relationships To Academic Achievement, Jacquelyn L. Doxie

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Living in urban poverty has been linked to numerous negative conditions that disproportionately expose low-income urban youth and their families to severe and chronic stressors (Collins et al., 2010; DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, and Smith, 2012; Sznitman, Reisel, and Romer, 2011). Research has consistently shown a strong relationship between these stressors and numerous negative outcomes that can impact an adolescent emotionally, behaviorally, and academically (Conger et al., 2002). This dissertation is focused on the area of academic achievement, an outcome consistently found to be negatively impacted by poverty (Rouse and Fantuzzo, 2009). Based on Bronfenbrenner’s model of bio-ecological human development (Bronfenbrenner ...


Social Support And The Role Of Housing For Homeless Families Involved In The Child Welfare System, Saidah Chambers Nov 2014

Social Support And The Role Of Housing For Homeless Families Involved In The Child Welfare System, Saidah Chambers

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigates the impact of a housing intervention for homeless families involved in the child welfare system on social support and their networks. Qualitative methods were employed in a randomized control trial of a housing intervention to examine the meaning of social support ±rom the perspective of caregivers while exploring the relation between instrumental support (e.g. advice, emotional support, and perceived support), family roles, decision making processes, and housing. Findings suggest little difference in families' perceptions of social support regardless of receiving a housing voucher; however, differences between doubled up housing arrangements and independently housed families may ...


The Cross Cultural Examination Of A Brief Autism Diagnostic Interview (Adi-R) In Korea And The United States, Elizabeth Lally Daley Nov 2014

The Cross Cultural Examination Of A Brief Autism Diagnostic Interview (Adi-R) In Korea And The United States, Elizabeth Lally Daley

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Autism is the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States; as many as 1 in 88 individuals have been identified with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). Although scientists are working on understanding how many people in the population have autism, there is a limited amount of focus on the identification of any cultural factors that may influence people’s understanding about autism, attitudes about autism, and reporting of symptoms. The accepted methods for diagnosing autism are the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). This study seeks ...


Manifestations Of Traumatic Stress Among Adolescent Girls In Post-Conflict Northern Uganda, Tiamo Katsonga-Phiri Nov 2014

Manifestations Of Traumatic Stress Among Adolescent Girls In Post-Conflict Northern Uganda, Tiamo Katsonga-Phiri

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

This study examines manifestations of mental health concerns in response to Gender Based Violence (GBV) specifically rape in a Non-western post-conflict setting. The population is a sample of girls aged 13-18 years residing in an Internally Displaced Person’s camp in Northern Uganda. Through semi-structured interviews, the girls shared their experiences of Gender Based Violence. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, 30 transcripts were analyzed to explore what these girls’ experiences have been with regard to rape, mental health and cultural and contextual stressors. Findings show that the girls described experiencing symptoms similar to those outlined in the DSM. Additionally, the girls ...


The Impact Of Culture And Neighborhood Context On The Mental Health Of Latino Youth, William Martinez Aug 2014

The Impact Of Culture And Neighborhood Context On The Mental Health Of Latino Youth, William Martinez

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Latino youth are members of an ethnic group that shares similar values, customs, beliefs, and, often, the Spanish language, that serve as protective factors for some youth. The extent to which these factors are protective across neighborhood contexts has yet to be explored. The present study adds to the literature on contextual correlates of mental health symptomatology in Latino adolescents by examining individual cultural dimensions as protective factors, and environmental risk and protective factors through the lens of the person-environment fit theory (Caplan, 1987). Specifically, the person-environment fit theory is evaluated by proposing that the fit between a Latino youth ...


Preventive Mental Health As An Approach To Improving School Outcomes Among Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review, Katrina Elaine Roundfield Aug 2014

Preventive Mental Health As An Approach To Improving School Outcomes Among Youth: A Meta-Analytic Review, Katrina Elaine Roundfield

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Researchers, policy makers, and educators continuously seek new avenues to enhance the academic achievement of children and adolescents. This goal is particularly pressing among youth from low-income, urban backgrounds, who are at increased risk for school failure (Aud, Wilkinson-Flicker, Kristapovich, Rathbun, Wang, et al., 2011). Taking a more holistic approach to understanding academic achievement, burgeoning research has begun to focus on the mental health of the child. Preventive mental health (PMH) is a theoretically sound and effective means of reducing the incidence of mental illness among youth from varying levels of risk (Durlak & Wells, 1997; 1998; Greenberg, Domitrovich, Bumbarger, 2000).The link ...


Sexy But Not Sexual: An Examination Of The Sexual Narratives Of African American Adolescent Females, April Timmons Aug 2014

Sexy But Not Sexual: An Examination Of The Sexual Narratives Of African American Adolescent Females, April Timmons

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Much of the research on sexuality during adolescence has focused on the potential negative sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior such as STI acquisition or teenage pregnancy. Researchers have begun to advocate for examining adolescent sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. One aspect of this examination would be to form a more complete understanding of how adolescents develop their sexual identity – their conceptualization of themselves as a sexual being. Erickson’s (1968) identity development theory asserts that identity is developed internally and shaped by the social environment.

Development of a healthy sexual identity may be particularly difficult for African ...


Examining The Pathway From Maternal Criminal Involvement To Adolescent Delinquency, Dina Chavira Aug 2014

Examining The Pathway From Maternal Criminal Involvement To Adolescent Delinquency, Dina Chavira

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

As incarceration rates across the United States have continued to rise, there has been growing concern with the unintended consequences that have resulted. This has prompted researchers across multiple disciplines to study the effects of incarceration at the individual, family, community, and societal levels. An important but overlooked factor pertains to extensive multiple social service agency involvement and missed opportunities for intervention. Families involved with the criminal justice system (CJS) are often at risk of involvement with other human service agencies, one agency being the child welfare system (CWS). Little is known about families who fall within these two systems ...


The Mediating Effects Of Transformational Leadership On Leader Goal Orientation And Team Performance, Tyree D. Mitchell Aug 2014

The Mediating Effects Of Transformational Leadership On Leader Goal Orientation And Team Performance, Tyree D. Mitchell

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Transformational leaders are capable of elevating individual and unit performance by articulating a compelling vision, explaining how the vision can be attained, and expressing confidence in team members and followers. Despite the abundance of research on the effects of transformational leadership behavior on organizational outcomes, research regarding the antecedents of such behavior is limited. Drawing on goal orientation theory, this research examined the leader’s goal orientation, specifically state learning-approach and state performance-avoid goal orientation, as precursors of transformational leadership behaviors, leader effectiveness, and team performance. The relationship between leader state goal orientation and outcomes (i.e., team performance and ...


Social Identity And Wellness Of People Who Have Acquired Physical Disability: What Is The Role Of Social Support?, Katherine S. Ong Aug 2014

Social Identity And Wellness Of People Who Have Acquired Physical Disability: What Is The Role Of Social Support?, Katherine S. Ong

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The degree to which individual members of social minority groups identify with their stigmatized ingroup vary—some closely identify whereas others distance themselves from it as a byproduct of stigmatization. Research findings are mixed in regard to whether group identity influences well-being. One reason is that the relationship may be obscured by other factors. This study sought to clarify the mechanism by which group minority identity relates to health through social support. To assess the linkages among the three variables, individuals with acquired physical disabilities were surveyed. The study of disability identity is of import because, first, it may predict ...


Effects Of Temporal Perceptions On Employees’ Work-Life Conflict, Eileen M. Linnabery Aug 2014

Effects Of Temporal Perceptions On Employees’ Work-Life Conflict, Eileen M. Linnabery

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Work-life conflict (WLC) occurs when an employee is unable to simultaneously fulfill the responsibilities of their home and work roles. This study attempted to understand the perceptual antecedents of employees’ WLC. Specifically, this study investigated how employees and their leaders think about time and perform their work in regard to time. The temporal perceptions of interest include time urgency, pacing, and future time perspective. Two hundred employees and their supervisors were recruited to participate in this study. Employees completed an online or in-person survey addressing how they structure their time at work, work together with their supervisor, and how their ...


Parenting Dimensions And Internalizing Symptoms Among Low-Income Latino Adolescents: Cultural Values As Moderators, Crystalia Sulaiman Aug 2014

Parenting Dimensions And Internalizing Symptoms Among Low-Income Latino Adolescents: Cultural Values As Moderators, Crystalia Sulaiman

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Among ethnic minority youth, Latino adolescents disproportionately report higher levels of depression and anxiety than their peers of other ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of the present study is to better understand the familial and sociocultural factors that impact mental health among Latino adolescents. Specifically, the present study examines how youth cultural values (i.e., family obligation and affiliative obedience) moderate the relation between parenting dimensions (i.e., parental acceptance and parental psychological control) and youth internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety) cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Latino adolescents (n = 115) from a Chicago public school categorized as "lowincome" participated in a ...


The Effect Of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy On Strengthening The Attachment Relationship With Foster Parents And Children In Foster Care, Christina Marie Danko Aug 2014

The Effect Of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy On Strengthening The Attachment Relationship With Foster Parents And Children In Foster Care, Christina Marie Danko

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Children in foster care are more likely to face difficulties in forming a secure attachment relationship and to have problem behaviors than children not in foster care (Dozier & Rutter, 2008). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an evidence-based treatment that focuses on strengthening the attachment relationship between the child and the caregiver, as well as reducing the number and intensity of behavior problems. Although PCIT is based on attachment theory, very few studies have examined the effect of PCIT on child-parent attachment or examined the effect of PCIT on attachment in foster care families. This study extends prior work and uses ...


The Psychological Well-Being Of Divorced Fathers: A Theoretical Model And Projection, Todd Lawrence Bottom Aug 2014

The Psychological Well-Being Of Divorced Fathers: A Theoretical Model And Projection, Todd Lawrence Bottom

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The U.S. divorce rate increased substantially from WWII until the 1980's. Although the number of divorces decreased marginally in the past decade, the number of marriages also decreased, causing the divorce rate to remain nearly unchanged from 2000 to 2010. The most frequently cited negative effect of divorce and separation is perhaps the loss of father-child contact, although little research was dedicated to understanding the post-divorce outcomes of fathers - especially with regard to their long-term outcomes. The present study assessed how several factors (e.g. parenting decisions, custody status, parenting efficacy, and parenting encouragement) influenced divorced fathers' psychological ...


From Crime To Punishment: Moral Violations And The Social Function Of Emotion, Michael Ray Brubacher Jun 2014

From Crime To Punishment: Moral Violations And The Social Function Of Emotion, Michael Ray Brubacher

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Punishments that are issued by the criminal justice system can enhance factors related to recidivism or contribute to offender rehabilitation. Investigating the ecological element of public attitudes toward punishment can inform efforts of second-order change for reducing recidivism and improving offender and community wellbeing (Bronfenbrenner, 1979; Kelly, 1966; Watzlawick, Weakland, & Fisch, 1974).

The form and duration of punishments can be influenced by the goals that punishments are meant to achieve. Punishment goals include retribution, incapacitation, individual deterrence, general deterrence, rehabilitation, and restorative justice. Each of the goals can lead to sanctions that impact offender behavior differently yet substantive predictors of when the different goals are pursued have yet to be discovered.

An important stakeholder in the operations of the criminal justice system is the general public, and public opinions regarding sentencing practices can impact the punishments that are issued (Roberts, Stalans, Indermaur, & Hough, 2003). This paper will whether the moral characteristics of crimes along with social functional accounts of emotion can predict public support for the goals of punishment.

Social functionalist accounts of emotion suggest that different emotions are elicited by appraisals that are made of events in the environment. Emotions then lead to different action tendencies for responding to the appraisals. The action tendencies are goal oriented and may take the form of punishment goals.

The appraisal of a crime by the public can include an assessment of its moral qualities. Moral Foundations Theory suggests there are five categories of moral concern: harm, fairness, ingroup, authority, and purity (Haidt & Graham, 2007). This paper examined whether public appraisals of the five types of moral violation predict three appraisals of the offender: whether the offender committed an immoral act, whether the offender was morally incompetent, and whether the offender possessed an immoral nature. These secondary appraisals were then used to predict five emotions that people may experience when being informed of a crime: anger, fear, contempt, sympathy, and disgust. Finally, the emotions, each with their own goal-oriented action tendency, were used to predict the goals of punishment desired by the public.

Predicted relations between the appraisals, emotions, and punishment goals were combined to form a path model. To test the model, 546 participants completed an online survey and a path analysis of the model was conducted. A majority of the predicted relations were significant; however, the model did not fit the data. Additional analyses were then performed to develop a model that did fit the data.

Violations of authority and purity moral principles indirectly predicted support for all the punishment goals. Furthermore, while the appraisal of an immoral act lead to anger and support ...


A Scale Of Heroic Cognition For Workplace Contexts, Patrick Joseph Furey Jun 2014

A Scale Of Heroic Cognition For Workplace Contexts, Patrick Joseph Furey

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Interest in research on heroism has begun to increase during the past decade, but, despite the ancient roots of heroism embedded deeply in cultures around the world, empirical work on the subject is relatively sparse. Direct and explicit empirical study of heroism in organizational contexts, specifically, is especially rare. The lack of organizational heroism research is surprising. There is a preponderance of evidence that organizational wrongdoing is observed across many organizations, sometimes to great extremes that are in violation of federal law, and it can have profound social impact. Organizational members who become aware of extreme wrongdoing committed by others ...


Empowerment Of Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority College Students In The United States: Developing And Testing The College Student Empowerment Scales For Racial/Ethnic Minorities, Lindsey Therese Back Jun 2014

Empowerment Of Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority College Students In The United States: Developing And Testing The College Student Empowerment Scales For Racial/Ethnic Minorities, Lindsey Therese Back

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Empowerment, a core value of community psychology, is defined as a process by which people, organizations, and communities gain mastery over issues of concern to them in their lives (Rappaport, 1987). In community psychology, empowerment is understood as a construct particularly and primarily salient for minority t,>roups who hold a marginalized position in society, as psychological empowerment is a product of an individual's interaction with his or her context. Consistent with a social justice framework, community psychology attempts to empower those who have traditionally been disenfranchised in particular contexts. One such population is underrepresented racial/ethnic minority students ...


The Role Of Multicultural Competence, Privilege, Attributions, And Team Support In Predicting Positive Youth Mentor Outcomes, Rachael Leigh Suffrin Jun 2014

The Role Of Multicultural Competence, Privilege, Attributions, And Team Support In Predicting Positive Youth Mentor Outcomes, Rachael Leigh Suffrin

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

In the current study we use Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological theory to guide an inquiry into how the social environment surrounding mentors’ matters in regards to mentor outcomes of satisfaction, retention, and extra-role pro-social behavior (i.e., mentors willingness to go above and beyond for their mentee or the mentoring program). Mentors are sampled from mentoring organizations across the United States. Drawing from Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory (1979), we examine mentors embedded in distinct micro- and macrosystems. At the microsystem level we explore how the relationship between the mentor and the (a) mentee, (b) mentees’ family, and (c) the mentoring ...


Interventions For Addressing Faking On Personality Assessments For Employee Selection: A Meta-Analysis, Christopher Adair Jun 2014

Interventions For Addressing Faking On Personality Assessments For Employee Selection: A Meta-Analysis, Christopher Adair

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

It is common practice to administer personality assessments in personnel selection due to their ability to cost-effectively predict organizationally relevant criteria with relatively small subgroup differences. However, concerns are often raised about test-taker response bias. The proposed research focuses on one issue related to personality test accuracy, namely faking. Also called response distortion or inflation, faking represents a multidimensional behavior that is both intentional and deceptive and seeks to benefit one’s own interests. The current study uses the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985) and expectancy theories of motivation (e.g., Vroom, 1964) as a theoretical basis for understanding ...


Gender Role Ideology And Major Choice Of Students In College Religious Groups, Charlynn Anne Odahl Jun 2014

Gender Role Ideology And Major Choice Of Students In College Religious Groups, Charlynn Anne Odahl

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

In the present study examined students who attend college religious groups to better understand how religious conservatism, religious commitment, and gender may shape gender role ideology and college major choice. A focus on these outcomes of gender role ideology and college major choice is important given the continued persistence of sexism and gender inequality. We examined how personal characteristics and characteristics of the group (i.e., defined by peer and leader attitudes) may shape personal gender role ideology and major choice. We tested how personal, peer, and leader religious conservatism may predict more traditional gender role ideology and the choice ...


Factors Relating To Substance Abuse Relapse: A Survival Analysis Of Adults Living In Oxford House Recovery Homes, Ronald D. Harvey Jun 2014

Factors Relating To Substance Abuse Relapse: A Survival Analysis Of Adults Living In Oxford House Recovery Homes, Ronald D. Harvey

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse, treatment, and subsequent relapse and re-treatment are a common pattern faced by clients and AOD treatment providers. Relapse and re-treatment significantly contributes to the overall societal costs of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, injury, and incarceration. Therefore, it might be useful to treatment providers to become aware of of the factors leading to AOD relapse after treatment. This dissertation examined the relationship of individual factors and AOD relapse among residents of self-run aftercare recovery homes called Oxford House over the course of a one-year study. To accomplish this, this study employed discrete-time survival analysis ...


Negotiating Culture And The Self: Complications Of Agency In Psychosis, Genevra Jones Jun 2014

Negotiating Culture And The Self: Complications Of Agency In Psychosis, Genevra Jones

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The goal of the dissertation project described here is to explore and unpack the role of agency, understood as a form of "intentionalized action" (Ortner, 1996), in participants' experiences of psychosis and associated narratives and explanations of these experiences. We present in-depth cthnographically-infom1cd qualitative analyses of the accounts of 14 participants, organized around the interimplication of agency in and with the overlapping domains of symptomatology, narrative, and explanation. Our analyses suggest that the play of agency in psychosis is far richer and more nuanced than most existing scholarship suggests, underscoring the value of greater attention to agentive complexities involved in ...


Exposure To Violence As A Moderator Of The Relation Between Coping Strategies And Outcomes In Low Income Urban Youth, Alexandra Lauren Barnett Mar 2014

Exposure To Violence As A Moderator Of The Relation Between Coping Strategies And Outcomes In Low Income Urban Youth, Alexandra Lauren Barnett

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The current study addresses a paradox in the literature wherein the coping strategies seeming to be most effective for predominantly Caucasian, middle-class, adult samples, sometimes have the opposite effect on low income urban youth. In doing so, exposure to violence is investigated as a moderator of the association between active, behavioral avoidance and cognitive avoidance and internalizing and externalizing outcomes over the short and long term for low income urban youth. Luthar and colleague’s (2000) protective-reactive, protective-enhancing, and vulnerable-reactive models are theoretical bases for this hypothesis. The findings are that the association between behavioral avoidance and internalizing symptoms was ...


Ethnic Identity And Coping Efficacy As Moderators Of The Relationships Between Perceived Racial Discrimination And Academic Outcomes Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/O Youth, Alison L. Mroczkowski Mar 2014

Ethnic Identity And Coping Efficacy As Moderators Of The Relationships Between Perceived Racial Discrimination And Academic Outcomes Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/O Youth, Alison L. Mroczkowski

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, coping efficacy, gender, and various academic outcomes among urban, low-income, Latina/a youth. Although Latina/as are the largest ethnic minority group in the United States, they attain less education than other racial/ethnic groups (Chapman, Laird, Ifill, & KeweiRamani, 2011). Racial discrimination is one factor that may account for the lower levels of education attained by this group, and research has indicated that racial discrimination is associated with poor educational outcomes among Latina/a adolescents (Alfaro, Umana-Taylor, Gonzales-Backen, Bamaca, & Zeiders, 2009; DeGarmo & Martinez, 2006). Despite exposure to risk factors such as racial discrimination, resilience theory suggests that some adolescents with assets, such as ethnic identity or coping efficacy, can still thrive, or achieve success (Fergus & Zimmerman, 2005). Ethnic identity and coping efficacy are two protective factors that were ...