Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 235

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

The Use Of Personality Testing In Personnel Selection, Riya Kumar Jan 2019

The Use Of Personality Testing In Personnel Selection, Riya Kumar

CMC Senior Theses

Research has shown that more than 45% of American companies are opting to integrate personality tests in their recruitment processes. Given this surge in personality testing, this thesis examines whether personality testing is a valid predictor of job-fit and performance in the context of personnel selection. A large proportion of this paper is focused upon the Big-Five factor model, its limitations, and derivative tests of the model. The impact of technology upon personality testing is also discussed as an emerging field. By tracing and examining the history of personality testing to current day, I have found that personality tests are ...


Teaching The Leisure Skill Of Photography To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alicia Tsai Jan 2019

Teaching The Leisure Skill Of Photography To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alicia Tsai

CMC Senior Theses

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often do not use their leisure time appropriately. Previous studies have shown that children with ASD tend to engage in inappropriate actions and maladaptive behaviors (such as engaging in stereotypy and tantrums) that decrease their quality of life. Establishing age-appropriate leisure skills is important for these children as these skills have been recognized as fulfilling habilitative needs, and can increase the quality of life and social acceptance and decrease the amount of stress for these individuals. The present study used a multiple baseline across-participants design to investigate whether children with ASD can learn and ...


Dynamic Motivation To Lead: Construct Validity Of Motivation To Lead, Leya Aronoff Jan 2019

Dynamic Motivation To Lead: Construct Validity Of Motivation To Lead, Leya Aronoff

CMC Senior Theses

Although motivation to lead (MTL) was characterized as stable, recent research suggested otherwise. This study explored the malleability of MTL and its predictors. Individuals with high affective-identity MTL are motivated to lead because they enjoy leading. Individuals with high social normative MTL are motivated by an obligation to lead. Individuals with high noncalculative MTL are drawn to leadership because they avoid weighing the costs and benefits of leading. Applicants to a California college were sent a questionnaire on MTL and leadership self-efficacy (LSE) (Time 1 assessment, N = 2704). Four years later (Time 2), participants who responded at Time 1 were ...


The Changing Nature Of Work, Leadership, And Organizational Culture In Future Ready Organizations, Saloni Dhir Jan 2019

The Changing Nature Of Work, Leadership, And Organizational Culture In Future Ready Organizations, Saloni Dhir

CMC Senior Theses

Abstract

The relationship between individual and organizational performance is a key challenge for leaders in modern organizations, especially with the current disruption in technology and innovation. This thesis is a literature review and compilation of the relevant empirical evidence on various processes of industrial groups and organizational characteristics such as the changing nature of work, leadership, and company culture in detail. I investigate the complex challenges that millennials and organizations are facing in the current VUCA work environment as well as their potential responses to these changes. I map out the evolution of the concept of work and compare changes ...


Finding Balance Between The Needs For Conformity And Individuality: An Exploration Of Identity, C.C. Schwab Jan 2019

Finding Balance Between The Needs For Conformity And Individuality: An Exploration Of Identity, C.C. Schwab

CMC Senior Theses

Just as society has changed a lot within the past 100 years, the concept of identity has also evolved significantly. A big factor in the evolution of identity has been the realization that social and group phenomena influence all conceptualizations of identity. In this review, I explore identity through the lens of Optimal Distinctiveness theory (ODT), which proposes that humans have two opposing social motives (distinctiveness and inclusiveness) that position them amidst an internal battle over identity.

I start by defining identity and the self, including the distinction between the two. Next, I explore identity formation and different types of ...


The Psychology Surrounding Legal Standards Of Competency And Representation For Children In U.S. Immigration Court, Natasha Reyes Jan 2019

The Psychology Surrounding Legal Standards Of Competency And Representation For Children In U.S. Immigration Court, Natasha Reyes

CMC Senior Theses

In recent years, immigration detentions have spiked. Further, the Zero Tolerance Policy enacted by President Trump has separated thousands of children from their families. Because many children are without their parents, and immigration court is civil in nature, thousands of children are placed in deportation hearings without representation each year. Child psychological research is at odds with the current deportation practices as psychological research deems children unable to understand the complexities of the court system or the impacts of deportation proceedings. A minimum competency to stand trial must be enacted to protect young children’s due process rights, regardless of ...


An Analysis And Critique Of Mental Health Treatment In American State Prisons And Proposal For Improved Care, Shelby Hayne Jan 2019

An Analysis And Critique Of Mental Health Treatment In American State Prisons And Proposal For Improved Care, Shelby Hayne

Scripps Senior Theses

Mental health treatment in state prisons is revealed to be highly variable, under-funded, and systematically inadequate. Existing literature exposes this injustice but fails to provide a comprehensive proposal for reform. This paper attempts to fill that gap, outlining a cost-effective, evidence-based treatment proposal, directly addressing the deficits in care revealed through analysis of our current system. In addition, this paper provides historical overviews of the prison system and mental health treatment, utilizing theoretical perspectives to contextualize this proposal in the present state of affairs. Lastly, the evidence is provided to emphasize the potential economic and social benefits of improving mental ...


Implicit Attitudes Of Asian American Older Adults Toward Aging, Anita Ho Jan 2019

Implicit Attitudes Of Asian American Older Adults Toward Aging, Anita Ho

Scripps Senior Theses

Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) developed the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a measure of mental associations between target pairs and positive or negative attributes. Highly associative categories yield faster responses than the reverse mental associations, which is thought to reflect implicit attitudes toward stereotypes. The present study investigated the effect of ethnic group on one’s implicit attitudes toward aging and gender stereotypes by comparing two groups of older adults, Asian Americans and Caucasian Americans, that likely hold different culture values. Past qualitative studies have established the existence of mental health stigma in Asian American populations, including negative Asian American ...


Using Interpersonal Theory Of Suicide To Improve Well-Being Of Latina College Students, Cienna Sorensen Jan 2019

Using Interpersonal Theory Of Suicide To Improve Well-Being Of Latina College Students, Cienna Sorensen

Scripps Senior Theses

College students are at an increased risk for suicide. The federal government has gone to great lengths to try to implement suicide prevention programs, but few studies have been done to design, implement and assess the effectiveness of the programs. Latinas are at an especially high risk for suicide, and research suggests that interpersonal conflict is a potential risk factor for Latinas' suicidal behavior. Thwarted belongingness, as stated in Joiner’s Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, may be a possible explanation for the higher rates due to the importance placed on interpersonal relationships based on Latino cultural values. Bicultural identity has ...


Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra Jan 2019

Circadian Variations And Risky Decision Making, Sana Sra

Scripps Senior Theses

Over the past decades, decision making under risk has garnered a great amount of attention both in the field of economics and psychology. Although state-dependent variabilities of risk taking are well-documented, little is known about the effects of a person’s preferred time of day, or chronotype, in risky decision making. Under circumstances of circadian mismatch (e.g., when an “early bird” makes decisions in the evening), research suggests that decision making may reflect a greater reliance on heuristics, such as using stereotypes in social judgments. However, the effects of circadian mismatch on heuristics in risky decision making are relatively ...


The Impact Of Four-Day School Weeks And Fifth-Day Programs On Delinquency And Problem Behaviors In Adolescents, Emily Collins Jan 2019

The Impact Of Four-Day School Weeks And Fifth-Day Programs On Delinquency And Problem Behaviors In Adolescents, Emily Collins

Scripps Senior Theses

In recent years, tightening budgets have forced school districts to find new ways to save money. One way that has become increasingly popular is to shorten the traditional five-day school week to only four-days a week. This change is budget friendly and may act through efficiency wage theory as a recruitment tool for better teachers. Despite the increasing prevalence of districts running on four-day weeks, many of the effects of the shorter week on students are still unclear. Utilizing district-level panel data from the Colorado Department of Education, Study One took a difference-in-differences approach to determine the effect of the ...


Psychotherapy Dropout And Socioeconomic Status: A Qualitative Analysis Of College Students, Emily Sophia Lavine Jan 2019

Psychotherapy Dropout And Socioeconomic Status: A Qualitative Analysis Of College Students, Emily Sophia Lavine

Scripps Senior Theses

This qualitative research study explores the correlation between socioeconomic status and factors of psychotherapy dropout among college students who have prematurely terminated therapy while attending college. Twelve female-identifying college students were interviewed in a semi-structured design. It was predicted that socioeconomic status moderates the impact of financial and logistical barriers to access, mental health stigma, and perceived lack of socioeconomic status competency among practitioners on the decision to leave therapy prematurely, such that these factors have an amplified effect for students coming from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. Findings indicate that logistical barriers to access are experienced across the socioeconomic spectrum ...


The Influence Of The "Emotionally Disturbed" Classroom Label On General Education Teachers' Sense Of Efficacy, Giovanna Perricone Jan 2019

The Influence Of The "Emotionally Disturbed" Classroom Label On General Education Teachers' Sense Of Efficacy, Giovanna Perricone

Scripps Senior Theses

Students identified as “emotionally disturbed” face resistance to inclusion in classrooms with typically-developing peers on the part of the general education teachers. This study aims to address whether the classroom label of “emotionally disturbed” affects teacher efficacy and whether this relationship is moderated by the amount of applied inclusion training a teacher has received. General education teachers will read identical case studies of a student who either spends some of his school day in an “Emotionally Disturbed Class” or a “Self-Regulation Skills Class.” They will complete a measure of student-specific teacher efficacy and then report how many hours of inclusion ...


Cooperative Success Under Shared Cognitive States And Valuations, Shannon Marie Klotz Jan 2019

Cooperative Success Under Shared Cognitive States And Valuations, Shannon Marie Klotz

Scripps Senior Theses

A mental model of the another person’s state of mind including their thoughts, feelings, and beliefs, otherwise known as Theory of Mind (ToM), can be created to better predict their behavior and optimize our own decisions. These representations can be explicitly modeled during both the development and presence of stable cooperation via communication outcomes, allowing us to understand the sophistication or depth of mental coordination, involved in an individual’s social perception and reasoning. Almost all current scientific studies of ToM take a spectatorial approach, relying on observation followed by evaluation (e.g., the Sally-Anne Task). However given evidence ...


The Ethical And Emotional Benefits Of Reducing Self-Focus Through Mindfulness, Emma Loftus Jan 2019

The Ethical And Emotional Benefits Of Reducing Self-Focus Through Mindfulness, Emma Loftus

Scripps Senior Theses

This proposed study was inspired by the concept in Aristotle’s virtue ethics theory that a good life is necessarily an ethical one. The following work intends to expand previous literature on this topic by exploring an accessible potential method through which ethicality (and thus, well-being) can be increased, and also a possible explanation of how this process might occur. Past research has indicated that mindfulness training can increase both prosociality and well-being, and additionally that higher ethicality is connected to higher well-being. Reduced self-focus has been found to mediate these relationships. The proposed 30 day study makes use of ...


Identity Invalidation Among Multiracial Individuals: Do The Identities Of The Source And Target Of Invalidation Matter?, Lauren Calogero Jan 2019

Identity Invalidation Among Multiracial Individuals: Do The Identities Of The Source And Target Of Invalidation Matter?, Lauren Calogero

CMC Senior Theses

Previous research has indicated that racial identity invalidation has negative effects on multiracial individuals. Using a 2x2 mixed factorial design, this study investigates the effects of who does the invalidating (between subjects: Ingroup A vs. Unspecified Outgroup) and which of a multiracial individual’s strongest two racial identities is being invalidated (within subjects: Racial Identity A vs. Racial Identity B). Participants were 65 multiracial individuals recruited via social media to complete an online Qualtrics survey. Participants’ levels of psychological distress and identification with their strongest racial group were measured after they read each of two racial identity invalidation scenarios. We ...


Why Empirical Studies Of The Groupthink Model Have Failed, Nolan Rajakumar Jan 2019

Why Empirical Studies Of The Groupthink Model Have Failed, Nolan Rajakumar

CMC Senior Theses

The theory of groupthink has been highly beneficial in the study of how groups make decisions. It has permeated almost every field containing decision making groups. Despite its popularity, there has been a surprising lack of empirical support for the model. It is the aim of this paper to suggest a possible explanation for the current state of groupthink research. First the groupthink model is described briefly, followed by a look at several selected empirical and case studies of groupthink. A potential reason for the dearth of empirical is then proposed along with a suggestion for future groupthink research.


Generosity In Gaming: The Effect Of Prosocial Video Games On Charitable Donation Behavior, Ethan Tom Jan 2019

Generosity In Gaming: The Effect Of Prosocial Video Games On Charitable Donation Behavior, Ethan Tom

CMC Senior Theses

Although the link between violent video games and aggressive behavior has received extensive coverage, there is growing evidence that prosocial video games can exert a positive influence as well. However, whether these effects generalize to costlier prosocial behaviors that help more distant recipients remains unclear. Here I propose an experimental study to examine whether prosocial video games can influence charitable donation behavior. College students will be randomly assigned to play 45 min of either a prosocial video game (Lemmings) or neutral video game (Tetris), followed by a 10 min filler task (mental calculation). Participants will then be asked to complete ...


Leadership, Empowerment, And Motivation: An Analysis Of Modern Management, Patrick J. Myers Jan 2019

Leadership, Empowerment, And Motivation: An Analysis Of Modern Management, Patrick J. Myers

CMC Senior Theses

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of management in organizations and, specifically, look at the overlap between management and leadership with a particular focus on empowerment. With considerations of previous literature, current examples, and a case study interview, this literature seeks to solidify the importance of leadership by managers in the workplace. Furthermore, it seeks to highlight the role of empowerment, presented by the leader and experienced by followers, in creating a thriving workplace built on culture and trust. Lastly, the literature aims to better understand the motivations of the modern employee to provide potential areas ...


Where There's A Will, There's A Way: Implementing Motivational Strategies To Combat Decision Fatigue, David Huang Jan 2019

Where There's A Will, There's A Way: Implementing Motivational Strategies To Combat Decision Fatigue, David Huang

CMC Senior Theses

Recent research suggests we have a limited supply of willpower, termed the “ego”, which becomes depleted by undergoing cognitively demanding tasks. Any acts of volition, including decision-making, self-control, and taking responsibility, reduce this supply of “ego” (Baumeister, 1998), which impedes our ability to further perform these tasks. Decision fatigue, a specific form of ego depletion, is prevalent everywhere from judicial court cases (Danzinger, Levav, & Avnaim-Pesso, 2010) to our daily lives. There is now significant mainstream media exposure and literature on decision fatigue and the activities to which it applies. However, it remains contested how to best handle its negative consequences ...


How Organizations And Their Brands Leverage Marketing Partnerships To Enhance Their Success: The Guidelines To Navigating Both Reaffirming And Repositioning Strategic Partnerships, Remi A. Edwards Jan 2019

How Organizations And Their Brands Leverage Marketing Partnerships To Enhance Their Success: The Guidelines To Navigating Both Reaffirming And Repositioning Strategic Partnerships, Remi A. Edwards

CMC Senior Theses

Understanding the different factors, influencers, and outcomes that form a successful brand partnership allow for marketers to make informed decisions that benefit their company. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature regarding partnership marketing and issues a set of guidelines for marketers to strategically market their brand by way of collaboration. With two distinct strategic frameworks, reaffirming partnerships and repositioning partnerships, this paper seeks illustrate the efficacy of brand collaboration and how to achieve success based on varying brand goals.


Consonant And Dissonant Music Chords Improve Visual Attention Capture, Graham Spurrier Jan 2019

Consonant And Dissonant Music Chords Improve Visual Attention Capture, Graham Spurrier

CMC Senior Theses

Recent research has suggested that music may enhance or reduce cognitive interference, depending on whether it is tonally consonant or dissonant. Tonal consonance is often described as being pleasant and agreeable, while tonal dissonance is often described as being unpleasant and harsh. However, the exact cognitive mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. We hypothesize that tonal dissonance may increase cognitive interference through its effects on attentional cueing. We predict that (a) consonant musical chords are attentionally demanding, but (b) dissonant musical chords are more attentionally demanding than consonant musical chords. Using a Posner cueing task, a standard measure of attention ...


Considering Parental Alienation When Assessing Best Interest Of The Child, Danielle Stewart Jan 2019

Considering Parental Alienation When Assessing Best Interest Of The Child, Danielle Stewart

CMC Senior Theses

As the divorce rate in the United States remains steady at 50%, the last few decades have shown an increase in child custody disputes. Within these litigations, interparental conflict can reach high levels and incite behaviors that wreak havoc on the children who are caught in the middle. When considering custody arrangements, judges and other evaluators use the Best Interest of the Child Standard (BICS), a jurisdictionally-specific framework that examines several factors that contribute to a child’s health and well-being. Parents who allow their resentments to get the better of them sometimes engage in behavior that encourages their child ...


Stressed Out And Fed Up: The Effect Of Stress On Maternal Feeding Behaviors And The Moderating Role Of Executive Functioning, Isabel Mendiola Jan 2018

Stressed Out And Fed Up: The Effect Of Stress On Maternal Feeding Behaviors And The Moderating Role Of Executive Functioning, Isabel Mendiola

CMC Senior Theses

Stress is associated with a range of unhealthy eating habits. However, no previous studies have used experimental design to take an intergenerational perspective in the examination of how stress may influence parental feeding behavior, nor have they examined potential protective factors. The current study tests the effects of stress on maternal feeding behaviors and explores the potential protective role of maternal executive functioning (EF). We manipulated maternal stress with the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) in a community sample mothers (N = 61, Mage = 33.45 years). We measured maternal EF with a series of computerized tasks. Maternal feeding behavior ...


Applying Psychological Theories Of Personality, Identity, And Intergroup Conflict To Radical Violence: A Case Study Of Extremist Behavior, Sydney Flynn Jan 2018

Applying Psychological Theories Of Personality, Identity, And Intergroup Conflict To Radical Violence: A Case Study Of Extremist Behavior, Sydney Flynn

CMC Senior Theses

This paper aims to address possible psychoanalytical explanations for the heinous acts in which terrorists, particularly ISIS, engage. It focuses on Harold D. Lasswell’s principles of the id, ego, and superego as well as Tajfel and Turner’s social identity theory. Within the framework of these two theories, relevant psychological and social psychological theories are discussed in order to explore a possible connection between the psyche of violent perpetrators and their actions. By exploring these connections, I find that there may be more nuanced psychological explanations for these violent acts, which could lead to new methods of weakening perceived ...


Effects Of Learned Exercises On Gross Motor Coordination In Children With Asd, Garrett Myers Jan 2018

Effects Of Learned Exercises On Gross Motor Coordination In Children With Asd, Garrett Myers

CMC Senior Theses

The effectiveness of a teaching progression to teach three “Olympic” exercises and improve gross motor coordination was evaluated with four children (3 boys, 1 girl) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline design across children and within children across activities was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching progression used to teach the physical exercise program, which consisted of three “Olympic” events (long jump, 50 foot dash, and a relay race). Results showed all four participants learned the three “Olympic” exercises, with all four participants mastering at least one of the three exercises. Two participants mastered all ...


Aversive Visions Of Unanimity: Political Sectarianism In Lebanon, Loulwa Murtada Jan 2018

Aversive Visions Of Unanimity: Political Sectarianism In Lebanon, Loulwa Murtada

CMC Senior Theses

Sectarianism has shaped Lebanese culture since the establishment of the National Pact in 1943, and continues to be a pervasive roadblock to Lebanon’s path to development. This thesis explores the role of religion, politics, and Lebanon’s illegitimate government institutions in accentuating identity-based divisions, and fostering an environment for sectarianism to emerge. In order to do this, I begin by providing an analysis of Lebanon’s history and the rise and fall of major religious confessions as a means to explore the relationship between power-sharing arrangements and sectarianism, and to portray that sectarian identities are subject to change based ...


Empathy: A Tool To Unite?, Patrick Wildman Jan 2018

Empathy: A Tool To Unite?, Patrick Wildman

CMC Senior Theses

I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Professor Bowman, for providing valuable input as I pursued this important topic. I would also like to thank Professor Krauss, my unofficial Psychology advisor.

I would like to thank my parents who raised me to value empathy. Our family-dinner conversations weren’t always pretty, but they served me well as I made the trek from Cincinnati, Ohio to Claremont, California. As we were encouraged to speak, we were required to listen and to try to understand different viewpoints. We didn’t always agree, but the confinements of our home forced us to ...


Mental Health In U.S. Prisons: How Our System Is Set Up For Failure, Katherine Daifotis Jan 2018

Mental Health In U.S. Prisons: How Our System Is Set Up For Failure, Katherine Daifotis

CMC Senior Theses

During the past 60 years, United States prisons have become one of the primary institutions caring for mentally ill individuals. Factors such as privatization of mental health care with a focus on profit-maximization, ineffective jail diversion programs, and unsuccessful mental health courts have contributed to prisons having an increased population of mentally ill inmates. In fact, about 20% of people who are currently incarcerated suffer from a major mental illness (Mason, 2007). Other elements outside of the justice system such as a lack of mental health awareness and a lack of resources have led to damaging interactions between the mentally ...


Generalization Of Ipad®-Learned Skills In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Claire Klein Jan 2018

Generalization Of Ipad®-Learned Skills In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Claire Klein

CMC Senior Theses

The present study investigated the effects of learning from an iPad® to real-world skills for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research has demonstrated that for some children with ASD, electronic media such as an iPad® is highly motivating, highly preferred, and increasing in popularity in homes and in classrooms (Chen & Bernard-Opitz, 1993; Rideout, 2017; Shane & Albert, 2008). Because academic skills are often difficult for children with ASD due to problems with motivation, the current study used the motivating features of iPad® apps to teach real-world academic skills to children with ASD, with the hypothesis that skills would generalize to real-life. The ...