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Sexual Harassment, Justice Perceptions, And Social Identity: Cognition And Group Dynamics, Devon Marrott Sep 2019

Sexual Harassment, Justice Perceptions, And Social Identity: Cognition And Group Dynamics, Devon Marrott

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to observe the dynamics between sexual harassment (SH), social identity theory, and justice perceptions. Furthermore, participants’ past experience with SH may have created conspiracy mentalities to explain outgroup members (e.g., males) behavior towards women. From a social identity perspective, women who strongly identify with being female should be more prone to view lower justice perceptions when a male investigator denies an SH claim, but equally high levels of justice perceptions when male or female investigators confirm SH and when a female investigator denies SH. Four scenarios were created where female participants (N ...


Development Of The Mate Expulsion Inventory, Nestor Maria Sep 2019

Development Of The Mate Expulsion Inventory, Nestor Maria

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Although humans engage in committed, long-term pair bonds, many romantic relationships end because one partner no longer desires to be in the relationship. Much of the literature on romantic relationship psychology and behavior has focused on mechanisms related to maintaining a partner. Mate retention behavior functions to deter romantic partners from defection and fend off potential alternative partners. However, when individuals are in a relationship where the costs of remaining in the relationship outweigh the benefits of leaving the relationship, mate expulsion, not retention, may be the desired goal. The present thesis examines mate expulsion behavior and psychology with the ...


Women's Perceptions Of Sexual Assault Perpetrators And Fear Of Rape, Aaron George Cisneros Sep 2019

Women's Perceptions Of Sexual Assault Perpetrators And Fear Of Rape, Aaron George Cisneros

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The overarching goal of the present thesis was to study women’s perceptions of sexual assault perpetrators and how those perceptions relate to fear of sexual assault. Previous researchers have developed a substantial literature on predictors and correlates of sexual assault perpetration. What is not known is how accurate women’s perceptions are of these predictors. Rationale from both evolutionary mismatch theory and social psychological stereotype theory suggests that women’s perceptions may be inaccurate. In the present thesis, I tested a set of hypotheses designed to examine individual differences in women’s perceptions of sexual assault perpetrators and how ...


How Prototypicality Influences Inferences And Discrimination Towards Gay Men, Adam Beam Sep 2019

How Prototypicality Influences Inferences And Discrimination Towards Gay Men, Adam Beam

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

I assessed the influence prototypicality has on judgements individuals make about gay men. It has been demonstrated that individuals make inferences regarding a person’s traits and group membership based upon a person’s perceived prototypicality (Ambady, Hallahan, & Conner, 1999; Stephan & Stephan, 1989; Wilkins, Kaiser, and Rieck, 2010). I hypothesized that highly prototypical gay men would be perceived to be more identified with the gay community, possess more negative stereotypes of gay men, engage in more activities associated with the gay community, receive less positive feelings from others, and experience more discrimination. Additionally, perceived group identification and negative stereotyping were expected to mediate serially ...


Age-Dependent Effects Of Eedq On Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity And D2 Receptor Supersensitivity, Angie Teran Jul 2019

Age-Dependent Effects Of Eedq On Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity And D2 Receptor Supersensitivity, Angie Teran

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The neurochemical changes occurring between the preweanling period and adolescence could be crucial for understanding the role development plays in the manifestation of psychotic behaviors. N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) fully attenuates the DA agonist-induced behaviors of adult rats, while potentiating the DA agonist-induced locomotor activity of preweanling rats. My specific hypotheses were as follows: (1) Systemically administered EEDQ would block the cocaine-induced locomotor activity of adult rats. (2) Systemically administered EEDQ would potentiate the cocaine-induced locomotion of preweanling rats. (3) EEDQ would increase the Emax values (a measure of D2 receptor sensitivity) of preweanling rats, but not adolescent or adult ...


The Impact Of Sexual Assault Disclosure Reactions On Interpersonal Factors And Mental Health, Lindsey Chesus Jun 2019

The Impact Of Sexual Assault Disclosure Reactions On Interpersonal Factors And Mental Health, Lindsey Chesus

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Sexual victimization is experienced by about 20% of women and two percent of men (Black et al., 2011). Disclosure of these incidences is high, with about 90% of survivors speaking out at least once about their assault (Ullman & Peter-Hagene, 2014). Though disclosure rates appear high, common reactions given by formal (e.g. law enforcement) and informal (e.g. a friend) sources are negative and counterintuitive to survivor growth (Ullman & Brecklin, 2002). Often studied with military veterans and suicide, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belonging are tied to social disconnect and perceived rejection from interpersonal support systems, and often follow stressful life events such as trauma (Hill & Pettit, 2014; Ford & Collins, 2010; Van Orden, Cukrowicz, Witte, & Joiner, 2012). Negative reactions to disclosures, and the consequent rejection, can lead to diminished mental health, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Ullman & Peter-Hagene, 2014; Starzynski, Ullman, Filipas, & Townsend, 2005). Furthermore, shame has been researched as a possible emotional response to experiencing a traumatic event (La Bash & Papa, 2014), and this may play a role in people’s likelihood of experiencing distress following the receipt of negative social reactions. To explore the underlying processes and outcomes related to negative social reactions ...


The Importance Of Fit: Fostering Job Satisfaction And Retention In Early Childhood Educators, Heather Carrasco Jun 2019

The Importance Of Fit: Fostering Job Satisfaction And Retention In Early Childhood Educators, Heather Carrasco

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The primary objective of this study is to foster career outcomes such as job satisfaction and turnover intentions in early childhood educators (ECEs). ECEs are defined as individuals teaching children from the age range of birth to 5 years old and work in child care programs. The focus on ECEs population was due to the fact they work in demanding environments with little wage incentives, and as a result, they experience high levels of job dissatisfaction, which in turn leads to turnover. Research has demonstrated that most ECEs are intrinsically motivated, but previous research has not quantitatively tested this construct ...


The Role Of Sexual Self-Schema And Psychological Distress In The Relationship Between Sexual Victimization And Sexual Functioning And Satisfaction, Alexandra Medina Jun 2019

The Role Of Sexual Self-Schema And Psychological Distress In The Relationship Between Sexual Victimization And Sexual Functioning And Satisfaction, Alexandra Medina

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Sexual assault (SA) has been associated with various negative psychological consequences for survivors. Recent studies have shown an association between the history of sexual assault and sexual dysfunction among female survivors of sexual victimization. Specifically, sexual assault survivors experience difficulties with aspects of sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and sexual self-schemas (Rellini & Meston, 2011). The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sexual victimization severity and sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested a sequential mediational model in which sexual self-schema followed by depressive and PTSD symptoms would mediate the relationship between sexual victimization severity ...


Diversity Structures And Whites' Claims Of Bias, Princess Egbule Jun 2019

Diversity Structures And Whites' Claims Of Bias, Princess Egbule

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Diversity structures (e.g. diversity trainings) have been implemented in companies to bring awareness to discrimination and promote equality (Shen, Chanda, D’Netto, & Monga, 2009). However, previous research has shown that diversity structures can act as legitimizing cues and can threaten the authenticity of claims of discrimination made by low-status groups (Dover, Major, & Kaiser, 2012). Ironically, high-status group are typically threatened by pro-diversity organizational messages (Dover, Major & Kaiser, 2015). Could diversity structures meant to help minorities make it more likely that high-status groups are more likely to believe bias claims from an in-group member? In Study 1, White participants were ...


Effects Of Anxiety And Working Memory Capacity On Performance In The Emotional Stroop Task, Gia Macias Jun 2019

Effects Of Anxiety And Working Memory Capacity On Performance In The Emotional Stroop Task, Gia Macias

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Emotional Stroop task results have been shown to be inconsistent throughout the literature due to a multitude of factors including both stimulus and population factors. There are also several theories to explain the emotional Stroop effects, including the attentional control theory (Eysenck et al., 2007). This theory states that anxiety consumes attentional and memory resources, resulting in impairment in executive functions, and thus cognitive performance is lowered. Recently, Owens et al. (2014) reported that the effects of anxiety on cognitive performance might be moderated by working memory capacity (WMC). The present study explored whether Owens et al.'s (2014) paradigm ...


The Relationship Between Justice Perceptions, Conscientiousness And Workplace Behaviors Among Old And Young Employees, Martha P. Blanco Villarreal Jun 2019

The Relationship Between Justice Perceptions, Conscientiousness And Workplace Behaviors Among Old And Young Employees, Martha P. Blanco Villarreal

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This research addressed the influence employee age has on organizational justice perceptions (OJPs) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) through conscientiousness. Given the valuable contributions of older employees in the workforce, the aim of this study was to investigate the processes by which age affects justice perceptions, the expression of conscientiousness traits, and workplace behaviors. Additionally, a theoretical framework was provided where the conservation of resource, equity, fairness, socioemotional selectivity, and conscientiousness at work theorieshelp explain the linkages from the integrative model. A total of 179 MTurk workers participated in this study, which required participants to answer questions about their workplace ...


The Role Of Self-Compassion In The Relationship Between Moral Injury And Psychological Distress Among Military Veterans, Mernyll Manalo Jun 2019

The Role Of Self-Compassion In The Relationship Between Moral Injury And Psychological Distress Among Military Veterans, Mernyll Manalo

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

While there is considerable research linking trauma to psychological distress, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), among military populations, some service members may develop other variants of psychological difficulties following exposure to traumatic life events. For example, moral injury, a more recently studied outcome within the field of trauma, is conceptualized to occur when a person perceives their response to a morally challenging situation as a transgression that may lead to an incongruence with their morals producing moral emotions (i.e., shame, guilt, and anxiety; Litz et al., 2009). The current study investigated the role of self-compassion in the relationship ...


Neurological Correlates Of The Dunning-Kruger Effect, Alana Lauren Muller Jun 2019

Neurological Correlates Of The Dunning-Kruger Effect, Alana Lauren Muller

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The Dunning-Kruger Effect is a metacognitive phenomenon in which individuals who perform poorly on a task believe they performed well, whereas individuals who performed very well believe their performance was only average. To date, this effect has only been investigated in the context of performance on mathematical, logical, or lexical tasks, but has yet to be explored for its generalizability in episodic memory task performance. We used a novel method to elicit the Dunning-Kruger Effect via a memory test of item and source recognition confidence. Participants studied 4 lists of words and were asked to make a simple decision about ...


Behavioral And Neural Correlates Of Misses During Cued Recall, Lindsey Sirianni Jun 2019

Behavioral And Neural Correlates Of Misses During Cued Recall, Lindsey Sirianni

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Recognition memory is thought to rely upon both recollection and familiarity. When people recall an episode from the past it is generally considered to reflect the memory process of recollection. Therefore, if people can successfully recall an item, they should be able to recognize it. However, in cued recall paradigms of memory research, participants sometimes correctly recall a studied target word in the presence of a strong semantic cue but then fail to recognize that word as actually having been studied. This paradox and underlying cognitive processes have been minimally studied by scientists, leaving this phenomenon poorly understood. Extant research ...


Protective Factors Of Academic Resiliency, Guadalupe Valdivia Jun 2019

Protective Factors Of Academic Resiliency, Guadalupe Valdivia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Numerous studies had explored wide-ranging effects of childhood adversity. Yet, there is no known study that explores the impact of non-parental relationships (NPR) formed during the participation in out-of-school youth activities (OSYA), and future orientation (FO) on academic resiliency (AR) among people with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). This study moved away from the deficit perspective and focused on the strengths of individuals rather than weaknesses. The study examined the impact of protective factors of OSYA, NPR, and FO using the Michael Ungar’s (2011) Socio-Ecological Model of Resiliency to better understand their role on AR among university students with ACEs ...


Religion And Spirituality In Clinical Practice: An Exploration Of Reluctance Among Practitioners., David Drew, Jessica Banks Jun 2019

Religion And Spirituality In Clinical Practice: An Exploration Of Reluctance Among Practitioners., David Drew, Jessica Banks

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Across the United States, an overwhelming majority of the population claim that religion and spirituality beliefs shape their worldview and assist in coping with life stressors. Yet, the literature has shown that mental health practitioners reported discomfort integrating religion and spiritually in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to explore whether license-holding mental health professionals in Southern California develop reluctance toward addressing religion/spirituality with their clients. Through snowball sampling, 52 clinicians composed of social workers, counselors, marriage and family therapists, nurses, psychologists, and psychiatrists were recruited across Southern California (N =52). The participants were measured descriptively based ...


The Effects Of Working Memory Capacity And Trait Anxiety On Visual Short-Term Memory Performance, Celene Gonzalez Jun 2019

The Effects Of Working Memory Capacity And Trait Anxiety On Visual Short-Term Memory Performance, Celene Gonzalez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Anxiety is of importance within the field of cognition because it is often associated with adverse effects on attention, information processing, learning and memory (Eysenck, 1992, 2007). In existing literature, it has been reported that trait anxiety hinders cognitive performance (i.e., working memory capacity WMC). However, the relationship between trait anxiety and cognitive performance might be moderated by working memory capacity (WMC). For example, Owens (2014) reported that trait anxiety was negatively correlated with cognitive performance in the low WMC group and positively correlated to cognitive performance in the high WMC group. Although, past research on the working memory ...


Child Welfare: Trauma Informed Practice At Time Of Child Removal, Ester Garcia Jun 2019

Child Welfare: Trauma Informed Practice At Time Of Child Removal, Ester Garcia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

As of 2018, approximately 442,995 children are in the foster care system in the United States according to the federal statistics from the Children’s Bureau. Entry into the foster system involves the removal of children from their home, making it a traumatic experience. The purpose of this study was to examine social workers’ perceptions of what trauma informed practice means and what it looks like in child welfare removals. The study also clarifies what trauma informed practice (TIP) is and how it can be applied in child welfare’s organizational structure. This was a qualitative study in which ...


Impact Of Conditional Job Offer On Applicant Reactions To Social Media In The Selection Process, Ashley Gomez Mar 2019

Impact Of Conditional Job Offer On Applicant Reactions To Social Media In The Selection Process, Ashley Gomez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Social media (SM) permits the sharing of personal information online, which can lead to employers accessing personal, non-job-related information about applicants throughout the selection process. Limited prior research (Jeske & Shultz, in press; Stoughton et al., 2015) has found that, to varying degrees, applicants find this access of their personal information to be an invasion of their personal privacy. The aim of the present study was to replicate prior findings regarding invasion of privacy moderating the relationship between SM screening presence and procedural justice perceptions and to expand on prior research by exploring whether the stage at which this information was collected (pre- and ...


The Impact Of Sexual Assault Training And Gender On Rape Attitudes, Monica Krolnik Campos Mar 2019

The Impact Of Sexual Assault Training And Gender On Rape Attitudes, Monica Krolnik Campos

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Sexual assault is a growing concern across college campuses in the United States. According to the Sexual Victimization of College Women study, the victimization rate is 27.7 rapes per 1,000 ­­­­women students (Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000). In response to the high prevalence of sexual assault, college campuses are now mandated to implement various forms of sexual assault prevention programming. Sexual assault prevention programming is intended to promote awareness of sexual assault and reduce the prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses. Numerous studies have examined the short term effectiveness of sexual assault prevention programs (e.g., Anderson & Whiston ...


Multicompetence, Multiple Intelligences And First-Year Composition Students, Patricia Rice'-Daniels Mar 2019

Multicompetence, Multiple Intelligences And First-Year Composition Students, Patricia Rice'-Daniels

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine, gain, and ultimately share an understanding of certain cognitive differences, similarities, intelligence patterns, and preferences between competent monolingual (English) and multicompetent bilingual/multilingual first-year composition (FYC) college students. Within this project is an attempt to address the following questions: Do monolingual and bilingual/multilingual FYC students show different strengths and weaknesses in their cognitive abilities? Are there learning preferences and literacy differences or similarities between monolingual and bilingual/multilingual FYC students?

Primarily, two cognitive concepts were used in this examination to provide perspectives and quantitative data in response to the above questions ...


The Effects Of Emotion Socialization On Internalizing Behaviors In Young Adults, Cristina Ramirez Dec 2018

The Effects Of Emotion Socialization On Internalizing Behaviors In Young Adults, Cristina Ramirez

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Parents play a significant role in how children learn to express their emotions as well as their child’s overall emotional well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of positive and negative emotion socialization experiences on internalizing disorders in young adult males and females. One-hundred and forty-two young adults between the ages of 18-28 years from a southwestern university participated in the current study. It was hypothesized that early negative emotion socialization experiences would be related to higher levels of anxiety and depression in young adulthood (and, conversely, early positive emotion socialization experiences would be related ...


Investigating Employability: Testing The Raw Framework, Daniell Jean Study Dec 2018

Investigating Employability: Testing The Raw Framework, Daniell Jean Study

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

In a recent model of employability, Hogan, Chamorro-Premuzic, and Kaiser (2013) defined employability as the ability to gain and maintain employment and find new employment when necessary. The authors presented employability as a formative construct containing an ability dimension (the ability to do the job), a social skills dimension (being rewarding to work with), and a motivational dimension (being willing to work hard). There is no question as to whether these three dimensions affect one’s level of employability; research is abundant on the positive relationships between intelligence, social and emotional skills, motivation and career success. However, little research has ...


Cannabinoid-Induced Behavioral Sensitization In Adolescent Sprague-Dawley Rats, Michelle Stone Oct 2018

Cannabinoid-Induced Behavioral Sensitization In Adolescent Sprague-Dawley Rats, Michelle Stone

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Adolescent cannabis use has grown because of increased availability and higher societal acceptance. This increase in cannabis use is problematic as adolescents who experiment with cannabis are more likely to abuse cannabis and experiment with other illicit drugs such as cocaine. The reason for the greater susceptibility to drugs use is unclear and may be the result of altered drug sensitivity after cannabis exposure. Thus, the present investigation used the behavioral sensitization paradigm to examine the behavioral response of early adolescent rats to the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 (CP) or cocaine after repeated cannabinoid administration. It was hypothesized that ...


Differences In Self-Perceptions At Work Between Citizens And Undocumented Immigrants, Marcos Guevara Sep 2018

Differences In Self-Perceptions At Work Between Citizens And Undocumented Immigrants, Marcos Guevara

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This research examined if differences in social categories between two groups, natural—born U.S. citizens and undocumented immigrants with deferred action (DACA) led to differences in self-perceptions at work in areas such as Occupational Self-Efficacy (OSE), Organization Based Self-Esteem (OBSE), and Perceived Employability (PE). Additionally, the effect of Perceived Supervisor Similarity (PSS) on these relationships was also observed. Results showed significant differences only in PE with the DACA group having an unexpectedly higher level than the citizen group. The model was supported as OSE, OBSE, and PSS all significantly predicted PSS in both groups. Lastly, interaction effects were only ...


Power And Coherence Matters: Does Perceived Group Organization Increase Atheist Prejudice?, Janae Koger Sep 2018

Power And Coherence Matters: Does Perceived Group Organization Increase Atheist Prejudice?, Janae Koger

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Atheists are some of the least liked people in the world. Previous research has demonstrated that in most stigmatized groups, increased prevalence of the group increases prejudice towards the group. However, the opposite has been found with atheists- increased perceived prevalence decreases prejudice towards atheists. One post-hoc explanation provided for this difference is that since atheists are easily concealable and unorganized as a group, their greater prevalence may not be perceived as a threat. In the present thesis, I 1) attempted to replicate the existing finding that perceived increased prevalence would increase trust towards atheists and 2) directly tested the ...


The Effects Of A Blind Selection Process On Gender Discrimination In Applicant Selection, Stephanie Ann Ingalls Jun 2018

The Effects Of A Blind Selection Process On Gender Discrimination In Applicant Selection, Stephanie Ann Ingalls

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of a blind selection process on gender discrimination. Due to persistent gender discrimination in selection processes, the intention of the current study was to investigate a blind selection process as a means to decrease gender discrimination against women. A total of 391 individuals were recruited through SONA and convenience sampling to participate in the current study. Materials included a selection scenario, three applicant résumés with applicant names and three with applicant ID numbers, a rank order form, and measures for procedural justice and fairness, modern sexism inventory, and the ...


The Development Of The Client Treatment Orientation Scale, Sam Duane Worrall Jun 2018

The Development Of The Client Treatment Orientation Scale, Sam Duane Worrall

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

According to the American Psychological Association (2006), three components should be equally considered in treatment decision-making: empirical research, clinical judgment, and the client’s values and preference. Swift, Callahan, and Vollmer (2011) defined client preferences as specific attributes that are desired in a therapeutic setting and are divided into three categories: role, therapist, and treatment-type. Currently, there is no treatment orientation scale that measures treatment type and magnitude of the relationship. For this initial phase of development, 5 treatment orientations are being used as the basis of the Client Treatment Orientation Scale (CTOS): psychodynamic, existential, cognitive-behavioral therapy, acceptance and commitment ...


The Role Of Mentoring And Ethnicity On Career Advancement And Leadership Aspirations: Looking At Hispanic Women, Arlette Osorno Jun 2018

The Role Of Mentoring And Ethnicity On Career Advancement And Leadership Aspirations: Looking At Hispanic Women, Arlette Osorno

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Hispanic women in leadership are vastly understudied and little is known as to what factors influence their leadership aspirations and ultimately their career advancement. Mentoring has been found to have a positive influence on women’s perceptions of career advancement and the gender of the mentor plays a role (Tharenou, 2005). The purpose of this study was to examine how career-related mentoring influences the protegee’s career advancement and how the gender of the mentor may change that relationship. Furthermore, the relationship between psychosocial (emotional) support and the protegee’s leadership aspirations were examined, as well as the role of ...


The Effects Of Working Memory Training And Encoding Strategy On Working Memory Capacity, Frank Tuthill Jun 2018

The Effects Of Working Memory Training And Encoding Strategy On Working Memory Capacity, Frank Tuthill

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Undergraduate students from California State University, San Bernardino were recruited to examine the effects of working memory training and encoding strategy upon working memory capacity. Participants will be prescreened for low working memory capacity, and then will be tested on a battery of complex span measures. Participants will be divided into several strategy conditions: rehearsal, visual, and control. Then participants will be tested on their verbal working memory both before and after the 20 session n-back working memory training program. Participants are predicted to do the same or worse with the strategy instruction before working memory training while they will ...