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They See Me Scrolling, And I'M Hating: Instagram Usage And Its Effect On Self-Esteem And Body Image, Keva Brianna Natalie Chang Jan 2019

They See Me Scrolling, And I'M Hating: Instagram Usage And Its Effect On Self-Esteem And Body Image, Keva Brianna Natalie Chang

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Research has consistently shown that exposure to thin-ideal media images negatively influences self-perception. Given the escalation of reliance on social media and the heavy online presence of young adults, particularly women, it is essential to identify ways that social media can influence perceptions of body image and self-esteem. This research proposal presents an exploratory investigation into the impact that social media, specifically Instagram, has on women’s views of themselves and their bodies. The aim of the present study is to examine the potential effects of celebrity images, compared with equally attractive peer images and scenery (control) images, on body ...


Motivation In Minority Populations: Perceived Locus Of Control And The Effect Of Ethnic Matching, Matthew R. Agosto Jan 2019

Motivation In Minority Populations: Perceived Locus Of Control And The Effect Of Ethnic Matching, Matthew R. Agosto

Senior Projects Spring 2019

The aim of this study is to measure the differences in perception of the locus of control of a target individual in two motivational scenarios and discover the effect of ethnic/non-ethnic matching conditions. Two different motivational strategies were used to assess the role of ethnic matching in perceiving other people as well as identifying with them. Rotter’s Internal External locus of control scale (I-E scale) is utilized in a novel way. Subjects were asked not to report their own control beliefs, but rather, the beliefs they perceive the target individual to hold true. The following study measures participants ...


“Only Girls Play With Those”: An Analysis Of Preschoolers’ Gender Schema Development Through Gender Stereotype Knowledge And Recognition Of Gendered Information, Abigail Lee Sullivan Jan 2019

“Only Girls Play With Those”: An Analysis Of Preschoolers’ Gender Schema Development Through Gender Stereotype Knowledge And Recognition Of Gendered Information, Abigail Lee Sullivan

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Since Sandra Bem’s introduction of Gender Schema Theory (GST), researchers have analyzed how gender schemas influence children’s information processing (Signorella, Bigler, & Liben, 1993; Welch-Ross & Schmidt, 1996). These studies, however, tested schema processing using familiar gender-atypical information (e.g., “only boys play with dolls”) instead of novel gender-atypical information (e.g., “only girls play with xylophones”). The present study seeks to fill this gap in the research by using novel gender-atypical information in order to test the extent to which children’s schemas influence their information processing. First, I tested children’s memory and preference for two picture books, one with ...


An Exploration Of Musical Performance Anxiety (Mpa) And Its Relation To Perfectionism And Performance, Gitta Marko Jan 2019

An Exploration Of Musical Performance Anxiety (Mpa) And Its Relation To Perfectionism And Performance, Gitta Marko

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Musical Performance Anxiety (MPA) is a critical and common issue for musicians, as much of their success and income depends on their quality of performance. MPA is the experience of distressful apprehension about and/or impairment of performance, not reflecting the individual’s musical abilities. Since the pressure to perform their best is extremely high for musicians, striving for perfection in this field is typical. In my senior project, I investigated the elements and mechanisms behind the development of MPA and its relation to perfectionism. Seventeen Bard Conservatory musicians’ levels of MPA and perfectionism were assessed using established measures prior ...


Stimulus Regulation In Pediatric Trichotillomania, Tia Rose Lee Jan 2019

Stimulus Regulation In Pediatric Trichotillomania, Tia Rose Lee

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Previous research on pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) has focused on the difference between two different subgroups of hair-pullers: “focused” pullers (i.e. those who pull within their awareness) and “automatic” pullers (i.e. those who pull outside of their awareness; Christenson et al., 1992; Flessner et al., 2008; Penzel, 2003). To date, only one other study has examined how sensory processing may differ between these two groups, or how these differences may impact these groups’ hair-pulling triggers (Falkenstein et al., 2018). Thus, the aim of the current study was to analyze how sensory processing patterns may differ between predominantly focused pullers ...


Body Dissatisfaction: Searching For A Link Between Depressive Symptoms, Body Image, And Eating Patterns, Lucy Sorrell Jan 2019

Body Dissatisfaction: Searching For A Link Between Depressive Symptoms, Body Image, And Eating Patterns, Lucy Sorrell

Senior Projects Spring 2019

The ideal body sizes for men and women in the United States have decreased significantly over the last 50+ years, while average body sizes increased. This discrepancy has been accompanied by elevated levels of body dissatisfaction in both women and men. In turn, body dissatisfaction can predict unhealthy eating habits and weight loss behaviors such as dieting. Body image research has found a relationship between body dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms. The present cross-sectional study aimed to test if depressive symptoms moderated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating patterns. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) measured depressive ...


A Wizard Hat For The Brain: Predicting Long-Term Memory Retention Using Electroencephalography, Noah Libby Jan 2019

A Wizard Hat For The Brain: Predicting Long-Term Memory Retention Using Electroencephalography, Noah Libby

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Learning is a ubiquitous process that transforms novel information and events into stored memory representations that can later be accessed. As a learner acquires new information, any feature of a memory that is shared with other memories may produce some level of retrieval- competition, making accurate recall more difficult. One of the most effective ways to reduce this competition and create distinct representations for potentially confusable memories is to practice retrieving all of the information through self-testing with feedback. As a person tests themself, competition between easily-confusable memories (e.g. memories that share similar visual or semantic features) decreases and ...


A Test Of Obedience Or Patience? A Modified Replication Of “Nothing By Mere Authority” By Haslam Et Al. (2014), John J. Machen Jan 2019

A Test Of Obedience Or Patience? A Modified Replication Of “Nothing By Mere Authority” By Haslam Et Al. (2014), John J. Machen

Senior Projects Spring 2019

After Milgram’s infamous experiments and their subsequent ethical critiques, social psychologists have been challenged to search for ways to learn more about the psychology of destructive obedience while still holding true to modern IRB standards of participant protection. One of the ways in which this has been attempted is through the invention of newer and safer paradigms of the Milgram task, perhaps the best known of which would be Jerry Burger's (2009) partial replication of Milgram’s voice-feedback experiment. Five years later, a team of researchers devised a completely new obedience task, the simplified premise of which was ...


To Conceive Of Consonance In Chaos: The Influence Of The Harmonic Series On The Perception Of A New Musical System, Luke Sandbank Jan 2019

To Conceive Of Consonance In Chaos: The Influence Of The Harmonic Series On The Perception Of A New Musical System, Luke Sandbank

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Keeping It In The Family: How Family Functioning And Childhood Environment Impacts Social Anxiety In College Students, Shira Prusky Jan 2019

Keeping It In The Family: How Family Functioning And Childhood Environment Impacts Social Anxiety In College Students, Shira Prusky

Senior Projects Spring 2019

Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) affects approximately 7% of the United States population yearly. Certain factors such as disturbed family functioning and the occurrence of adverse life events during childhood or adolescence significantly increase the risk of developing social anxiety later in life. This study proposal examines the relationship between childhood experiences with the severity and occurrence of SAD in the college population to see if childhood experiences affect the ability to focus on a single task after exposure to socially salient information. 250 undergraduate students will be randomly placed in either a control condition, without any exposure to a social ...


A Womb With A View, Briauna Marie Falk Jan 2018

A Womb With A View, Briauna Marie Falk

Senior Projects Spring 2018

I found my mother’s pregnancy diary when I was 12. The diary presents not only the story of my origin, but also the story of how my biological father left my mother. The diary gave me insight into what unfolded while I was growing inside her, and yet, many questions still remain unanswered. I have heard that trauma experienced by the mother is felt in utero alongside her – I worry one of the first feelings I felt was true sadness. Ideally the diary could answer my unresolved questions, but instead I am left to my imagination. The diary cannot ...


Towards Improving Learning With Consumer-Grade, Closed-Loop, Electroencephalographic Neurofeedback, Zall Soren Hirschstein Jan 2018

Towards Improving Learning With Consumer-Grade, Closed-Loop, Electroencephalographic Neurofeedback, Zall Soren Hirschstein

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Learning is an enigmatic process composed of a multitude of cognitive systems that are functionally and neuroanatomically distinct. Nevertheless, two undeniable pillars which underpin learning are attention and memory; to learn, one must attend, and maintain a representation of, an event. Psychological and neuroscientific technologies that permit researchers to “mind-read” have revealed much about the dynamics of these distinct processes that contribute to learning. This investigation first outlines the cognitive pillars which support learning and the technologies that permit such an understanding. It then employs a novel task—the amSMART paradigm—with the goal of building a real-time, closed-loop, electroencephalographic ...


The Unwilling Spectator: How Secondary Exposure To Trauma Through Journalism Affects Our Emotional Processing, Chanya Riddick Jan 2018

The Unwilling Spectator: How Secondary Exposure To Trauma Through Journalism Affects Our Emotional Processing, Chanya Riddick

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Police-brutality, especially directed towards black people, has been a hot-button issue in the media for the past few years. With the constant exposure to the death and brutalization of black bodies, however, some people, especially black people, have reported experiencing emotional defects as a result of these reports. The current study aims to see how exposure to police-brutality related journalism affects implicit emotional processes, such as approach-avoidance motivations. More specifically, the current study seeks to see if the race of the person whom police-brutality is directed towards in these journalistic reports further influences these effects. From a college-aged population, black ...


“Boys Will Be Boys”: Examining The Relationship Between Men’S Conformity To Masculine Norms And Perceptions Of Psychological Abuse, Aileen Lian Jan 2018

“Boys Will Be Boys”: Examining The Relationship Between Men’S Conformity To Masculine Norms And Perceptions Of Psychological Abuse, Aileen Lian

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Intimate partner abuse is a pervasive and destructive phenomenon in the United States (Breiding, Chen, & Black, 2014). Although previous research has attempted to define its components and dynamics, the study of psychological abuse is less developed in comparison to research on physical abuse. Some researchers have studied intimate partner abuse alongside American constructs of masculinity but have not adequately extended it to psychological abuse. The present study seeks to examine perceptions of psychological abuse in conjunction with conformity to traditional masculine norms among American cisgender men. Masculine ideology in the U.S. prescribes dominance and control, which is theorized to normalize acts of psychological abuse in heterosexual dating couples (Moore & Stuart, 2005). Men who conform more to masculine norms (high masculine conformity participants) were predicted to rate vignettes of psychological abuse as more normal, less abusive, and less harmful in comparison to men who conform less to masculine norms (low masculine conformity participants). Differences in perceptions were also predicted to be more pronounced when overt psychological abuse was presented compared to when subtle psychological abuse was presented. Results indicated that a relationship between masculine conformity and perceptions of psychological abuse does exist; compared to low masculine conformity participants, high masculine conformity participants rated overt social isolation/restriction behavior as less abusive and less harmful. High masculine conformity participants also rated inducing guilt/shifting responsibility behavior as more normal overall. Further examination of this relationship is recommended, as this research can be used to more effectively address intimate partner abuse in the United States and beyond.


How Did The Shift In Chilean Cultural Memory Between 1988 To 1998 Become Politically Salient For International Human Rights?, Elena Ann Botts Jan 2018

How Did The Shift In Chilean Cultural Memory Between 1988 To 1998 Become Politically Salient For International Human Rights?, Elena Ann Botts

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


The Effect Of Facebook On Body Dissatisfaction: Ethnicity As A Possible Moderator, Haley E. Brown Jan 2018

The Effect Of Facebook On Body Dissatisfaction: Ethnicity As A Possible Moderator, Haley E. Brown

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Eating disorders have demonstrated the most extreme rise in prevalence out of all the mental illnesses since 1990 (Lozano et al., 2012). However, research has largely neglected to investigate cross-cultural effects on disordered eating, and thus, findings may only apply to Western samples. Only two known prior studies have investigated effects of social media on disordered eating cross-culturally. This project helps fill a substantial research gap by examining social media effects on body image concerns in a culturally diverse sample of Australian undergraduate women (N= 185). The effect of a ten-minute Facebook exposure on women’s body dissatisfaction and appearance ...


Justice Might Be Blind But Many Jurors Are Not: Exploring The Mechanisms Of Aversive Racism And Normative Decision Making In Juridical Decisions, Clarence A. L. Brontë Jan 2018

Justice Might Be Blind But Many Jurors Are Not: Exploring The Mechanisms Of Aversive Racism And Normative Decision Making In Juridical Decisions, Clarence A. L. Brontë

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Although juries exist within the American justice system to guard against “the corrupt or overzealous prosecutor and against the compliant, biased, or eccentric judge” (United States, 1968), psychological researchers have been divided over whether mock jurors do indeed demonstrate biased decision making due to the mixed results of past meta-analyses (Devine & Caughlin, 2014; Mazzella et al., 1994; Mitchell et al., 2005). In order to address what has caused these variable results, researchers must begin to explore complex paradigms for juror decision making. As such, these present studies sought to test the theoretical mechanisms of one of these possible paradigms, the aversive racism ...


Everyday Ghosts: An Examination Of Memory In Social Interactions, Sean P. Murphy Jan 2018

Everyday Ghosts: An Examination Of Memory In Social Interactions, Sean P. Murphy

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Naturally occurring instances of memory suppression seem to be ones in which conflict arises between a memory and present motivations. For example, being reminded of an embarrassing past event may introduce feelings that are not desired or appropriate if you are hosting company. The emotions connected to the negative memory and the desired emotions expected of a host are in conflict, and so the memory in question may be suppressed to preserve your desire to be a congenial host. While research has served to characterize various aspects of suppression, the methodologies used by such studies rely on explicit instruction from ...


Not All Bad: Exploring The Link Between Psychopathy And Success, Lily Constance Harker Jan 2018

Not All Bad: Exploring The Link Between Psychopathy And Success, Lily Constance Harker

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


They Always Do What They Ought To Do: A Historical Analysis, And Exploratory Examination Of The “Woman Problem” And The Function Of Gender In American Psychology, Willa G. Baigelman Jan 2018

They Always Do What They Ought To Do: A Historical Analysis, And Exploratory Examination Of The “Woman Problem” And The Function Of Gender In American Psychology, Willa G. Baigelman

Senior Projects Fall 2018

The “woman problem” in America psychology refers to, “...the underrepresentation of women in the highest offices of psychology’s professional organizations and women’s general lack of eminence compared to men,” (Rutherford, 2015). It is a problem that seems to have existed from the beginnings of American psychology to the present day. This piece of writing seeks to better understand this problem, the function of it within American psychology, its origins and where it stands today. Through a historical analysis of Edwin Boring, Edward Titchener, Alice Bryan, Margaret Washburn, Eleanor Gibson, Mary Whiton Calkins and Mamie Phipps Clark, we can ...


The Effects Of Autobiographical Growth Narratives On Math Performance In Women, Eva Briana Frishberg Jan 2017

The Effects Of Autobiographical Growth Narratives On Math Performance In Women, Eva Briana Frishberg

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Women suffer from the negative stereotype that they are innately worse at math compared to men, which contributes to a gender gap in math fields (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999). However, this stereotype has a greater negative impact on women with fixed mindsets, who believe that intelligence is inflexible and innate (Aronson, Fried, & Good, 2002). Mindset interventions thus far have sought to shift fixed mindset to growth mindset, characterized by the belief that effort can increase intelligence, through in-class workshops or lectures about the plasticity of the brain and the malleability of intelligence (Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Dweck, 2000; Dweck, 2008). The current study improves upon existing mindset interventions through the inclusion of a writing task that asks participants to generate autobiographical narratives about growth experiences. This intervention should create an internalization of growth mindset that is longer lasting, less susceptible to counter-information, and more directive for behavior than existing interventions (Reich & Arkin, 2006; Wilson, 2011; Aronson, 1999). Participants’ theories of math intelligence were measured, and then participants were placed into a ...


Use Your Condom-Sense: Looking At The Effects Of Framing And Categorization On Condom-Use Messages Between Heterosexual And Homosexual Men, Anastasia Sielski Elizalde Jan 2017

Use Your Condom-Sense: Looking At The Effects Of Framing And Categorization On Condom-Use Messages Between Heterosexual And Homosexual Men, Anastasia Sielski Elizalde

Senior Projects Fall 2017

Condom-use has historically been associated as a low-risk, preventative health behavior (Kiene, Barta, Zelenski, & Cothran, 2005). Yet, condom-use is not without risk, as it is an interpersonal behavior that could be potentially relationship threatening (St.Lawrence, 1999; Fisher & Fisher, 1995). Because of the potential relationship risk of condom-use, it cannot be equated with risk-averse preventative health behaviors, such as sunscreen use or wearing a seatbelt. For these reasons, Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1981), provides a strong framework to understanding how to best frame condom-use messages in relation to specific circumstances. Prospect Theory predicts that potentially risky behaviors will be encouraged by framing messages as losses, and behaviors that are not risky should be encouraged by using messages framed as gains. Following Prospect Theory ...


All The World's Ashamed, Peter David Lane Jan 2017

All The World's Ashamed, Peter David Lane

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.

This project is an analysis of three Shakespeare plays through three different ways of understanding shame. Othello, Coriolanus, and Measure for Measure are inspected through a social, bodily, and religious understanding of shame, respectively. The purpose of this tripartite view of shame is to reveal the many different ways in which shame makes itself a part of our lives. The first paradigm is based off of Erving Goffman’s 1956 sociology text, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, and explores how the ways social expectations create ...


Together We’Ll Make Magic: Exploring The Relationship Between Empathy And Literature Using Ruth Ozeki’S “A Tale For The Time Being”, Janet Lindsay Dinozzi-Houser Jan 2017

Together We’Ll Make Magic: Exploring The Relationship Between Empathy And Literature Using Ruth Ozeki’S “A Tale For The Time Being”, Janet Lindsay Dinozzi-Houser

Senior Projects Spring 2017

My project is devoted to untangling the often-misunderstood and misapplied subject of empathy, particularly as it relates to the reading process. I begin with a brief background of the term’s history and the debate surrounding its use by researchers in the fields of both Psychology and Philosophy of Mind. I then apply this critical understanding of a commonly invoked term to a close reading of contemporary novel A Tale for The Time Being by Japanese-American novelist Ruth Ozeki. Dedicated primarily to the fictional story of Nao Yasutani, a teenage girl struggling with her recent move back to Japan after ...


It Takes Two: Compatibility Of Perspectives Between Students And Teachers And The Effects Effort Has On Student Academic Achievement And Subjective Well-Being, Leah E. Bracey Jan 2017

It Takes Two: Compatibility Of Perspectives Between Students And Teachers And The Effects Effort Has On Student Academic Achievement And Subjective Well-Being, Leah E. Bracey

Senior Projects Spring 2017

This research study examined the unique matching of perspectives between teachers and students on the notion of who is assumed to be responsible for student academic achievement and subjective well-being. Students (N=190) in grades 9-11 and teachers (N=19) from a Newark, New Jersey public magnet high school completed various locus of control, classroom climate and well-being psychological questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and correlational tests were conducted for the analysis of the data. The surveys provided an in depth understanding of the distribution of perspectives which existed in this academic institution. Students found themselves, more often than not, feeling responsible ...


Proposed Intervention To Improve Recently Immigrated Hispanic Adolescents' Academic Performance And Psychological Well-Being, Samantha Lagville-Graham Jan 2017

Proposed Intervention To Improve Recently Immigrated Hispanic Adolescents' Academic Performance And Psychological Well-Being, Samantha Lagville-Graham

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Remnants Of The Bodice Ripper: How Consent Is Characterized In Heterosexual And Lesbian Erotic Romance Novels, Audrey Miles Malloy Jan 2017

Remnants Of The Bodice Ripper: How Consent Is Characterized In Heterosexual And Lesbian Erotic Romance Novels, Audrey Miles Malloy

Senior Projects Spring 2017

The present study aims to better understand the relationship between gender role representation and characterization of sexual consent in erotic romance novels. To test this, two coders read the current best-selling heterosexual and lesbian romance novels listed on Barnes & Noble’s website and coded for both adherence to the Western Sexual Script and clarity of sexual consent. Western Sexual Script is the pervasive set of typical gender roles perpetuated in contemporary media. Statistical analyses found that there was a main effect of character’s gender identity on “gender typical traits” for wealth, sexual experience, dominance, and passivity, meaning that masculine ...


The Long Term Efficacy Of Stimulant Treatment In Executive Functioning And Emotional Regulation In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Kaitlyn Noel Mock Jan 2017

The Long Term Efficacy Of Stimulant Treatment In Executive Functioning And Emotional Regulation In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Kaitlyn Noel Mock

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a persistent and pervasive lifelong disorder. Children diagnosed with ADHD have poor predicted life outcomes. Specific impairments of inattention are responsible for poor executive functioning and emotional control within the disorder. These deficits are also predictors of poor life outcomes. Stimulant treatment has only been established as an efficacious form of treatment for ADHD in the short term. In order to mitigate the predicted poor life outcomes, stimulants need to be established as efficacious in the long term improvement of psychosocial functioning in ADHD, in order to be considered a truly efficacious treatment. A five year ...


From Once Upon A Time To Happily Ever After: Grimms’ Fairy Tales And Early Childhood Development, Hannah Mccarley Jan 2017

From Once Upon A Time To Happily Ever After: Grimms’ Fairy Tales And Early Childhood Development, Hannah Mccarley

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies and The Division of Languages and Literature of Bard College.


Media And The Shooter Bias: Investigating The Relationship Between Implicit Racial Biases And News Coverage, Matthew Charles Phelps Jan 2017

Media And The Shooter Bias: Investigating The Relationship Between Implicit Racial Biases And News Coverage, Matthew Charles Phelps

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Abstract

Past research has suggested that the media is likely to depict Black individuals in a more negative and/or threatening manner than White individuals (Dixon & Linz, 2000; Sommers et al., 2006). Additionally, past research investigating the effect of race on the decision to shoot or not shoot in a simple shooter videogame suggests that people are both faster and more accurate when deciding to shoot armed Black targets and when deciding to not shoot unarmed White targets (Correll et al., 2002). This phenomenon is known as shooter bias. This study investigated the effect of media exposure, specifically exposure to an online ...