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Effects Of A Lag 3 Schedule Of Reinforcement On The Variability Of Tacting In Individuals Who Engage In Vocal Stereotypy, Jessica K. Serrao May 2019

Effects Of A Lag 3 Schedule Of Reinforcement On The Variability Of Tacting In Individuals Who Engage In Vocal Stereotypy, Jessica K. Serrao

Masters Theses

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other developmental disabilities may experience rigid or repetitive behaviors, known as stereotypy. Current research determines effective interventions for increasing variability of vocal responding which effectively decrease stereotypic vocal responding. Lag schedules of reinforcement are a common theme among variability of vocal responding research. The purpose of this AB design study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Lag 3 schedule of reinforcement in the teaching of variability of tacting. Results indicated that both variable and novel responses increased after the implementation of the Lag 3 schedule, but since these results are based off ...


Using Constant Time Delay To Coach Caregivers To Teach Their Young Children With Autism The Picture Exchange Communication System Within The Early Intervention Setting, Anna Balfour May 2019

Using Constant Time Delay To Coach Caregivers To Teach Their Young Children With Autism The Picture Exchange Communication System Within The Early Intervention Setting, Anna Balfour

Masters Theses

Both Early Intervention (EI) and Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) have been proven to be effective with children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A relationship between functional communication and behavior has also been noted and described. As individuals learn functional communication, challenging behavior decreases. Early intervention commonly uses PECS to teach children, specifically children with ASD, to communicate. Early intervention can come in different forms, ranging from very intensive daily services to weekly or biweekly visits from service providers. While the literature recommends early intervention, much of it is referencing intensive schedules that are not financially realistic or time ...


How Array Size Affects The Efficiency Of Constant Time Delay In Systematic Instruction For Students With Intellectual Disability, Amanda T. Kousen May 2019

How Array Size Affects The Efficiency Of Constant Time Delay In Systematic Instruction For Students With Intellectual Disability, Amanda T. Kousen

Masters Theses

The purpose of this research study was to determine how three different array sizes affect the efficiency of acquiring target functional words utilizing constant time delay in systematic instruction for students with intellectual disability. The results shown throughout this study can support teachers and administrators to know if adaptations to the array size in which the materials are presented visually during constant time delay instruction yield a more efficient way to teach. The current study utilized an adapted alternating treatment design, replicated across two students, to determine efficiency through trials-to-criterion for functional food and grocery words. The researcher presented array ...


Using An Eye-Tracking Training Paradigm To Teach Responsiveness To Joint Attention, Allison C. Brandmark May 2019

Using An Eye-Tracking Training Paradigm To Teach Responsiveness To Joint Attention, Allison C. Brandmark

Masters Theses

Joint Attention (JA) is a social interaction in which attention is concurrently managed between an object or event and a social partner. One social partner initiates joint attention (IJA) by directing the attention of the other social partner. In return, the other social partner responds to joint attention (RJA) by following the social cues. A deficit in JA, which is commonly seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, is correlated with delayed language development and lower levels of communication and social skills. Several studies have successfully trained both IJA and RJA using in-person methodologies. With the development of new technology ...


Understanding The Help-Seeking Behaviors Of Student-Athletes: Effect Of A Multidisciplinary Healthcare Team And The Perception Of Barriers And Facilitators For Seeking Help, Lauren M. Sander May 2019

Understanding The Help-Seeking Behaviors Of Student-Athletes: Effect Of A Multidisciplinary Healthcare Team And The Perception Of Barriers And Facilitators For Seeking Help, Lauren M. Sander

Masters Theses

This study was aimed at identifying barriers and facilitators that influence help-seeking as well as the effect of implementing an integrated healthcare approach based on current recommendations. A total of 411 student-athletes from 18 intercollegiate teams at a mid-major Division I institution in the mid-Atlantic region completed a 12–item instrument comprised of ten quantitative items and two open-ended questions. The quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS software, and a constant comparative method was used to code responses from the open-ended questions. Findings suggested a prevalence of mental health challenges among student-athletes, especially overwhelming stress, struggles with time management, and ...


Pain-Related Fear: Metacognitive And Health Belief Predictors Of Cogniphobia, Maddison Miles May 2019

Pain-Related Fear: Metacognitive And Health Belief Predictors Of Cogniphobia, Maddison Miles

Masters Theses

Individuals who have an unreasonable fear of headache pain or painful re-injury during cognitive exertion are said to suffer from a pain-related fear referred to as cogniphobia. Specifically, individuals high in cogniphobia avoid cognitive tasks in an attempt to reduce the risk of initiating or exacerbating headache-related pain. While health beliefs concerning pain-related fear have been examined through the concept of kinesiophobia, defined as the unreasonable fear of pain or painful re-injury during physical movement, little research has been done through a cognitive framework. The health anxiety beliefs, metacognitive factors, and negative thinking patterns related to cogniphobia remain unclear. This ...


Using Video-Prompting And Bst To Promote Social Skills In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexa Ina May 2019

Using Video-Prompting And Bst To Promote Social Skills In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexa Ina

Masters Theses

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of implementing a combined and integrative Behavior Skills Training (BST) and video-prompting paradigm. The training focused on enhancing social interactions and fostering the development of age-appropriate social skills in children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This package included explicit training for generalization, as a means of fostering skill acquisition across untrained people and settings. Social initiation and reciprocal play are fundamental aspects of sustaining and maintaining relationships therefore, the training focused on teaching these two behaviors. The researcher used a quasi-single subject research design to analyze and measure ...


Test Emotions, Value, And Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Model Predicting Examinee Effort And Performance On A Low-Stakes Test, Paulius Satkus May 2019

Test Emotions, Value, And Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Model Predicting Examinee Effort And Performance On A Low-Stakes Test, Paulius Satkus

Masters Theses

The validity of scores from low-stakes tests may be compromised by examinee motivation. Expectancy-Value theory (EV) has been used to frame the antecedents of examinee motivation in low-stakes testing contexts. According to EV theory, the perceived value of the test and the expectancy to succeed on the test directly affect examinee effort, which then affects test performance. Cross-sectional research studies in low-stakes testing contexts offer some support of EV theory. Control-Value theory (CV) serves as another theory to understand motivation toward a task. CV theory encompasses the constructs of expectancy and value from EV theory, but incorporates test emotions as ...


Factors Affecting International Students’ Developmental Functioning: Student And Faculty Perspectives From Liberty University, Andrea S. Childs May 2019

Factors Affecting International Students’ Developmental Functioning: Student And Faculty Perspectives From Liberty University, Andrea S. Childs

Masters Theses

The enrollment rates of international students are increasing, but the attrition rates of international students may also be on the rise. Aligning with Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model, the goal of this study was to obtain insight about the encounters that undergraduate international students face. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these encounters to ascertain and compile core themes that will promote international student success. Data gathered from undergraduate faculty also contributed valuable insight. Recommendations were made for both the international student body and the undergraduate faculty. This qualitative research design investigated a small sample of undergraduate international students ...


The Impact Of Academic Enablers Instruction On Academic Achievement Of Elementary School Children, Bryce Kirk Jan 2019

The Impact Of Academic Enablers Instruction On Academic Achievement Of Elementary School Children, Bryce Kirk

Masters Theses

The present study investigated the relationship between Academic Enablers (AEs) instruction and student achievement. Specifically, whether such behaviors and attitudes explicitly taught in a small group setting would improve students' academic performance. Students struggle academically and behaviorally for a variety of reasons, poor or lack of instruction, lack of motivation, or related to a disability, to recognize a few. Existing literature has identified several factors, (e.g., interpersonal/social skills, motivation, study skills, and engagement), known as AEs, that meaningfully contribute toward students' academic success. However, unlike previous studies that focused on such AEs in isolation, this study addressed this ...


Construct Validity Of The Teate Depression Inventory (Tdi) With A Middle Eastern/Arab American Sample, Dalia Bunni Jan 2019

Construct Validity Of The Teate Depression Inventory (Tdi) With A Middle Eastern/Arab American Sample, Dalia Bunni

Masters Theses

The purpose of the study was to examine the construct validity of a newer test used to measure depressive symptoms, the Teate Depression Inventory (TDI). The primary focus of the study was on Middle Eastern/Arab Americans (ME/AA). Previous research has demonstrated that ethnic minority groups may experience and present internalizing disorders, such as depression and anxiety differently than the majority ethnic group, White/Caucasian (W/C) individuals. Further, research suggests that there is a disparity in mental health care among ethnic minority groups, starting with detecting and diagnosing mental health disorders. Inaccurate detection and diagnoses informs inaccurate treatment ...


Middle School And High School Teachers' Actual And Perceived Use Of Praise And Reprimand, Melissa Beaudoin Jan 2019

Middle School And High School Teachers' Actual And Perceived Use Of Praise And Reprimand, Melissa Beaudoin

Masters Theses

This study aimed to examine teachers' natural praise and reprimand rates among 66 middle and high school teachers. In addition, teachers' perceptions of how often they praised and reprimanded were compared to their actual use of praise and reprimands. A total of 1,320 direct-observation minutes were collected using 20-min observations for each teacher. After teachers were observed they completed a survey rating their perceived use of praise and reprimand. Teachers were observed to use significantly more general praise compared to behavior specific praise. They were also observed to use significantly more mild reprimands compared to any other type of ...


The Development Of The Late Adolescent Social Support Inventory And An Examination Of Social Support's Impact On Depression In Adolescents, Margaret Darlene Yeakel Jan 2019

The Development Of The Late Adolescent Social Support Inventory And An Examination Of Social Support's Impact On Depression In Adolescents, Margaret Darlene Yeakel

Masters Theses

The current study set out to create the Late Adolescent Social Support Inventory (LASSI), a scale designed to measure adolescents' perception of the availability of social support in each of House's (1981) four types of social support and to explore the relationship between depression and types of social support in adolescents. There were 120 participants recruited from Central Illinois high schools and Eastern Illinois University. Participants completed the LASSI as well as the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R; Eaton, Muntaner, Smith, Tien, & Ybarra, 2004). Due to the low number of participants recruited, we were unable to ...


Patient Motivational Language As A Predictor Of Symptom Change, Hazard Of Clinically Significant Response, And Time To Response In Psychotherapy For Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Brien J. Goodwin Jan 2019

Patient Motivational Language As A Predictor Of Symptom Change, Hazard Of Clinically Significant Response, And Time To Response In Psychotherapy For Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Brien J. Goodwin

Masters Theses

Change-talk (CT), or self-arguments for change, has been associated with favorable patient outcomes, while counter change-talk (CCT), or self-arguments against change, has been associated with poorer outcomes. Most studies on change language have focused on the prediction of distal posttreatment outcomes, while the prediction of more proximal outcomes has remained largely untested. Addressing this gap, we examined early treatment CT and CCT as predictors of worry change trajectories, “hazard” of clinically significant response, and time to response (i.e., outcome efficiency) in CBT and CBT integrated with MI (MI-CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We also explored whether treatment type ...


Racial Differences In Perceptions Of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Behavior, Sungha Kang Jan 2019

Racial Differences In Perceptions Of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Behavior, Sungha Kang

Masters Theses

Previous research has suggested there may be racial differences in how adults perceive and rate children’s ADHD behavior (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity). The current study examined these differences between African-American/Black (AA/B) parents and European-American/White (EA/W) parents and teachers. Participants watched video clips of children in classrooms and rated their ADHD behaviors and their likelihood of having ADHD. Results showed that EA/W parents and teachers rated African-American boys’ ADHD behaviors and their likelihood of having ADHD higher than AA/B parents. Mechanisms by which these differences exist were explored, including beliefs about stigma related ...


Visual Recollection For Non-Declarative Representations, Patrick Sadil Jan 2019

Visual Recollection For Non-Declarative Representations, Patrick Sadil

Masters Theses

Recollection is a pattern completion process that enables retrieval of arbitrarily associated information following minimal study. These attributes enable recollection to support retrieval of many kinds of mnemonic representations, from highly associative contextual information to very specific low-level representations. However, recollection is typically studied in the context of declarative memory tasks, in which participants exhibit recollection by explicitly reporting on the recollected information. Is it the case that recollection is limited to declarable representations, or is it a more general process that occurs for any representation? Two experiments and a novel analysis technique are presented to answer this question. The ...


To Defend Or Not To Defend--The Low Glorifier's Question: The Relationship Between Low Glorifiers' Defensiveness Of Ingroup-Perpetrated Harm And The Tangibility Of Intergroup Conflict, Quinnehtukqut Mclamore Jan 2019

To Defend Or Not To Defend--The Low Glorifier's Question: The Relationship Between Low Glorifiers' Defensiveness Of Ingroup-Perpetrated Harm And The Tangibility Of Intergroup Conflict, Quinnehtukqut Mclamore

Masters Theses

Members of groups in conflict are often defensive of ingroup-perpetrated violence, especially if they glorify their ingroup. While past literature has established that high glorifiers are unconditionally defensive of their ingroup, findings regarding low glorifiers are mixed, with some studies finding low glorifiers to be similarly defensive as high glorifiers and others finding low glorifiers to not be defensive or even critical of the ingroup. Across six studies, I investigated whether perceiving a conflict to be tangible (rather than intangible) drives defensiveness among low glorifiers. I tested this hypothesis across two national contexts that were naturally closer (Israel) or farther ...


Changes In Color Guidance Over The Course Of A Complex Visual Search, Ryan Papargiris Jan 2019

Changes In Color Guidance Over The Course Of A Complex Visual Search, Ryan Papargiris

Masters Theses

When searching for an object, we store a mental representation of the target, which guides our search through the use of attention. The effectiveness of this search guidance varies depending on the task and the relationship between target and distractors. With a better understanding of how search guidance changes over time within a trial, we can better compare the differences between experimental conditions. Eye tracking data from a variety of search tasks were analyzed to determine how color guidance varied over the course of the trial. Color guidance for a given fixation was evaluated based on the distance in color ...


Investigating Auditory-Based Spatial Reorientation Abilities In Individuals With Dyslexia, Leanna Pantier Jan 2019

Investigating Auditory-Based Spatial Reorientation Abilities In Individuals With Dyslexia, Leanna Pantier

Masters Theses

Dyslexia, a common learning disorder, is currently understood to affect the processing of visual and auditory information. The ability to efficiently process the environment to reorient in space is an integral part of navigating the world, but possible impairments in dyslexia have not been fully addressed. In this study, the ability of individuals both with and without dyslexia to use auditory information in a spatial reorientation task was examined to further explore the processing deficits involved in dyslexia. Participants with and without dyslexia did not perform significantly differently when learning (training trials) and during probe test trials. Additionally, individuals found ...


Social Anxiety And Fear Of Evaluation In Middle Schoolers, Leslie Hunt Jan 2019

Social Anxiety And Fear Of Evaluation In Middle Schoolers, Leslie Hunt

Masters Theses

Social anxiety can have a significant effect on adults and adolescents alike, causing significant distress and impairment. Fear of negative evaluation has been found to be positively correlated to social anxiety in adults and adolescents. Thus, an individual who has social anxiety tends to worry that they will be judged negatively by others in social situations. More recently, fear of positive evaluation also has correlated positively to social anxiety in adults (Weeks, Heimberg, & Rodebaugh, 2008); thus, adults with social anxiety tend to also fear when they are given positive feedback, such as a compliment. This study examines the links of social anxiety ...


Campus Community's Perception Of Victimization And Fear Of Crime Regarding Campus Violence And Safety, Gianna White Jan 2019

Campus Community's Perception Of Victimization And Fear Of Crime Regarding Campus Violence And Safety, Gianna White

Masters Theses

This study was designed to test perceptions and perceived safety and how it relates to fear of crime regarding university campus violence and safety. Faculty, students, and staff were drawn from a Midwestern university of the United States. This research examined vulnerability to stress, gender, age, and status, and its significance to fear of crime in comparison to the participation in precautionary and avoidance behaviors and campus crime statistics. It was hypothesized that there would be a general fear of crime regardless of overall low levels of campus crime and that both men and women would participate in precautionary or ...


Exploratory Factor Analysis Of The Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children-Fifth Edition For A Sample Of First Nations Students, Jessica Hanson Jan 2019

Exploratory Factor Analysis Of The Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children-Fifth Edition For A Sample Of First Nations Students, Jessica Hanson

Masters Theses

Native Americans and First Nation students are overrepresented in special education and underrepresented in structural bias research of the intelligence measures that place them there. There are several empirical studies of test bias on the Wechsler scales due to their popularity within the school system, however there is little exploratory factor analysis research on these scales with the Native American Indian population. Further, the Native American Indian and First Nation population is a relatively small minority group compared to other racial and ethnic groups in North America and this group is underrepresented in government statistics and overlooked in funding for ...


Middle And High School Teachers' Praise And Reprimand Delivery, Emma Riedesel Jan 2019

Middle And High School Teachers' Praise And Reprimand Delivery, Emma Riedesel

Masters Theses

The benefits of increasing teacher praise and decreasing teacher reprimand (for both students and teachers) is well-established in the literature. The purpose of this study was to expand the literature on teachers' natural use of praise and reprimand, specifically in terms of how teachers deliver praise and reprimand. Sixty-six middle (sixth through eighth grade) and high school (ninth through twelfth grade) teachers' delivery of praise and reprimand to individual (one student), small clusters (two to six students), and large groups (seven or more students) during a 20-minute observation were examined. Teachers delivered significantly more general praise to individual students, rather ...


The Relationship Between Neuroticism, Self-Esteem, And Disordered Eating Attitudes: Examining The Health At Every Size Theory, Liana Cho Dec 2018

The Relationship Between Neuroticism, Self-Esteem, And Disordered Eating Attitudes: Examining The Health At Every Size Theory, Liana Cho

Masters Theses

Background. In the modern day treatment of overweight/obesity, conflicting recommendations regarding treatment have been released by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) and advocates of the Health at Every Size (HAES) movement. While the AND have indicated their support for self-monitoring practices, such as keeping a food diary or tracking calories, HAES advocates have claimed that these restrictive practices may result in increased disordered eating tendencies and poor self-esteem.

Subjects. The participants for this study included 410 students at Grand Valley State University. Almost 80% of participants were female, and just over 85% of participants identified as white ...


The Spark Of Recovery: Artistic Methods That Generate Dialogue And Reduce Stigma In Families Affected By Mood Disorders, Adara Jensen Dec 2018

The Spark Of Recovery: Artistic Methods That Generate Dialogue And Reduce Stigma In Families Affected By Mood Disorders, Adara Jensen

Masters Theses

Mood disorders, such as major depression and bipolar disorder negatively affect family dynamics, often resulting in trauma, antipathy, mistrust, and the breakdown in communication between the individual suffering from mood disorder and members of his or her family. The impact of mood disorder on family members impedes recovery for the person suffering from the disorder as well as the health and well-being of the family as a whole. Even emotionally healthy families suffer from the subsequent pain, trauma, isolation, and stigma. The project proposes a solution to broken or inhibited family communication: the engagement of all family members in healing ...


Beyond Motivation: Differences In Score Meaning Between Assessment Conditions, Nikole Gregg May 2018

Beyond Motivation: Differences In Score Meaning Between Assessment Conditions, Nikole Gregg

Masters Theses

Written communication is a skill necessary for not only the success of undergraduate students, but for post-graduates in the workplace. Furthermore, according to employers the writing skills of post-graduates tend to be below expectations. Therefore, the assessment of such skills within higher education is in high demand. Written communication assessments tend to be administered in one of two conditions: 1) course embedded and 2) a low-stakes, non-embedded condition. The current study investigated possible construct-irrelevant variance in writing assessment scores by using data from a mid-sized public university in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Specifically, 157 student products were ...


Attentional Processing: Replication And Extension Of Selection Bias As A Predictor Of Intertemporal Choice Behavior, Dylan Rutter May 2018

Attentional Processing: Replication And Extension Of Selection Bias As A Predictor Of Intertemporal Choice Behavior, Dylan Rutter

Masters Theses

Basic underlying mechanisms of discounting delayed rewards remain unclear (Green & Myerson, 2013). There has been evidence that attentional mechanisms (e.g., fixation and fixation duration) could be further investigate processes related to the discounting of delayed rewards (Franco-Watkins, Matteson, & Jackson, 2016). Franco-Watkins et al. (2016) was the first to propose a measure of attentional mechanisms in a discounting paradigm, known as selection bias. The authors found selection bias was positively correlated with choice behavior. The present study replicated selection bias using a titration procedure and Area Under the Curve scores. This study also analyzed selection bias across choice presentations at ...


Posterior Predictive Model Checking Of Local Misfit For Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Chi Hang Au May 2018

Posterior Predictive Model Checking Of Local Misfit For Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Chi Hang Au

Masters Theses

Posterior predictive model checks (PPMC) are one Bayesian model-data fit approach. Thus far, PPMC for Confirmatory Factor Analytic applications focused primarily on global fit evaluation, ignoring the nuanced information in local misfit diagnostics. This study developed a PPMC approach for local misfit and applied it to a test-taking motivation scale. If the PPMC approach is effective, fit conclusions derived from the PPMC approach should be congruent with the fit conclusions derived from the Frequentist approach. Number of item-pairs flagged as misfitting and number of disagreements were computed to evaluate congruence. Congruence is achieved if the number of item-pairs flagged as ...


Student Engagement And Learning Gains: Self-Reports, Direct Measures, And Instrument Specificity, Christopher Kerr May 2018

Student Engagement And Learning Gains: Self-Reports, Direct Measures, And Instrument Specificity, Christopher Kerr

Masters Theses

The assumption that engagement leads to student learning is fundamental in higher education. Engagement is often used by educational institutions as an indicator of student learning. However, research has found moderate to weak relationships between engagement and learning. This study explored the influence that methods used to measure learning and engagement may have on the relationships observed between the two. More specifically, this study considered differences between self-reported measures of learning and direct-measure change scores in their relationship to engagement. Additionally, this study tested the influence that specificity of engagement measures has on observed engagement-learning relationships. Quantitative reasoning was selected ...


The Effects Of Alcohol Priming And Alcohol-Related Cues On Subsequent Alcohol Preferences, Kathleen R. Owens May 2018

The Effects Of Alcohol Priming And Alcohol-Related Cues On Subsequent Alcohol Preferences, Kathleen R. Owens

Masters Theses

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of alcohol priming and alcohol-related cues on subsequent alcohol preferences. Researchers assigned randomly 35 university students to 1 of 3 conditions: alcohol delivered in a red disposable plastic cup (AC; alcohol cue; n = 12), alcohol delivered in a cafeteria cup (AN; neutral cue; n = 11), or alcohol placebo (P; n = 12) delivered in a red disposable plastic cup. Participants consumed their assigned beverages, and then completed the Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP), a procedure that allows participants to make discrete choices between a standard alcoholic beverage and increasing amounts of ...