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The Relationship Between Child And Mother-Reported Maternal Behaviors And Children’S Family Drawings: Impact Of Child Gender And Age, Rita Mcinerny Dec 2019

The Relationship Between Child And Mother-Reported Maternal Behaviors And Children’S Family Drawings: Impact Of Child Gender And Age, Rita Mcinerny

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The image of a child’s drawing of his or her family would be familiar to many, perhaps displayed on the kitchen fridge with a magnet or kept as a treasured item by the child’s parent or loved one. Children draw frequently both in school and at home, depicting a vast range of scenes, including what they see in their surrounding environment. Because children’s drawings are so easy to procure and can be found in a variety of contexts and cultures, they have been validated as a helpful assessment tool in a number of psychological studies involving attachment ...


The Effect Of Early Life Stress On Subjective Fear And Electrodermal Response Reactivity In An Adolescent Community Sample, Lorissa Simpson Nov 2019

The Effect Of Early Life Stress On Subjective Fear And Electrodermal Response Reactivity In An Adolescent Community Sample, Lorissa Simpson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Past research demonstrates that a stressful environment early in life can have profound implications on an individual’s ability to regulate their emotions. One method that researchers use to assess abnormalities in emotion regulation is fear conditioning, where differences in the speed or strength with which one learns about unpleasant stimuli can indicate dysregulation. Currently, the literature is in conflict about whether those who have experienced early life stress (ELS) will show exaggerated or blunted responses to stressful stimuli, but both can cause problems later in life. The present study used a fear conditioning paradigm to further clarify the relationship ...


Preserving Relationship Stability And Self-Evaluations Despite Individual Emotional Traits: The Sem Model And Specialization Within Romantic Relationships, Stephen Smith May 2019

Preserving Relationship Stability And Self-Evaluations Despite Individual Emotional Traits: The Sem Model And Specialization Within Romantic Relationships, Stephen Smith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A sample of 24 couples (N = 24) participated in the present two-part study investigating whether the Self-Evaluation Maintenance (SEM) process of specialization in romantic couples is affected by differences in individual psychological traits. In the first portion, couples worked collaboratively on one questionnaire to generate performance domains and subdomains of varying relevance, as well as rate which partner had more expertise. Couple conversations during this portion were recorded (with consent) to qualitatively assess the process of specialization in romantic couples. In the second portion, individual partners completed a questionnaire assessing the aforementioned psychological traits. Results suggested that couples evenly distribute ...


Gender And The Connection Between Distress Tolerance And Psychopathology, Megan Serody May 2019

Gender And The Connection Between Distress Tolerance And Psychopathology, Megan Serody

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study investigated the potential moderating role gender plays in the association of distress tolerance (DT) with internalizing and externalizing symptoms of psychopathology. I hypothesized that DT would have a main effect on resilience to both internalizing and externalizing problems. Further, I expected that gender would moderate this effect for externalizing, but not internalizing, symptoms, such that men would exhibit a stronger (inverse) relationship between DT and externalizing problems. I tested these hypotheses in samples of 1,211 undergraduates and 224 treatment-seeking adults. There was strong evidence for the main effect of DT on both symptom dimensions, but the data ...


Using The Prisoner’S Dilemma To Evaluate Personality Indicators Of Cooperation, Vansh Bansal May 2019

Using The Prisoner’S Dilemma To Evaluate Personality Indicators Of Cooperation, Vansh Bansal

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cooperation has been seen as a key contributor to forming close relationships. Loneliness and perceived risk in intimacy have been associated with having fewer close interpersonal bonds. The type of interaction (communal or exchange) also plays a role in how people will behave, and how open they will be in pursuing a close relationship. The authors used a manipulation of the type of relation a participant would have with a confederate in a Prisoner’s Dilemma game, and measured perceived risk in intimacy and loneliness, to evaluate the effects these factors had on cooperative behavior. The authors found that the ...


The Impact Of Guided Pretend Play On Preschool Children's Theory Of Mind, Valerie P. Bambha Apr 2019

The Impact Of Guided Pretend Play On Preschool Children's Theory Of Mind, Valerie P. Bambha

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Theory of mind is a cognitive skill that allows us to recognize that others hold representations of the world that are separate from our own. This capability is measured in children through the false belief task, which most cannot successfully complete until age four. This finding has been taken to mean that children younger than four have difficulty reasoning about the perspectives of other people, a surprising claim given that at age two they begin to partake in pretend play that appears to involve adopting the persona of invented characters. The current study investigated whether pretend play could act as ...


The Methodological Puzzle Of Phenomenal Consciousness: What It Is, And Why It Is Still Unsolved, Qiuyang Shen Apr 2019

The Methodological Puzzle Of Phenomenal Consciousness: What It Is, And Why It Is Still Unsolved, Qiuyang Shen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The question of whether cognitive access is a constitutively necessary part of phenomenal consciousness has been the center of the debate of consciousness for several decades. It has been recognized that there exists a methodological puzzle in the study of consciousness (Block, 2006; Phillips, 2018). The puzzle can be roughly described as follows: how can we empirically find out whether certain cognitively inaccessible states are phenomenally conscious or not, when the way we identify conscious mental states is always confounded with cognitive access? This thesis reviews two current approaches to solve the methodological puzzle - one approach appeals to the Inference ...


Deconstructing Resilience: Running, Personality, And Psychopathology, Laila Drury Apr 2019

Deconstructing Resilience: Running, Personality, And Psychopathology, Laila Drury

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Personality plays a major role in resilience to anxiety and depression. This study explored how runners’ personalities differ from non-runners, and whether specific personality traits—conscientiousness, grit, and mindfulness—protect against emotional problems. In the present study, participants (N = 222) completed self-report questionnaires to measure depression, anxiety, and stress, all Big 5 personality traits, grit, mindfulness, and resilience. Participants were also asked if they run as a form of exercise; if yes, they were presented with subsequent questions discerning internal and external motivations for running. There were weak associations, including some in unexpected directions, between runner status and personality. Conscientiousness ...


Effects Of Action Intention, Binocular Depth Cues, Motion Parallax, Haptic Feedback, And Body Posture On The Perception Of The Ebbinghaus Visual Illusion, Ruitao Lin Apr 2019

Effects Of Action Intention, Binocular Depth Cues, Motion Parallax, Haptic Feedback, And Body Posture On The Perception Of The Ebbinghaus Visual Illusion, Ruitao Lin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Researchers have long observed different illusion magnitudes in verbal response tasks and visually-directed action tasks. The cause of such differences has been the topic of debate. The “two visual systems hypothesis” (TVSH) suggests that two separate visual pathways independently control a certain type of tasks. According to this theory, the difference in illusion magnitudes is caused by the different performance of these two pathways. An alternative theory is the “two modes of processing” (TMOP) hypothesis, which states that the two visual processing modes function within a single visual pathway but weigh the same set of visual information differently. According to ...


Peer-Mediated Interventions For Middle School Students With High-Functioning Autism, Katelyn Birchfield Apr 2019

Peer-Mediated Interventions For Middle School Students With High-Functioning Autism, Katelyn Birchfield

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Students with high-functioning autism in the general education setting may receive support in their academic development, though assistance in their social-emotional development and creation of relationships is little-to-nonexistent. In a population where social and communicative functioning is a primary deficit for labeling, it is critical that research develops evidence-based practices to support social growth. Peer-mediated interventions are a recognized practice in supporting students with severe disabilities and autism, particularly in their early elementary years and in high school (Bambara et al., 2016; Goldstein et al., 1991). The present study strove to find a connection between the utilization of peer-mediated interventions ...


Police Officers And Personality Characteristics, Isabel Marcovici Dec 2018

Police Officers And Personality Characteristics, Isabel Marcovici

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In recent years, the public and media have raised their expectations for how police officers should conduct themselves but they sometimes only highlight the exceptional situations where officers made an egregious error on national news. Studying personality traits of officers may be one way to gain a more holistic perspective of the average police officer. Empathy and neuroticism were looked at in relation to job performance in 66 campus police officers. The findings did not support the hypothesis of a negative relation between neuroticism and job performance and a positive relation between job performance and empathy. However, there was a ...


The Effect Of Internalizing Symptoms On Affect Recognition And Theory Of Mind Performance In A Community Sample Of Adolescents, Sarah Bottari Dec 2018

The Effect Of Internalizing Symptoms On Affect Recognition And Theory Of Mind Performance In A Community Sample Of Adolescents, Sarah Bottari

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Difficulties with social interaction are a hallmark feature of many clinical disorders, and one factor that may contribute to these difficulties is a deficit in social perception skills, such as affect recognition and theory of mind (ToM). The present study examines the effect of depressive and anxiety symptoms on social perception in a community sample of adolescents. Based on past research, we hypothesized that greater levels of internalizing symptoms would predict poorer performance on an affect recognition and ToM task. Twenty-nine adolescent participants completed dimensional measures of depressive symptoms, worry, and anxiety sensitivity, as well as a standardized neuropsychological assessment ...


Supporting Meaningful Career Paths: Effects Of Mentoring And Adulthood Perception On Vocational Outcomes For Emerging Adults, Mary Grutta May 2018

Supporting Meaningful Career Paths: Effects Of Mentoring And Adulthood Perception On Vocational Outcomes For Emerging Adults, Mary Grutta

Undergraduate Honors Theses

During the transition to adulthood, adolescents are faced with numerous developmental challenges, including increased rates of risk-taking, academic pressure, and greater struggles with low self-esteem. Naturally-occurring mentoring relationships can aid in providing guidance and advice as well as emotional and tangible support during this time (Ahrens et al., 2008). The present study examined how natural mentors during adolescence shape vocational outcomes during early adulthood, and whether this impact of mentoring can be explained by changes in perceived adulthood during the transition to adulthood. Analyses used data from a large, nationally representative sample, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add ...


From Bias To Behavior: Predicting Prejudice Towards Autistic Individuals, Caitlin Taylor May 2018

From Bias To Behavior: Predicting Prejudice Towards Autistic Individuals, Caitlin Taylor

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The present study sought to examine university students’ judgments about and behavior towards an individual they perceived to be on the autism spectrum versus an individual who they perceived not to be. Furthermore, the study measured implicit and explicit biases towards autistic individuals and the implications those biases had for behaviors directed towards individuals they perceived were autistic. Participants (n = 112) completed the study in two separate research sessions, spaced several weeks apart. In Part 1 of the study, participants completed measures of implicit and explicit bias. In Part 2, participants were asked to discuss a neutral prompt with a ...


Effect Of Implicit And Explicit Prejudice On Perceptions Of Drug Users Of Different Races, Yajna Jowaheer May 2018

Effect Of Implicit And Explicit Prejudice On Perceptions Of Drug Users Of Different Races, Yajna Jowaheer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Even to this day, members of the Black population involved in drug use are being subjected to high rates of imprisonment and are receiving a lower quality of health care in comparison to White drug users. This study proposes that the disparities in how society treats Black drug users are in part due to the way people’s perception of drug users differs based on the race of the target. In addition, this study sought to examine how these perceptions are predicted by implicit and explicit racial prejudice. To test these research questions, college students (n = 99) were randomly assigned ...


Are Approach-Avoidance Emotions Represented In The Brain As Approach-Avoidance Actions?, Channing Everidge Apr 2018

Are Approach-Avoidance Emotions Represented In The Brain As Approach-Avoidance Actions?, Channing Everidge

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Spreading activation theory describes semantic memory as a network of connected nodes, in which activation of a concept triggers the subsequent activation of semantically related concepts, and has often been tested using a semantic priming methodology. Spreading activation is assumed when a target word is preceded by a semantically congruent prime word (congruent priming) that results in a quicker response time to the target word. This finding has been utilized by embodied cognition theorists, who posit that all semantic memory is deeply engrained within the perceptual-motor system by which it was encoded. But are abstract words also represented in this ...


Mental Health And Resource Utilization Among Underrepresented Students Transitioning To College, Yoojin Kook Apr 2018

Mental Health And Resource Utilization Among Underrepresented Students Transitioning To College, Yoojin Kook

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Underrepresented college students – including first-generation college students, students from lower-income backgrounds, and minority students – have lower rates of college completion (Fitzgerald & Delaney, 2002; Engle & Tinto, 2008; Choy, 2001). One set of factors that could play an important role in lower rates of college persistence for these students might involve higher rates of emotional distress, coupled with greater barriers to utilizing mental healthcare resources on campus (Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Eisenberg, Golberstein, & Hunt, 2009). The current study followed 59 underrepresented students (UR; 53 racial/ethnic minority; 12 immigrants; 20 first-generation; 23 low-income) and 62 non-underrepresented students (NR) during their first semester at a medium-sized, public southeastern university to compare rates of mental health problems, as well as stigma ...


A Flash Of Creative Genius: The Effect Of Implicit Motives On Inspiration, Xiaoqing Wan Apr 2018

A Flash Of Creative Genius: The Effect Of Implicit Motives On Inspiration, Xiaoqing Wan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

There appears to be two types of creative processes reported by writers – one that is effortless and one that is effortful. Evidence suggests that an unconscious mechanism may underlie the passivity of inspired writing. We tested the hypothesis that activation of implicit motives is linked to inspired writing. A sample of college students (n = 206) attended lab sessions in which they wrote a “blog entry” on the meaning of life, and reported the extent to which they felt inspired or exerted effort. Participants’ implicit motives were measured using the Picture Story Exercise. Multiple regression analysis shows that inspiration predicts writing ...


Language Patterns As Concurrent And Longitudinal Predictors Of Depression In Adolescence, Connor W. Symons May 2017

Language Patterns As Concurrent And Longitudinal Predictors Of Depression In Adolescence, Connor W. Symons

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A growing body of literature using primarily samples of adults suggests a link between specific patterns of language use and depression (e.g., Rude, Gortner, & Pennebaker, 2004). The current study sought to evaluate whether this link might exist in adolescence, particularly given the rise in depression that occurs in this stage (Garber, Weiss, & Shanley, 1993). This linkage was investigated using a cross-sectional and 2-year longitudinal design, utilizing a community sample of 192 adolescents (Mage = 12.65, 53.1% girls, 76.0% White, middle-class). Adolescents reported on their depression and engaged in a 15-minute discussion task with their good friend ...


Acute Intoxication Affects Pavlovian Conditioning In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Fabiana T. Arrazola May 2017

Acute Intoxication Affects Pavlovian Conditioning In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Fabiana T. Arrazola

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The study explored the effects of alcohol on short-term memory in zebrafish. Memory impairments are pervasive in several conditions resulting from long-term alcohol exposure, for example Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Most of the memory effects observed link to abnormal functioning of the hippocampus and frontal lobes. The effects of alcohol on memory are that it acts as a general central nervous system depressant, but it also affects some areas of the brain more than others. In our laboratory we use two variations of Pavlovian conditioning: Delay and Trace, to examine learning and memory with acute alcohol intoxication ...


Vicarious Fear Learning: The Role Of Empathy, Alexander L. Williams May 2017

Vicarious Fear Learning: The Role Of Empathy, Alexander L. Williams

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fear learning can take place indirectly, by observing others, as well as directly through personal experience. This study aimed to determine whether we could detect indirect – sometimes called vicarious – fear learning in the laboratory, and to examine the influence of trait empathy on the robustness of this learning experience. Deficient empathy features prominently in certain externalizing psychopathologies, and fear learning is theoretically implicated in many psychological disorders, but little research has examined the possible connection between the two. In the present study, we first showed participants (N = 80; Mage = 19.1 years, SD = 2.1; 62.5% white) a ...


Links Between Maternal Emotion Socialization And Adolescents' Social Outcomes: The Mediating Role Of Peer Emotion Socialization, Natalee N. Price May 2017

Links Between Maternal Emotion Socialization And Adolescents' Social Outcomes: The Mediating Role Of Peer Emotion Socialization, Natalee N. Price

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Parents remain influential emotion socialization (ES) agents for their adolescents, with parents’ supportive and unsupportive ES associated with youths’ adaptive and maladaptive social outcomes, respectively (Buckholdt, Kitzmann, & Cohen, 2014). However, less research has examined how adolescents’ ES behaviors towards their close friends may mediate these links. Thus, the current study examines whether maternal ES relates to adolescents’ social outcomes (e.g., overt and relational victimization, bullying, friendship quality, receipt of prosocial behavior) through adolescents’ ES behaviors towards their friends. Participants were 158 middle-school age youth (Mage = 12.67 years; 59.5% girls; 78.5% Caucasian; from mostly upper-middle class families) who participated with their mothers and a same-sex close friend. Maternal ES was measured via mother-report, peer ES was assessed through friend-report of expected ES responses from their friend (the parent’s child), and adolescents’ social experiences was measured through adolescent self-report. Ten mediation models were computed using the Process macro for SPSS (Hayes, 2013). There were significant indirect links between supportive ...


Building The Future From The Past: Evaluating The Relationship Between Nostalgia And Imagination, Conor O. Smith May 2017

Building The Future From The Past: Evaluating The Relationship Between Nostalgia And Imagination, Conor O. Smith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within the past three decades, nostalgia has gained notable attention as an emotion worthy of study. Historically considered a type of illness akin to homesickness, recent research has demonstrated a variety of social and emotional benefits stemming from nostalgic experience, ranging from increased empathy, to healthier coping styles, to enhanced self-esteem. Most relevant to this study, however, nostalgia has demonstrated potential as a facilitator of inspiration (Stephan et al, 2015). Building on this research, I sought to understand how nostalgia might affect performance following inspiration, hypothesizing that experiences of nostalgia would improve performance in goal-oriented imaginativeness, specifically in imaginative suggestibility ...


Do Stereotype Consistent Media Profiles Of Sexual Outgroup Members Affect Perceived Entitativity Of And Bias Towards Sexual Outgroups?, Yuchen Wang May 2017

Do Stereotype Consistent Media Profiles Of Sexual Outgroup Members Affect Perceived Entitativity Of And Bias Towards Sexual Outgroups?, Yuchen Wang

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Intergroup contact has been shown to reduce discrimination towards several derogated social outgroups. In this paper, we examined the application of indirect contact to the reduction of bias towards male homosexuals. Specifically, we used social media to induce a situation in which participants engaged in contact with the media profile of a sexual outgroup member. In the first study, we manipulated whether the online profiles were consistent or inconsistent with social stereotypes towards gay men and examined the relation between outgroup stereotype consistency and entitativity, which may be a mediating variable between contact and bias reduction. We found that viewing ...


Effects Of Medial Prefrontal Cortical Administration Of The Orexin-2 Receptor Antagonist, Tcs-Ox2-29, On Attentional Performance In Rats, Austin R. Tapp May 2017

Effects Of Medial Prefrontal Cortical Administration Of The Orexin-2 Receptor Antagonist, Tcs-Ox2-29, On Attentional Performance In Rats, Austin R. Tapp

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Orexins are excitatory neuropeptides that come in two isoforms, Orexin A and Orexin B, and serve as ligands for the G-protein coupled orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (Ox1R and Ox2R, respectively). Changes in orexinergic transmission are thought to contribute to attentional processing. While several studies have examined the role of Ox1Rs in attention, less research has assessed the contribution of Ox2Rs. Moreover, several lines of evidence suggest that the right medial prefrontal cortex is particularly critical for visual attentional performance. Taking all of this into consideration, the goal of the present experiment was to test the effects Ox2R blockade ...


A Threefold Defense Of Perceptual Dogmatism, Hunter R. Gentry Apr 2017

A Threefold Defense Of Perceptual Dogmatism, Hunter R. Gentry

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper attempts to defend perceptual dogmatism (PD), a theory of epistemic justification, from three objections: (1) the subject's perspective objection (SPO), (2) the problem of easy justification, and (3) the objection from cognitive penetration. The SPO charges PD with allowing for a subject to be justified in his belief that P even when P is accidentally true from the subject's perspective. The problem of easy justification claims that intuitively, PD is too permissive in granting justification for beliefs about the external world, such that a subject can come to have justification for the reliability of his/her ...


Neural Correlates Of Multisensory Integration And The Role Of Musical Experience, Victoria A. Bostler Apr 2017

Neural Correlates Of Multisensory Integration And The Role Of Musical Experience, Victoria A. Bostler

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A large body of experimental research demonstrates that environments and behavioral experiences can affect cognitive performance. There has been increasing interest in the influence of musical experience on normal neuronal functioning over the past decade. However, much of this research has failed to target specific neural activity as indicators of cognitive function. One such measure of neural activity is the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) that occurs in response to the presentation of a deviant stimulus in a sequence of repeated stimuli. The primary aim of the current study was to explore the influence of musical experience on ...


The Neurometric Correlates Of Trauma Using The Brief Neurometric Battery (Bnb), Lauren N. Dybel Apr 2017

The Neurometric Correlates Of Trauma Using The Brief Neurometric Battery (Bnb), Lauren N. Dybel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Objective: The goal of this research was to determine the utility of a novel Brief Neurometric Battery (BNB) (Kieffaber et al., 2016) for measuring the neurometric correlates of a) experiences with sexual trauma and b) personality characteristics, and to assess the correlation of sexual trauma with event-related potentials derived through EEG.
Methods: The BNB testing battery uses a nested array of visual and auditory stimuli to elicit several event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillatory activity in about 20 minutes. This subclinical study at the College of William & Mary used the BNB with college-aged women with past experiences of sexual violence. Participants ...


The Role Of Executive Control Deficits In Cognitive Correlates Of Dysphoria, Christian A. L. Bean Apr 2017

The Role Of Executive Control Deficits In Cognitive Correlates Of Dysphoria, Christian A. L. Bean

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Recent research has suggested that deficits in executive control, especially impairments in cognitive inhibition, as well as rumination, negative involuntary memories, and reduced autobiographical memory specificity could play key roles in the development and exacerbation of depressive symptoms. In the present study, participants completed the Negative Affective Priming (NAP) task, the Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), the Continuous Word Association Task (CWAT), the Autobiographical Memory Task (AMT), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R) to examine the relationship between deficits in executive control and dysphoria that may be mediated by ruminative thinking, negative involuntary memory retrieval, and autobiographical ...


The Effect Of Conformity To Feminine Norms On Women’S Food Consumption After A Sad Mood Induction, Thomas P. Le Apr 2017

The Effect Of Conformity To Feminine Norms On Women’S Food Consumption After A Sad Mood Induction, Thomas P. Le

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The current study examined the relationship between women’s food intake and their conformity to feminine norms after a sad mood induction. Based on past research, we hypothesized that conformity to the feminine norm of modesty would predict reduced food intake. Female participants (N = 200) watched a sad movie clip, partook in a taste test in which they consumed potato chips and chocolate chips, and completed validated surveys designed to assess conformity to feminine norms and daily use of emotion regulation strategies. Regression analyses revealed that increased conformity to the feminine norm of modesty predicted reduced food intake. Expressive suppression ...