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Psychology

Western Michigan University

Theses/Dissertations

Motivation

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Effects Of Altering Motivation In Pigeons Performing A Titrating-Delayed-Matching-To-Sample Task, Zachary J. Zimmermann Jun 2015

Effects Of Altering Motivation In Pigeons Performing A Titrating-Delayed-Matching-To-Sample Task, Zachary J. Zimmermann

Master's Theses

In order to better understand the role motivating operations (MOs) serve in preceding and evoking behavior, it is useful to examine the effects of whether manipulating motivation can influence performance on tasks with known behavioral outcomes. It is well established that altered stimulus control is responsible for changes in responding on tasks of generalization and discrimination. Therefore, if stimulus control could be influenced by MOs, then perhaps stimulus discriminations could be improved by manipulating the relevant MO. To this end, the effects of altering motivation via food deprivation were examined in pigeons using a titrating-delayed-matching-to-sample task. Additional pharmacological variables (i ...


Motivating Operations In Drug-Discrimination, Amin Duff Lotfizadeh Jun 2013

Motivating Operations In Drug-Discrimination, Amin Duff Lotfizadeh

Dissertations

Motivating operations (MO) play an important role in learning and performance. According to the behavior analytic conceptualization, MOs alter the probability of responses that lead to relevant reinforcers and alter the reinforcing “value” of those reinforcers (e.g., Michael, 1982, 1993). Recent research suggests that one way in which MOs influence stimulus control is by influencing the control of behavior by discriminative stimuli. Interestingly, in studies with nonhumans, such an effect is commonly observed when lights and tones are used as discriminative stimuli, but not when drugs are used. Procedural differences across studies involving the species studied, the measurement system ...


The Effects Of Reinforcer-Paired Stimuli On Operant Behavior: Review, Demonstration, And Conceptual Analysis, Timothy Lowell Edwards Aug 2012

The Effects Of Reinforcer-Paired Stimuli On Operant Behavior: Review, Demonstration, And Conceptual Analysis, Timothy Lowell Edwards

Master's Theses

The presentation of stimuli that have been paired with reinforcers may function as a motivating operation in that the efficacy of the reinforcers appears to increase and the class of responses that have been historically followed by those reinforcers increases in strength. This phenomenon has important implications for a number of behavioral concerns including drug addiction and eating disorders. A review of the existing literature examining this phenomenon presented herein suggests that the phenomenon is reliable and robust but that it is reinforcer-specific. In the animal study that is subsequently described, rats show a higher proportion of responding on average ...