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The Effects Of Individual And Social Comparison Graphic Feedback On Incented Performance, Yngvi Freyr Einarsson Dec 2016

The Effects Of Individual And Social Comparison Graphic Feedback On Incented Performance, Yngvi Freyr Einarsson

Master's Theses

This study examined whether graphic displays of individual performance and graphic displays of the individual performance of each group member would increase performance when individuals were paid monetary incentives. All participants were paid piece-rate pay and there were three conditions: (a) no feedback, (b) graphic display of individual performance, and (c) graphic display of the performance of each group member. Participants were 80 undergraduate students who performed a computerized data entry task. The main dependent variable was the number of correctly completed entries. A monotone ANCOVA was used to detect performance differences, using data from the first session as a ...


Assessing The Effects Of Interactive Video Modeling On The Fidelity Of Implementation Of Skill-Acquisition Procedures, Steven Sparks Dec 2016

Assessing The Effects Of Interactive Video Modeling On The Fidelity Of Implementation Of Skill-Acquisition Procedures, Steven Sparks

Dissertations

Behavior-analytic study has led to many advances in staff training over the last several decades. The effectiveness of modeling, role-play, and video modeling are well demonstrated in scientific literature but these techniques are often time consuming for those conducting the training which often leads to their being quite costly. Interactive video modeling is an alternative that is potentially more cost and time efficient. This type of modeling consists of embedding response opportunities in traditional video models that require the trainee to answer questions in order to complete the video. Being required to answer the embedded questions causes the trainee to ...


Transitioning Children With Autism From One-On-One Discrete-Trial Settings To Special Education Classrooms, Jennifer L. Freeman Dec 2016

Transitioning Children With Autism From One-On-One Discrete-Trial Settings To Special Education Classrooms, Jennifer L. Freeman

Dissertations

The goal of an early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) program is to teach each child the skills necessary to make meaningful progress in less-restrictive environments (Fox, Dunlap & Crushing, 2002). However, few studies have detailed the steps necessary for a “successful” transition into these educational settings. We transitioned two children, who received 20 hours a week of one-on-one discrete-trial therapy and attended a half-day special education pre-school classroom, to a full-time educational setting. With the goal of aiding each during his/her transition, this study used the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) (Sundberg, 2008), particularly the barriers and ...


Impact Of A Positive Behavior Support System On Staff Behavior At The Boys And Girls Club, Brian Molina Dec 2016

Impact Of A Positive Behavior Support System On Staff Behavior At The Boys And Girls Club, Brian Molina

Master's Theses

The present study sought to increase correct staff utilization of a positive behavior support system at the Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Kalamazoo. The intervention consisted of implementing a new club-wide positive behavior support program. The main components of the positive behavior support program were (a) training for staff on how to use the positive behavior support system, (b) staff teaching of the positive behavior support system to members, (c) the implementation of a token economy system for reinforcing positive behavior, and (d) a data collection/feedback system to inform supervisors on the progress of members and staff.

This ...


African American Men’S Health: Regulating Race-Related Stress Through Cognitive Flexibility, Brian P. Littleton Dec 2016

African American Men’S Health: Regulating Race-Related Stress Through Cognitive Flexibility, Brian P. Littleton

Dissertations

African American men have one the highest preventable mortality and morbidity rates in the United States (Rich, 2000; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). Moreover, there is substantial health disparity between African American men and White men in the United States (Smedley, Stith, & Nelson, 2003). It has been stated that pervasive racism and discrimination are the most significant contributors for the disparity. Studies have shown race-related stress, which is derived from experiencing racism, discrimination or having internalized feelings as the result of an individual’s racial status, has been associated with blood pressure, emotional distress, and physical ...


The Effects Of Punishment On Resistance To Change And Reinstatement, Tomesha A. Manora Dec 2016

The Effects Of Punishment On Resistance To Change And Reinstatement, Tomesha A. Manora

Dissertations

Resistance to change (RTC) refers to the persistence of behavior when environmental changes disrupt responding. Studies have shown that RTC varies as a function of the reinforcement associated with the context, with higher rates and magnitudes of reinforcement generating greater response persistence. Resistance to change has been shown to be related to reinstatement, or the increase in responding during extinction when responses are followed by noncontingent reinforcement. Little research has investigated whether punishers have equivalent yet opposite effects as reinforcers on response persistence and reinstatement. The present study investigated the effects of electric shock punishment on resistance to change and ...


Dimensions Of The Doctoral Dissertation Advising Relationship In Counselor Education: Mentoring Expectations, Satisfaction, And Time-To-Degree, Lasonda Wells Aug 2016

Dimensions Of The Doctoral Dissertation Advising Relationship In Counselor Education: Mentoring Expectations, Satisfaction, And Time-To-Degree, Lasonda Wells

Dissertations

High attrition rates among doctoral students are of great concern. Based on national statistics in the United States, at least 50% of students who start a doctoral program do not complete their degree (Council of Graduate Schools, 2008; Lovitts, 2000). Although factors leading to attrition can vary given the individual student and the discipline, the faculty-student relationship is the most commonly noted problematic factor across disciplines (Fedynich & Bain, 2011; Lovitts, 2001). However, the research on doctoral advisor-advisee relationships remains sparse, particularly in counselor education (Protivnak & Foss, 2009).

The purpose of this study was to explore the demographic profile of counselor educators during the dissertation phase of their doctoral programs by examining counselor educators’ expectations of an ideal mentor, perceptions of their advisory working alliance and perceptions of their advisors’ willingness to mentor, as experienced during the dissertation phase of their doctoral programs. Additionally, this study explored the relationship of these perceptions and cross-cultural advising based on differing gender, race, or both with time-to-degree.

This study was motivated by five research questions: (1) What were the ideal mentor expectations of counselor educators during the dissertation phase of their doctoral programs? (2) What were the perceived advisory working alliance experiences of counselor educators during the dissertation phase of their doctoral programs? (3) What is the relationship between perceived advisory working alliance as measured by the AWAI-S and time-to-degree? (4) What is the relationship between perceived willingness to mentor and time-to-degree? (5) What is the relationship between cross-cultural advising based on differing gender, race, or both and time-to-degree?

The research design chosen for this study was retrospective cross-sectional survey design. The data were collected through three online self-administered instruments (a) the Ideal Mentor Scale (IMS; Rose 2003, 2005); (b) the Advisory Working Alliance Inventory-Student Version (AWAI-S; Schlosser & Gelso, 2001); and (c) a demographic questionnaire ...


Understanding Factors Related To Negative Mental Health Outcomes Following Childhood Unintentional Injuries, Jennifer T. Kuhn Aug 2016

Understanding Factors Related To Negative Mental Health Outcomes Following Childhood Unintentional Injuries, Jennifer T. Kuhn

Dissertations

Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for children ages 0-19 and account for 9.2 million emergency room visits in the United States each year (Borse et al., 2008). Research shows that approximately 20% of children meet criteria for PTSD following an unintentional injury (Ostrowski et al., 2011). There are several factors that may contribute to the development of PTSD including caregivers’ posttraumatic stress symptoms after the injury event. Research has not explained the association between caregivers’ PTSD and children’s risk for PTSD symptoms, but it is possible that caregivers with PTSD may be modeling anxious behaviors ...


The Lived Experience Of Individuals With Chronic Back And Neck Pain, Depression, And/Or Anxiety, Tara L. Palmeri Aug 2016

The Lived Experience Of Individuals With Chronic Back And Neck Pain, Depression, And/Or Anxiety, Tara L. Palmeri

Dissertations

More than 1.5 billion people worldwide suffer from chronic pain (CP). People who experience chronic pain are 20 to 40% more likely to meet criteria for an anxiety disorder, and three to four times more likely to be clinically depressed than their pain-free counterparts. The relationship between CP and mental health has been studied quantitatively; however, few researchers have investigated co-morbid CP and mental health through a phenomenological lens. The subjective nature of the relationship is not comprehensively addressed within the literature.

This qualitative phenomenological study explored (a) how individuals with chronic back and/or neck pain (CBNP) experience ...


Yoga As An Ancillary Treatment To Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Depression, Jeralee M. Briggs Aug 2016

Yoga As An Ancillary Treatment To Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Depression, Jeralee M. Briggs

Dissertations

It is estimated that up to 30% of college students feel clinically depressed, and these feelings can lead to poor grades, substance abuse, unsafe sex, and suicide (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has shown to be an effective form of psychotherapy for depression and was listed in 2014 as an evidence-based treatment for depressive disorders according to the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (2006). In addition to psychological treatment, various exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms (e.g., Rehorst, Wipfli, & Landers, 2009). Yoga is one such ...


Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And 4-Methylmethcathinone, Michael D. Berquist Aug 2016

Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone And 4-Methylmethcathinone, Michael D. Berquist

Dissertations

Recent escalation in the popularity of recreational synthetic cathinone (“bath salts”) use has prompted numerous scientific investigations of the neurochemical and behavioral effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), two of the more common chemical constituents of these illicit “bath salts”. Previous neurochemical and electrophysiological studies have revealed that MDPV functions as a blocker, and 4-MMC as a substrate, at monoamine transporters, and both produce transient increases in extracellular monoamines. In addition, previous research has demonstrated that MDPV and 4-MMC support self-administration in nonhuman experimental subjects, and their rewarding effects are observed when paired with contextual cues in nonhuman ...


Assessing Change In Attachment Security Of Adolescents At Residential Therapeutic Programs, Laura Santa Thum Aug 2016

Assessing Change In Attachment Security Of Adolescents At Residential Therapeutic Programs, Laura Santa Thum

Dissertations

Adolescents with significant, persistent behavioral and mental health problems are increasingly being treated in private residential treatment programs (RTPs). Recent research at such programs shows that adolescents’ symptoms improve over the course of treatment and that such positive results persist up to a year post discharge. This study attempts to address what is occurring below the symptom level by exploring if attachment security increases as symptoms improve over the course of treatment in private RTPs. The level of attachment security was assessed along the dimensions of attachment avoidance and anxiety as a general construct and according to specific relationships (with ...


Establishing And Testing Conditioned Reinforcers: Evaluating The Effects Of The Discriminative Stimulus Procedure Using Intermittency With Individuals With Developmental Disabilities, Yannick A. Schenk Aug 2016

Establishing And Testing Conditioned Reinforcers: Evaluating The Effects Of The Discriminative Stimulus Procedure Using Intermittency With Individuals With Developmental Disabilities, Yannick A. Schenk

Dissertations

A common characteristic of individuals with developmental disabilities is a restricted range of interest. Developing procedures to establish new reinforcers for such individuals can promote the acquisition of new skills and ameliorate decreases in motivation related to satiation. Several procedures for conditioning reinforcers have shown to be effective in the research literature for establishing neutral stimuli as conditioned reinforcers. Most of this literature is basic research with animal subjects (e.g., rats, pigeons). Few applied studies have directly evaluated the use of these procedures. Additional research is necessary to determine their effectiveness. The purposes of this study were to: (a ...


An Evaluation Of The Acceptability And Effects Of A Computer-Delivered Values-Based Behavioral Activation Treatment For Depression Among Older Adults, Kellie Reynolds Aug 2016

An Evaluation Of The Acceptability And Effects Of A Computer-Delivered Values-Based Behavioral Activation Treatment For Depression Among Older Adults, Kellie Reynolds

Dissertations

Depression is a common psychological disorder among older adults and is associated with serious secondary effects to health and social well-being. Behavioral activation has been found to be an efficacious treatment for depression. However, there is limited research on the treatment effects of behavioral activation with older adults. In general, older adults under-utilize mental health treatments. Computer-delivered treatments have been developed to address access and under-utilization. The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the acceptability and effects of a computer-delivered values-based behavioral activation treatment for depression in older adults. This study consisted of two phases. Phase I consisted of ...


Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Adolescent Difficulties With Emotion Regulation: An Open Trial, Julissa A. Duenas Aug 2016

Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Adolescent Difficulties With Emotion Regulation: An Open Trial, Julissa A. Duenas

Dissertations

Research suggests that youth rates of mental health problems are high and that evidence-based treatments for these populations exist; however, there is a significant problem in accessibility of mental health services. Recent movements in the mental health field have shifted focus to transdiagnostic dimensions of behavior in attempt to target a broader range of psychological difficulties across larger populations. One such construct, emotion regulation, has been defined as an ability to have awareness and acceptance of emotions and control urges and impulses in order to behave towards a goal. Emotion regulation has been linked to numerous internalizing and externalizing behavioral ...


Increasing Caregiver Supervision Of Young Children: Teaching Scanning, Predicting Behavior, And Modifying For Safety, Natalie Truba Aug 2016

Increasing Caregiver Supervision Of Young Children: Teaching Scanning, Predicting Behavior, And Modifying For Safety, Natalie Truba

Dissertations

Unintentional injuries account for a significant number of child deaths and visits to the emergency department. Although increased supervision is routinely shown to be an effective method of preventing unintentional childhood injuries, few interventions systemically teach caregivers behavioral skills to supervise their children appropriately. The present study utilized a multiple baseline design to pilot test an intervention designed to increase caregiver supervision and decrease unintentional childhood injuries by training caregivers how to provide appropriate levels of supervision for their young children (ages 6 to 36 months). Specifically, caregivers were taught in the present study include: (1) scanning the environment (for ...


Piloting A Screening Tool For Eating And Eating-Related Behavior, Michael N. Reynolds Jun 2016

Piloting A Screening Tool For Eating And Eating-Related Behavior, Michael N. Reynolds

Dissertations

Obesity is a common medical condition associated with negative health and social outcomes. Obesity has a primary malleable behavioral cause, eating more calories than are metabolized. While metabolic rate is malleable with exercise, eating can more quickly add calories than exercising can subtract them. In the past, behavioral weight-loss treatment studies relied on multi-component package interventions that have shown reliable patterns of participant weight-loss during treatment and weight-regain in follow-up. Those findings could be conceptualized as an ABA withdrawal design, eating behavior returns to baseline after the prosthetic contingencies of the treatment study are withdrawn. We must develop ways to ...


Using Postfeedback Delays To Reduce Racing In Online Learning, Anna L. Conard Jun 2016

Using Postfeedback Delays To Reduce Racing In Online Learning, Anna L. Conard

Dissertations

Computer-based instruction (CBI) has become an increasingly popular tool in both business and education throughout the last decade. Despite the various benefits of using CBI, there are several challenges that accompany this mode of instruction, such as computer-based racing. Computer-based racing occurs when learners respond so quickly that frequent mistakes are made. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of postfeedback delays on racing through online lessons conducted in uncontrolled settings. Six different computer-based instructional formats were assessed in terms of learner performance and satisfaction using a between-group pretest-posttest design. Statistically significant differences were observed in ...


The Effects Of Electronic Data Collection, Immediate Graphic Feedback, And Automated Scheduled Prompts On Data Collection Adherence, Cody Morris Jun 2016

The Effects Of Electronic Data Collection, Immediate Graphic Feedback, And Automated Scheduled Prompts On Data Collection Adherence, Cody Morris

Master's Theses

While data are essential to behavior analysis, collecting the type of data that behavior analysts often require can be a labor-intensive and time-consuming task. There have been many attempts to reduce the amount of time and effort required to collect behavioral data; most research in this area has been focused on computerized or electronic ways to do this (Dixon, 2003). While electronic data collection seems to be gaining popularity within applied behavior analysis, many obstacles still exist. The purpose of this project was to design a data collection system that is cost-efficient, adaptable, easy to use, and effective at increasing ...


Descriptive Analysis Of Activity Transition Data In An Intensive Autism Treatment Center, Ashley Marie Kotsiris Jun 2016

Descriptive Analysis Of Activity Transition Data In An Intensive Autism Treatment Center, Ashley Marie Kotsiris

Master's Theses

Children with autism often display challenging behaviors (e.g., tantrums, aggression, etc.) when transitioning between activities. Most of the current literature focuses on antecedent interventions for increasing compliance during transitions (e.g., visual schedules, two minute transition warnings, etc.). There is a minimal number of studies examining how environmental variables may affect transitions. This study was a descriptive analysis that examined different environmental variables and their effects on transitions. Observations were conducted with four children diagnosed with autism. A transition-tracking sheet was used to gather specific descriptive data during transitions. Results suggest that two-minute warnings were not correlated with more ...


The Influence Of Racial Socialization On The Academic Achievement Of Black College Students, Vanessa R. Laurent Jun 2016

The Influence Of Racial Socialization On The Academic Achievement Of Black College Students, Vanessa R. Laurent

Dissertations

Black college students continue to have difficulties reaching academic success in various domains; however, understanding the nature of how academic success is cultivated by Black college students is vital for counselors, educators, and university administrators. The objective of the study was to understand how racial socialization influenced academic success. Research suggests that racial socialization contributes to positive long-term outcomes among African Americans and may be connected to academic achievement (Bowman & Howard, 1985; Boykin & Tom, 1985; Davis & Stevenson, 2006; Neblett, Terzian, & Harriott, 2010; Stevenson, 1994, 1995). Participants were 349 Black college students from a predominately White institution in the Midwest. They were administered a survey packet, which contained a ...


College Student Development And Emerging Adulthood, Gina Cavanaugh Apr 2016

College Student Development And Emerging Adulthood, Gina Cavanaugh

Honors Theses

College student development theories focus on the experiences and growth that individuals and groups encounter throughout their time attending colleges and universities. During this time, many traditionally aged college students are in the period of emerging adulthood. In industrialized societies, this age range is characterized by a prolonged period of adolescence and a lack of taking on adult responsibilities. This exploration highlights the emerging adult college student population in the United States and the development these individuals may undergo.


Increasing Vocalizations In Children With Autism, Nicholette Christodoulou Apr 2016

Increasing Vocalizations In Children With Autism, Nicholette Christodoulou

Honors Theses

This study focuses on increasing vocalizations for students with Autism spectrum disorder. A three-part intervention was used to attempt to establish an echoic repertoire in students who had little to no vocalizations. Both students attended an early intervention classroom with a special education school. Students were selected from their classroom if they showed little to no vocalization or echoic skills. The goal during the first phase was to collect all sounds being made by the student to increase the overall number of vocalizations being made. This was done by continuous reinforcement using edible reinforcers. In phase two, the student’s ...


Sensor-Enabled Reduction Of Stereotypy, Aaron Brzezinski Apr 2016

Sensor-Enabled Reduction Of Stereotypy, Aaron Brzezinski

Honors Theses

The goal of this study was to create and implement an intervention to reduce stereotypic behavior in a child with Autism. The participant was chosen based on a high occurrence of target behavior and was recruited through his treatment center. The target behaviors were selected based on the subjective evaluation of his treatment provider and parents. The dependent variable in this study was hand-flapping. The independent variable was DRO training that included a buzzer and a chime noise contingent on the presence or absence of stereotypy respectively. A Microsoft Kinect© 2.0 was used to track occurrence of target behavior ...


Transitioning Children With Autism From A Discrete Trial Classroom To A Group Classroom, Alexandra Ennis Apr 2016

Transitioning Children With Autism From A Discrete Trial Classroom To A Group Classroom, Alexandra Ennis

Honors Theses

The goal of this project was to prepare children diagnosed with autism for the transition to group learning environments by teaching them to sit in their chair and attend while the teacher is at least five feet away. This is a skill that will help kids succeed when they make the transition from an early intervention program to a group learner environment because it allows the teacher to focus more on learning important skills. A proximity procedure was put in place for two children that focused on gradually increasing the distance between the tutor and the student with use of ...


The Effect Of Bedside Handoffs On Patients’ Perceived Fears, Maija Paldan Apr 2016

The Effect Of Bedside Handoffs On Patients’ Perceived Fears, Maija Paldan

Honors Theses

Background and Significance: Fear, anxiety, and apprehension can have a profound effect upon patient outcomes, possibly leading to a worsened health condition or delay in recovery. Current literature finds that communication and social support by the nursing staff may foster patients’ understanding of their care and their experiences of feeling safe. The bedside handoff is one way of enhancing communication and providing support within nurse patient interactions. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of bedside handoffs on patients’ perceived fear, anxiety, and apprehension.

Methods: A secondary analysis was performed upon a larger quantitative data set from ...


Increasing Vocal Behavior And Establishing Echoic Stimulus Control In Children With Autism, Joseph Shane Apr 2016

Increasing Vocal Behavior And Establishing Echoic Stimulus Control In Children With Autism, Joseph Shane

Dissertations

Many children with autism fail to demonstrate vocal-verbal behavior, including echoic behavior, as early as their typically developing peers. Some also make very limited vocal sounds in general, remaining mostly mute aside from crying or engaging in stereotypy. Echoic behavior involves auditory discrimination and matching, and functions as a beneficial, if not necessary, prerequisite for many other vocal-verbal skills. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an echoic training procedure for primarily non-vocal children who did not demonstrate auditory discrimination in baseline. The intervention consisted initially of sessions in which any vocal sounds were reinforced. Then differential ...


Session-By-Session Feedback From Psychotherapy Outcome Assessment: An Analysis Of Treatment Utility, Lynn Hallberg Hall Apr 2016

Session-By-Session Feedback From Psychotherapy Outcome Assessment: An Analysis Of Treatment Utility, Lynn Hallberg Hall

Dissertations

This study sought to examine the effect of providing outcome assessment data to therapists treating a sample of community adults seeking mental health services at two university training clinics. The participants (N = 41) were predominantly unmarried, Caucasian females, 19 to 39 years old, with a wide range of psychological problems. The therapists were trainees from master’s and doctoral programs in counseling and clinical psychology participating in their first clinical practicums. The Outcome Questionnaire 45-2 (OQ), an instrument designed for frequent measurement of client symptom, interpersonal, and social-role distress, served as the dependent measure. The OQ was designed to show ...


A Geographic Distribution Analysis And Examination Of Social-Psychological Factors And Their Lmpact On Death Penalty Support In The United States, Katy Moharter Apr 2016

A Geographic Distribution Analysis And Examination Of Social-Psychological Factors And Their Lmpact On Death Penalty Support In The United States, Katy Moharter

Master's Theses

Since the reinstatement of the death penalty in the United States in 1977, research has focused on shifting attitudes and waning public support for this institution. Support for the death penalty varies between different temporal, geographic, and demographic boundaries. Research also suggests that social-psychological factors such as attributional style and moral disengagement play a significant role in rationalization of death penalty support, as well as the intensity of the support. Aspects of moral disengagement serve as reliable predictors for death penalty support for a limited sample of participants, which this research intends to evaluate at a greater scale. This research ...


Examining The Effectiveness Of A Training Video On The Lmplementation And Lnterpretation Of A Functional Analysis, Alissa Anne Conway Apr 2016

Examining The Effectiveness Of A Training Video On The Lmplementation And Lnterpretation Of A Functional Analysis, Alissa Anne Conway

Master's Theses

Functional behavior assessment (FBA), and more specifically functional analysis (FA), refer to structured assessment processes designed to identify the controlling variables for challenging behaviors across children, adolescents, and adults. The results from a functional analysis are used to match therapy techniques to unique causal variables for challenging behaviors and also to select more adaptive replacement behaviors that produce similar functions as the challenging behaviors. As functional analysis techniques, in all variations, have become more commonplace in applied behavior analysis (ABA), attention has turned to how to train practitioners to implement FAs, interpret the results, and use the FAs to inform ...