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Autism Project: Case Study Evaluating Behavioral Interventions For The Self-Injurious Behavior Of Biting, Brittani Rohrig Dec 2014

Autism Project: Case Study Evaluating Behavioral Interventions For The Self-Injurious Behavior Of Biting, Brittani Rohrig

Honors Theses

Self-injurious (SIB) behavior is a common problem among the autism population, and often those who engage in SIB have done so since a very early age. There was a nine-year-old boy named Jack who was diagnosed with ASD and engaged in the self-injurious behavior of biting his hand. A functional analysis was conducted and it was found that the behavior was multiply controlled across three main conditions: alone/play, demand, and attention. The goal of this case study was to review previous interventions that did not eliminate the target behavior, analyze and revise the current protocols in place, and eliminate ...


An Attempt To Establish Approval As A Learned Reinforcer, Kelly T. Kohler Dec 2014

An Attempt To Establish Approval As A Learned Reinforcer, Kelly T. Kohler

Dissertations

Approval does not function as a powerful reinforcer for many children with autism, making it difficult to reinforce appropriate behavior in a functional and consistent manner. The current study first assessed the effects of establishing approval (“Nice,” accompanied by a smile and nod) and nonsense words as discriminative stimuli, with the intent that they might also become learned reinforcers. We conducted several experiments to assess the effectiveness of approval as a reinforcer, including tests on learning new responses (receptive, expressive, freeoperant, and simple simultaneous discriminations) and tests on the performance of previously mastered responses (receptive and expressive responses). Despite the ...


The Relationship Between Racial Ambiguity And Self-Concept In Multiracial Lndividuals, James R. Jobe Dec 2014

The Relationship Between Racial Ambiguity And Self-Concept In Multiracial Lndividuals, James R. Jobe

Dissertations

The present study examined the relationship between racial ambiguity and self-concept in multiracial individuals. Research as to the experiences of multiracial people is limited both in frequency and in scope. As multiracial individuals continue to grow in number, understanding their unique experiences will become more important to social scientists (e.g., psychologists, anthropologists, sociologists) across disciplines. The current study examined two hypotheses and explored a series of additional relationships. The theoretical framework that was utilized for this study was Symbolic Interaction Theory. This theory provided an effective way to understand how people use and make meaning of their surrounding social ...


The Use Of Response Interruption Redirection (Rird), Timeout, And Differential Reinforoement To Decrease Stereotypy, Jessica Ann Korneder Dec 2014

The Use Of Response Interruption Redirection (Rird), Timeout, And Differential Reinforoement To Decrease Stereotypy, Jessica Ann Korneder

Dissertations

Behaviors such as toe walking, hand flapping, nonfunctional vocalizations, and rocking are all examples of stereotypy. Stereotypy can occur at high rates in children with and without developmental delays (Smith & Van Houten, 1996). These behaviors can interfere with the acquisition of new skills (e.g., Dunlap, Dyer, & Koegel, 1983; Morrison & Rosales-Ruiz, 1997) and social interactions (Jones, Wint, & Ellis, 1990). The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of response interruption and redirection (RIRD), time-out, and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) in reducing vocal and motor stereotypy with children who engage in automatically reinforced high-rates of stereotypy. For this intervention, during leisure skills the participant was given an iPad® or LEGOS® and a DRO was conducted with ...


The Neurobehavioral Consequences Of Gestational And Chronic Atrazine Exposure In Male And Female Sprague Dawley Rats, Jennifer L. Walters Dec 2014

The Neurobehavioral Consequences Of Gestational And Chronic Atrazine Exposure In Male And Female Sprague Dawley Rats, Jennifer L. Walters

Dissertations

The adverse health risks of exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, in humans are not fully understood. Although numerous studies have demonstrated atrazine to be an endocrine disrupter, the neurobehavioral consequences of atrazine exposure have not been thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of environmentally-relevant levels

of gestational followed by continued chronic atrazine exposure on motor function, learning and memory, anxiety, and striatal dopamine content in rodents. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were treated by gavage with 100 µg/kg atrazine (ATZ low), 10 me/kg atrazine (ATZ high), or vehicle on

gestational day l through ...


The Effects Of Systemic Racism On The Academic Achievement Of African American Male Adolescents, Andre Rubin Fields Dec 2014

The Effects Of Systemic Racism On The Academic Achievement Of African American Male Adolescents, Andre Rubin Fields

Dissertations

In the most recent decade, there has been a spiraling national trend of academic underachievement on the part of African American male adolescents. The empirical purpose of this study was to investigate what role, if any, systemic racism may be playing in the growing epidemic of academic underachievement in African American male adolescents. The results of the analyses utilized in this study found that there were significant correlations between perceptions of racism, coping behavior utilization, and psychological dysfunction. Specifically, canonical correlation analysis found that elevated levels of Cultural Mistrust, Cultural Race-Related Stress, and Individual Race-Related Stress leads to increased use ...


Efficacy Of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy With The Use Of In-Room Coaching, Cassie Shacklett Reeve Aug 2014

Efficacy Of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy With The Use Of In-Room Coaching, Cassie Shacklett Reeve

Dissertations

One significant consequence of oppositional and defiant behavior is an increase in negative interactions between caregivers and the child exhibiting those behaviors (Greene & Doyle, 1999). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an empirically supported treatment that targets the development of a nurturing parent-child relationship along with teaching effective discipline strategies to decrease child noncompliance (Bodiford-McNeil & Hembree-Kigin, 2010). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of PCIT when modified by utilizing strictly in-room coaching. This type of research would allow for expanded use of this empirically supported treatment into community agencies and clinics which do not currently have the resources to conduct traditional PCIT using a one-way mirror and bug-in-the-ear technology. Supporting previous research, results of the current study revealed a significant decrease in child oppositional behavior and parent stress (McNeil, Capage, Bahl, & Blanc, 1999; Eyberg, Boggs, & Algina, 1995; Schuhmann et al., 1998). Improvements were also seen in differing dimensions of the parenting relationship, an area not frequently assessed in PCIT research. The current study provides initial empirical support for the use of in-room coaching with PCIT.


The Counselor Experience In Counseling Clients Who Have Been Sexually Assaulted, Carrie J. Tremble Aug 2014

The Counselor Experience In Counseling Clients Who Have Been Sexually Assaulted, Carrie J. Tremble

Dissertations

Despite sexual assault being the second highest reported violent crime in the United States, the literature regarding the experience of counselors who counsel clients who have been sexually assaulted is limited. This qualitative study explored and described the lived experiences of 9 counselors who, in the last five years, have provided counseling services to at least five clients who had been sexually assaulted when they were at least 18 years of age. The phenomenological data analysis approach of Moustakas (1994) was utilized to guide the data collection and analysis. Through in-depth, semi-structured interviews, the participants were able to share their ...


A Comparison Of Two Variations Of A Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Procedure On Novel And Infrequent Vocalizations Of Children With Autism, Andrew J. Bulla Aug 2014

A Comparison Of Two Variations Of A Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Procedure On Novel And Infrequent Vocalizations Of Children With Autism, Andrew J. Bulla

Master's Theses

Despite the growth in a behavioral technology for the treatment of autism, a small population of individuals with autism fails to develop functional language. One procedure used for inducing vocalizations in non-verbal children is a stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) procedure. In an SSP procedure a vocalization is paired with a reinforcer over a period of time to establish the vocalization as a learned reinforcer, and any utterance of the target vocalization is believed to be automatically reinforced thus increasing the frequency of the vocalization. Past research has yielded mixed results with the SSP procedure, and more research is warranted to identify ...


The Effects Of Varying Duration Of Reinforcement On Novel Selection-Based Mands Versus Topgraphy-Based Mands, Nicholas S. Acker Aug 2014

The Effects Of Varying Duration Of Reinforcement On Novel Selection-Based Mands Versus Topgraphy-Based Mands, Nicholas S. Acker

Master's Theses

In recent years, researchers have evaluated individuals' preferences for different mand modalities and its effects on the acquisition of novel mands during functional con1munication training (i.e., FCT; e.g., Falcomata, Ringdahl, Christensen, & Boelter, 20 I 0). In many of these studies, the modality of responding that Michael ( 1985) classified as selection-based responding, is preferred by participants (e.g., Falcomata et al., 201 0). Wraikat, Sundberg, and Michael (1991) suggest that topography-based responses may be preferable for the acquisition of complex language. However, selection-based verbal responses may have faster acquisition in learning initial verbal operants (Charlop-Christy, Carpenter, Le, LeBlanc & Kellet ...


Urban School Counseling Impact: An Aba Reversal Single Subject Time-Series Analysis Of Academic, Suspension, And Attendance Data, Katherine L. N. Colles Aug 2014

Urban School Counseling Impact: An Aba Reversal Single Subject Time-Series Analysis Of Academic, Suspension, And Attendance Data, Katherine L. N. Colles

Dissertations

While there is a dearth of longitudinal outcome research on comprehensive school counseling program impact (Carey & Dimmitt, 2006; Carey, Dimmitt, Hatch, Lapan, & Whiston, 2008; Gysbers, 2001; Whiston, 2002) on indicators of importance to school systems (Borders, 2002; Lapan, 2001), school counseling research primarily studies program components (Borders, 2002; Herr, 1979; Whiston, 2002; Whiston & Sexton, 1998) and component outcomes (Hughes & James, 2001; Schmidt, 1984, 2000; Sink, 2002). Grounded in a historical review of the school counseling field and pertinent related research, this research investigated the school counseling program impact of one kindergarten through eighth grade urban school serving a majority African American student population that was recruited based on convenient and purposeful sampling ...


Exploring Help-Seeking Intentions Among Black American Church-Goers, Krystelle Jean-Michel Aug 2014

Exploring Help-Seeking Intentions Among Black American Church-Goers, Krystelle Jean-Michel

Dissertations

The present study examined the strength of certain help-seeking barriers and predictor variables in predicting the help-seeking intentions of African American churchgoers. Research suggests numerous barriers impede mental health use among African Americans; however, the present study focused on help-seeking attitudes, cultural mistrust, psychological distress, self-stigma, public stigma, and perceived behavioral control (Hines-Martin, Malone, Kim, & Brown-Piper, 2003; Sullivan, Harris, Collado & Chen, 2006). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) served as a theoretical underpinning, guiding the integration of theory-based and culture-specific variables in one model. The present sample included 159 Black American churchgoers and attendees. The study‘s variables were each hypothesized to ...


Males’ Expectations Of Counseling, Sheryl Kelly Aug 2014

Males’ Expectations Of Counseling, Sheryl Kelly

Dissertations

In today’s society, a man upholding masculinity alone is not enough. There is a constant need to “prove” their masculinity. Men’s inability to recognize when they are experiencing stress, strain, and sickness is noted as being due to them being socialized to ignore their feelings (Wilson, n.d.). Although research that addresses the concept of help-seeking has expanded, it continues to be limited in its focus on men. In addition, not much attention has been given to counseling expectations. The purpose of the present study is to expand the current knowledge base on men and their counseling expectations ...


Sexism Across Musical Genres: A Comparison, Sarah Neff Jun 2014

Sexism Across Musical Genres: A Comparison, Sarah Neff

Honors Theses

Music is a part of daily life for most people, leading the messages within music to permeate people’s consciousness. This is concerning when the messages in music follow discriminatory themes such as sexism or racism. Sexism in music is becoming well documented, but some genres are scrutinized more heavily than others. Rap and hip-hop get much more attention in popular media for being sexist than do genres such as country and rock. My goal was to show whether or not genres such as country and rock are as sexist as rap and hip-hop. In this project, I analyze the ...


Testing A Model Of Maladaptive Perfectionism And Depression Symptoms: The Roles Of Emotional Disclosure, Emotion Regulation Strategies, Adult Attachment, And Shame, Angela M. Garrison Jun 2014

Testing A Model Of Maladaptive Perfectionism And Depression Symptoms: The Roles Of Emotional Disclosure, Emotion Regulation Strategies, Adult Attachment, And Shame, Angela M. Garrison

Dissertations

Previous research has supported a link between maladaptive perfectionism and higher levels of depression symptoms. However, researchers have not yet investigated the ways in which emotion regulation processes may mediate this relationship. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to evaluate emotional disclosure, emotional avoidance, and rumination as mediators of the relation between maladaptive perfectionism and depression symptoms. Additionally, this study also investigated the role that insecure attachment orientations play in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and use of particular emotion regulation strategies. Further, the role of shame in the emotion regulation processes of individuals with higher levels of ...


Combined Effects Of Mdma And Ethanol On Locomotor Activity And Place Conditioning In Male And Female Adolescent Sprague-Dawley Rats, Keli A. Herr Jun 2014

Combined Effects Of Mdma And Ethanol On Locomotor Activity And Place Conditioning In Male And Female Adolescent Sprague-Dawley Rats, Keli A. Herr

Master's Theses

MDMA, ("Ecstasy") is commonly abused in combination with ethanol (EtOH). Relatively few preclinical studies have investigated sex differences in animal models of polysubstance use. The current study employed a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure to assess the behavioral effects of the co-administration ofMDMA /EtOH in 32 male and 32 female adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 15 min habituation trial, eight 30-min conditioning trials were conducted in two- compartment chambers with different environmental cues. Before each drug conditioning trials, rats were administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of MDMA(6.6 mg/kg), EtOH (1.5 g/kg), MDMA (6.6 mg ...


An Evaluation Of Various Safmeds Procedures, Shawn Patrick Quigley Jun 2014

An Evaluation Of Various Safmeds Procedures, Shawn Patrick Quigley

Dissertations

Lindsley developed Say-All-Fast-Minute-Every-Day-Shuffled, or SAFMEDS, in the late 1970’s to enhance the typical use of flashcards (Graf & Auman, 2005). The acronym was developed specifically to guide the learner’s behavior when using flashcards. A review of SAFMEDS research indicates it has been utilized with children, college students and older adults with and without disabilities. The literature also indicates the SAFMEDS procedures used are not well documented or have multiple variations limiting practitioners’ ability to know what procedure to use and when. Furthermore, future SAFMEDS research is hampered by variations in the independent variable (i.e., SAFMEDS). The purpose of ...


The Effects Of An Academic Values Clarification Exercise On Academic Performance Of College Students, Dana Goetz Apr 2014

The Effects Of An Academic Values Clarification Exercise On Academic Performance Of College Students, Dana Goetz

Honors Theses

Values exploration exercises, in which individuals are typically asked to rank order their values and describe values that are most important to them, have been used for many purposes including reducing the racial achievement gap in academic performance (Cohen, Garcia, Apfel, Maseter, 2006), increasing acceptance of health related issues (Harris & Napper, 2005), and increasing academic success (Chase, Houmanfar, Hayes, Ward, Vilardaga, & Follette, 2013). However, little research has addressed the mechanism or mechanisms through which values clarification exercises impact outcomes, particularly academic achievement. This paper analyzes values clarification exercises used in educational settings during the 1970s and the roles that values ...


The Effects Of Child Birth Order And Number Of Children On Mother’S Supervision Beliefs And Practices, Alyssa Schramm Apr 2014

The Effects Of Child Birth Order And Number Of Children On Mother’S Supervision Beliefs And Practices, Alyssa Schramm

Honors Theses

Objective: This study aimed to examine (1) whether mothers’ attitudes about supervision differ based on (a) the number of children in the home and (b) the birth order of the child; (2) whether mothers’ reported supervision levels differ based on: (a) the number of children in the home and (b) the birth order of the child; (3) whether children in families with more than one child sustain more injuries than children in families with fewer children. I expected to find that mothers had more lax attitudes for their younger children versus old, and were more lax for homes with more ...


The Consequence Of Freedom: A Sociological Analysis Of The Suicide Epidemic In Luthuania, Kyle Kaminski Apr 2014

The Consequence Of Freedom: A Sociological Analysis Of The Suicide Epidemic In Luthuania, Kyle Kaminski

Honors Theses

Lithuania has the highest global suicide rate at 40.2/100,000, according to the international suicide statistics provided by WHO (2004). Lithuania's suicide rate is over 2.5 times more than the global average. The top five countries in terms of suicide rate are Lithuania, Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Hungary (Ibid). All of these countries were previously under the Soviet Union's control from the end of World War II to the end of the Cold War in 1989. Lithuania has not always been at the top of the rankings for global suicide rates. Lithuania's suicide rate ...


The Effects Of A Picture Acitivty Schedule And Functional Communication Training, Sarah J. Lett Apr 2014

The Effects Of A Picture Acitivty Schedule And Functional Communication Training, Sarah J. Lett

Honors Theses

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects a package treatment containing a picture activity schedule and functional communication training on the reduction of problem behaviors on a child with developmental delays. The study was conducted by first establishing discrimination between pictures, to be used in the picture activity schedule. Then the tutors progressively advanced through the six phases of the picture activity schedule. Each phase taught fundamental rules such as “first this, then that”, and built the schedule to more complex structure. In this way, the student could anticipate upcoming tasks, and preferred activities. The predictor strategy ...


Gradual Guidance And Independent Activity Schedules For Children With Autism, Amanda Driscoll Apr 2014

Gradual Guidance And Independent Activity Schedules For Children With Autism, Amanda Driscoll

Honors Theses

The goal of this intervention was to increase on-task and on-schedule behavior in a child with autism through the use of gradual guidance and an independent activity schedule. The participant was a three year-old boy who exhibited noncompliant problem behavior. He was at mastery level for the tasks that were included in the independent activity schedule and had no prior learning experience with an independent activity schedule. Gradual guidance was used to decrease the time it took for him to learn the complex behavior that is involved with an independent activity schedule and to keep the participant on-task and on-schedule ...


Simple Visual Discrimination Training For A Child With Autism And Exceptional Learning Difficulties, Rachel Burroughs Apr 2014

Simple Visual Discrimination Training For A Child With Autism And Exceptional Learning Difficulties, Rachel Burroughs

Honors Theses

One of the most basic pre-requisite skills for learning is simple visual discrimination. Unfortunately, the literature is lacking in how to teach simple visual discrimination to children with difficulty learning. To address this problem, the current study set out to teach a child with autism, and exceptional learning difficulty, simple visual discrimination. To do this, the researchers used a simple reversal design using a prompt fading strategy. To shape the independent behavior of selecting the correct stimulus in the presence of two other stimuli, the researchers started by reinforcing touching the stimuli when there were no other distractor stimuli present ...


The Combined Effects Of Picture Activity Schedules And Extinction Plus Differential Reinforcement On Problem Behavior During Transitions, Jessica Hurdelbrink Apr 2014

The Combined Effects Of Picture Activity Schedules And Extinction Plus Differential Reinforcement On Problem Behavior During Transitions, Jessica Hurdelbrink

Honors Theses

To decrease problem behaviors and increase compliance during transitions, a treatment package consisting of a picture activity schedule combined with extinction and differential reinforcement of other behavior was implemented. The study consisted of baseline and the intervention. Based on previous studies involving picture activity schedules, Gina Cross wrote the protocol for the teaching of the activity schedule and the transition protocol. The teaching protocol was made up of four stages of most-to-least prompting, and involved teaching the child to move the picture icon to the bottom of the schedule independently. The transition protocol gave instructions on how the tutor and ...


Use Of Task Clarification, Feedback, And Recognition To Increase Desired Behaviors Within An Organization’S Permit To Work System - Analysis Of Data Previously Collected As An Organizational Consultant, Tarek Abousaleh Apr 2014

Use Of Task Clarification, Feedback, And Recognition To Increase Desired Behaviors Within An Organization’S Permit To Work System - Analysis Of Data Previously Collected As An Organizational Consultant, Tarek Abousaleh

Dissertations

The term ‘culture’ can be used to describe both a ‘social culture’ and a ‘work culture’. A social culture can be defined behaviorally as a pattern of overt and covert behaviors that are consequated by the verbal community and the contingency specifying rules that facilitate behavior independent of any first hand experience. It is this community that defines which behaviors are reinforced, extinguished, or punished. Similarly, a work culture can be defined as a pattern of overt and covert behaviors that are consequated by the work community (leadership, employees, self, etc.) and the contingency specifying rules that facilitate behavior/performance ...


The Gender Of Participants In Published Research Involving People With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Erin Watkins Apr 2014

The Gender Of Participants In Published Research Involving People With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Erin Watkins

Master's Theses

Research articles involving participants with an autism spectrum disorder and published from 2010-2012 in Autism, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Journal of Child Psychology and Child Psychiatry, and Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders were examined to determine the reported gender of participants. The overall male:female ratio was 4.62, which is similar to that reported in epidemiological studies, but the ratio was 6.07 in intervention studies. These findings suggesting that males were in a statistical sense over-represented in intervention studies, but not in other kinds of research. Most (82.21%) of these studies included both male and ...