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Psychology

Western Michigan University

Theses/Dissertations

2009

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Improving Reading Fluency And Comprehension In Elementary Students Using Read Naturally, Rebecca Arvans Dec 2009

Improving Reading Fluency And Comprehension In Elementary Students Using Read Naturally, Rebecca Arvans

Dissertations

Difficulty learning how to read is a risk factor for school failure, low grades, behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, truancy, unemployment, jail time, and substance abuse. Reading difficulties are common in the educational setting, afflicting anywhere from 20-40 percent of students. Read Naturally is a computer-based reading program which targets the third "big idea" (i.e„ accuracy and fluency with reading). The current study assessed the efficacy of the Read Naturally program in second through fourth grade elementary students in a public elementary school. Additionally, this study assessed whether improving reading abilities resulted in changes in classroom behavior problems or self-esteem ...


The Heterosexual Mother-Lesbian Daughter Relationship: Using Consensual Qualitative Research (Cqr) To Understand Perceptions Among Predominately White, Formally Educated Mothers, Julie Meredith Davis Dec 2009

The Heterosexual Mother-Lesbian Daughter Relationship: Using Consensual Qualitative Research (Cqr) To Understand Perceptions Among Predominately White, Formally Educated Mothers, Julie Meredith Davis

Dissertations

Little research specifically addresses the heterosexual mother-lesbian daughter relationship. Given this, a core research team of six utilized a Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) approach to gain insight into two broad ideas. The first broad idea was about how heterosexual mothers perceive that their relationship with their lesbian daughters unfolds after the mothers accepted their daughters' minority sexual orientation. The second broad idea was how changes in the heterosexual mothers' values, beliefs, and attitudes (from the mothers' perspectives) influenced their postacceptance relationship with their daughters. The 10 women who agreed to participate in the study were predominately white, formally well-educated, psychologically ...


Adolescents' Experience Of The Factors Influencing Their Diabetes Treatment Regimen, Roger W. Apple Dec 2009

Adolescents' Experience Of The Factors Influencing Their Diabetes Treatment Regimen, Roger W. Apple

Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to better understand and provide a description of the factors that influence adolescents' adherence to the diabetic treatment regimen from the adolescents' experience. The sample consisted of nine adolescents diagnosed with Type I diabetes. A qualitative phenomenological methodology is used to look for significant statements, meanings, and themes that resulted in an exhaustive description of the adolescents' experience.

In-depth interviews are the primary method of data collection. Data analysis includes: transcribing the interviews and reading the transcripts, extracting significant statements, developing formulated meanings, organizing the formulated meanings into clusters of themes, and developing an ...


A Comparison Of Methods For Teaching Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Laura Lee Grow Dec 2009

A Comparison Of Methods For Teaching Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations To Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Laura Lee Grow

Dissertations

Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is an approach to treating the behavioral deficits and excesses observed in children with autism spectrum disorders. The magnitude of improvement in the overall functioning of children receiving EIBI has stimulated additional research and widespread clinical dissemination through the publication of EIBI curricular manuals. Many EIBI manuals recommend teaching conditional discriminations using the simple/conditional method. Initially, component simple discriminations are taught in isolation and in the presence of a distracter stimulus. Finally, conditional discriminations, which include stimuli previously taught as simple discriminations, are presented to the learner. Although the simple/conditional method is ...


A Molecular Analysis Of Training Multiple Versus Single Manipulations To Establish A Generalized Manipulative Imitation Repertoire, Breanne K. Hartley Dec 2009

A Molecular Analysis Of Training Multiple Versus Single Manipulations To Establish A Generalized Manipulative Imitation Repertoire, Breanne K. Hartley

Dissertations

This study evaluates the necessity of training multiple versus single manipulativeimitations per object in order to establish generalized manipulative-imitation. Training took place in Croyden Avenue School's Early Childhood Developmental Delay preschool classroom in Kalamazoo, MI. Two groups of 3 children each were trained to imitate in order to determine the most appropriate number of manipulations required (per object) to establish a generalized manipulative-imitation repertoire. Three children received single-manipulations training, and 3 children received multiple-manipulations training. It was anticipated that the multiple-manipulations training group would acquire a greater amount of generalized manipulative-imitation because the training required that the children discriminate ...


Validating The Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale, Charmeka. Whitehead Dec 2009

Validating The Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale, Charmeka. Whitehead

Dissertations

This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (ATS) measurement by assessing attitudes of counselors in training towards juvenile sex offenders. The specific aims of this study were to determine (a) internal consistency of the ATS, (b) construct validity of the ATS based on exploratory factor analysis, and (c) the degree to which this instrument has convergent and discriminate validity. The intellectual merit of this study was to provide appropriate scale validation of the ATS so that it might be used to assess attitudes of mental health professionals who work with juvenile sex offenders ...


An Evaluation Of A Sexual Assault Education Program, Angela P. Hatcher Dec 2009

An Evaluation Of A Sexual Assault Education Program, Angela P. Hatcher

Dissertations

Sexually aggressive behavior, especially on college campuses, is an issue of major concern. Previous research has found that 54% of college women report being sexually victimized (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Given the scope of this problem, effective prevention strategies are necessary. Sexual assault prevention programs have included those targeting a mixed gender audience as well as gender specific programs. Research examining the effectiveness of these programs, at both post-intervention and follow-up, have provided mixed results.

The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of a video-based sexual assault education program in decreasing rape myths, increasing victim empathy, and reducing attraction to sexual aggression among college men. In addition, the project explored variables that may predict the effectiveness of these programs, using both a within and across groups experimental design. The video-based intervention utilized for this study has demonstrated effectiveness (O'Donohue, Yeater, & Fanetti, 2003). The current study aimed to provide additional evidence to support previous work, and to expand the investigation of the impact of the intervention.

A total of 49 male undergraduate students participated in the study and all enrolled participants received the video-based intervention; however, a pre-delay control condition was used. The effectiveness of the sexual assault education program was assessed using measures of rape myth acceptance, empathy, and attraction to sexual aggression. Variables hypothesized to influence the effectiveness of the program were hypermasculinity, psychopathic traits, and alexithymia.

Results indicated that the video-based sexual assault education program was effective in decreasing participant's attraction to sexual aggression and increasing participant's rejection of rape myths and ...


The Collective Voices Of Asian International Doctoral Students In Counseling Psychology In The U.S.: Recommendations For Faculty And Training Programs, Miki Koyama Dec 2009

The Collective Voices Of Asian International Doctoral Students In Counseling Psychology In The U.S.: Recommendations For Faculty And Training Programs, Miki Koyama

Dissertations

There is growing interest among scholars to understand the training experiences of international students in applied psychology. Few empirical studies have specifically investigated international doctoral students in counseling psychology. The purpose of the present study was to create an opportunity for the voices of Asian international students in U.S. doctoral counseling psychology programs could be expressed, and to convey their collective voices.

Twelve Asian international students, predominately women from East Asia, participated in two phone interviews. Participants were asked to illustrate their overall training experiences, share helpful and unhelpful aspects of their training, and identify recommendations for faculty and ...


Exploring The Relationships Between White Racial Consciousness, Feminist Identity Development And Family Environment For White Undergraduate Women, Kara E. Wolff Aug 2009

Exploring The Relationships Between White Racial Consciousness, Feminist Identity Development And Family Environment For White Undergraduate Women, Kara E. Wolff

Dissertations

Although the literature has emphasized the importance of understanding between White racial consciousness, feminist identity development and family environment. Based on the relationships described by the canonical functions considered noteworthy in the analyses three main findings appeared to emerge. First, family environments that were perceived by White undergraduate women to promote engagement with a variety of outside perspectives were related to more actively antiracist worldviews and well-developed feminist identities; while family environments perceived to reflect a more insular focus (i.e. less exposure to divergent opinions) were related to more prejudicial racial attitudes and less feminist identity development. Second, the ...


Phenomenological Study Of Resilience In The Lives Of White, Midlife Lesbian Psychologists In Clinical Practice, Melissa A. Lidderdale Aug 2009

Phenomenological Study Of Resilience In The Lives Of White, Midlife Lesbian Psychologists In Clinical Practice, Melissa A. Lidderdale

Dissertations

The unique experiences and adversities encountered by midlife lesbian therapists have not been directly investigated. How the midlife lesbian women in this study were influenced by their individual experiences and cultural changes, both in general society and within the mental health profession, are paramount to more fully understanding the adversities, support, and resilience that they experienced while becoming psychologists. Due to the scarcity of empirical literature pertaining to the therapist's experience of resilience and the paucity of empirical literature related to resilience in lesbians, phenomenological research methods were chosen for this study. The goal of this study was to ...


Exploring The Relationship Between Religious Faith, Mental Health Help Seeking Attitudes, And Preferences For Counselor Characteristics Among Black American Churchgoers, Darryl P. Plunkett Aug 2009

Exploring The Relationship Between Religious Faith, Mental Health Help Seeking Attitudes, And Preferences For Counselor Characteristics Among Black American Churchgoers, Darryl P. Plunkett

Dissertations

Empirical data has shown that Black American churchgoers have generally higher baseline rates of religious involvement than the general U.S. population, as well as higher rates of religious involvement than most Black Americans (Chatters, Taylor & Lincoln. 1999). Researchers have noted the influence of religion on the help seeking attitudes of Black Americans (Abernethy, Houston, Mimms, & Boyd-Franklin, 2006) and have also identified counselor characteristics preferred by Black Americans when seeking help for mental health problems (Atkinson, Furlong, & Poston, 1986). However, Black American churchgoers are rarely identified as the target population in empirical studies and little is known about the relationships ...


Informed Consent As A Predictor Of Working Alliance And Perception Of Counselor/Psychotherapist, Scott E. Kerby Aug 2009

Informed Consent As A Predictor Of Working Alliance And Perception Of Counselor/Psychotherapist, Scott E. Kerby

Dissertations

Client informed consent is an important component and ethical dimension of counseling and psychotherapy required by each of the mental health professions. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which informed consent in counseling/psychotherapy may relate to client perceptions of the working alliance, measured by the Working Alliance Inventory - Short Version (WAI-S) (Tracey and Kokotovic, 1989), and clients' general opinion of the counselor/psychotherapist, measured by the short form of Counselor Rating Form (CRF-S) (Corrigan and Schmidt, 1983). In particular, the study investigated: (1) how discussion and understanding of informed consent related to client perceptions ...


The Comparative Efficacy Of Dosed, Enhanced Dosed, Prolonged Exposure, And Mindfulness In The Reduction Of Anxiety, Sophie Rubin Jun 2009

The Comparative Efficacy Of Dosed, Enhanced Dosed, Prolonged Exposure, And Mindfulness In The Reduction Of Anxiety, Sophie Rubin

Dissertations

Exposure-based treatments have proven effective in treating a range of fears and phobias and can be accounted for by mechanisms described in behavioral theory. Enhanced dosed and dosed-only exposure are promising new behavioral approaches for treating fears and phobias. Fifty participants with speech anxiety were randomly assigned to a prolonged exposure condition (PE), a dosed-only exposure condition (DE), a positively enhanced dosed exposure condition (PDE), a negatively-supplemented dosed exposure condition (NDE), or a mindfulness enhanced dosed exposure condition (MDE). End of session results for all of the enhanced groups resulted in significantly lower subjective ratings of discomfort than the non-enhanced ...


Implementing A Mastery Model Through Self Quizzing In An Online Learning Environment, Amy E. Scrima Jun 2009

Implementing A Mastery Model Through Self Quizzing In An Online Learning Environment, Amy E. Scrima

Dissertations

Mastery learning has an extensive and long-standing research base as an efficacious instructional methodology. The use of mastery learning with current technological advances, however, is a new endeavor. The current study evaluated the effects of adding a mastery learning component to an introductory college course by using an online course management system to facilitate frequent, self-given, chapter review quizzes. Thirty-two first- and second-year college students of similar demographic makeup at a midsize community college were the participants for this study. An alternating treatment design was used to assign students to mastery and nonmastery conditions in two sections of an introductory ...


Curriculum-Based Measures In Writing: A School-Based Evaluation Of Predictive Validity, Christina M. Terenzi Jun 2009

Curriculum-Based Measures In Writing: A School-Based Evaluation Of Predictive Validity, Christina M. Terenzi

Dissertations

Recent research in the area of Curriculum-Based Measures (CBM) in writing has shown that traditionally used metrics, such as total words written and total words correct, may not be the best tools for measuring writing performance, for both secondary and elementary aged children (e.g., Gansle, Noell, VanDerHeyden, Naquin, & Slider, 2002; Tindal & Parker, 1989a; Watkinson & Lee, 1992). Evidence suggests that more advanced measures, such as production-independent measures (e.g., percentage of correct word sequences) may be stronger predictors of student skill level in the area of writing. The present study replicated portions of a recent seminal study and investigated the predictive validity of CBM ...


Acceptability Of Interventions To Staff In Long-Term Care Settings For Older Adults: Comparing Ratings And Hierarchical Selection, Jonathan C. Baker Apr 2009

Acceptability Of Interventions To Staff In Long-Term Care Settings For Older Adults: Comparing Ratings And Hierarchical Selection, Jonathan C. Baker

Dissertations

Older adults and their caregivers generally prefer behavioral interventions over medications in treatment acceptability studies (Osterkamp, Mathews, Burgio, & Hardin, 1997). However, previous acceptability studies have primarily examined ratings, which did not force the responder to select between treatment options. Additionally, recent advances in behavioral treatment technologies (Carr & LeBlanc, 2003) and pharmacotherapy (Schneider, 1999) warrant revisiting treatment acceptability for older adults. The present investigation examined treatment acceptability of behavioral, pharmacological, and sensory interventions using a treatment acceptability rating scale, treatment selections, and direct report of treatments used in a six-month window. Fifty-six staff from nursing homes in the Mid-West United States ...


Training The Execution Of Single-Case Research Methodology Skills In An Early And Intensive Behavioral Intervention Setting, Jessa R. Love Apr 2009

Training The Execution Of Single-Case Research Methodology Skills In An Early And Intensive Behavioral Intervention Setting, Jessa R. Love

Dissertations

Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for children with autism is a fruitful area for conducting research on clinically relevant problems in an attempt to investigate some of the unanswered questions about which procedures are most effective and efficient. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that therapists providing these services have received adequate training in conducting relevant single-case design research in this area. Providing such therapists with the skills needed to implement single-case design research protocols could improve the use of the scientist-practitioner model in these settings and greatly expand the base of scientific knowledge in the area.

Behavioral Skills Training (BST ...


Investigating The Effects Of Observer Presence And Feedback On Individuals' Work-Related Behavior, Angela R. Lebbon Apr 2009

Investigating The Effects Of Observer Presence And Feedback On Individuals' Work-Related Behavior, Angela R. Lebbon

Dissertations

Direct observation procedures have been widely used by applied behavior analysts to examine the effects of various interventions, however, recent research examining the effects of the observer's presence on behavior has found that participants behave in ways that are not representative of their behavior in the absence of an observer. Furthermore, recent research has demonstrated that both reactivity and habituation are idiosyncratic and it remains unclear which variables mediate reactive effects with individuals. Researchers have discussed the necessity of identifying and measuring reactive effects in order to discover variables (e.g., discriminative stimulus properties) that may mediate reactive effects ...


Comparing The Accuracy Of Performing Digital And Paper Checklists Using A Feedback Package During Normal Workload Conditions In Simulated Flight, William Gene Rantz Apr 2009

Comparing The Accuracy Of Performing Digital And Paper Checklists Using A Feedback Package During Normal Workload Conditions In Simulated Flight, William Gene Rantz

Dissertations

This study examined whether pilots completed airplane digital or paper checklists more accurately when they received post-flight graphic and verbal feedback. Participants were 6 college student pilots with instrument rating. The task consisted of flying flight patterns using a Frasca 241 Flight Training Device which emulates a Cirrus SR20 aircraft. The main dependent variable was the number of checklist items completed correctly per flight. An alternating treatment, multiple baseline design across pairs with reversal, was used. During baseline, the average percent of correctly completed items per flight varied considerably across participants, ranging from 13% to 57% for traditional paper checklists ...


Student-Athlete Worldview: A Qualitative Discovery Of Student-Athletes' Outlook Of The World Through Their Athletic Experiences, Lara Preacco Apr 2009

Student-Athlete Worldview: A Qualitative Discovery Of Student-Athletes' Outlook Of The World Through Their Athletic Experiences, Lara Preacco

Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore Athletic Identity (AI) by looking at its essence, and learn about how student-athletes perceive and experience themselves and the world through their athletic experiences; or Student Athlete Worldview (SAWV). A phenomenological study was conducted to investigate and describe the common and emerging themes of SAWV. Initial interviews, journaling, and follow-up interviews were conducted with nine student-athletes competing in NCAA Division I, non-revenue, individual and team sports. Student-athletes offered a revealing picture and identified three aspects of being a student-athlete: intrapersonal, interpersonal and restrictive/sacrificing aspects. These aspects were combined to develop an ...


Counselor Trainees' Perceptions Of Their Personal Growth: A Qualitative Inquiry, Ericka L. Souders Apr 2009

Counselor Trainees' Perceptions Of Their Personal Growth: A Qualitative Inquiry, Ericka L. Souders

Dissertations

Over the past decade there has been increased discussion in the counselor education literature regarding the personal limitations and/or impairments of counselors that may hinder their abilities to provide competent services. Although counseling ethical codes and standards of practice suggest competent counselors are those who demonstrate both professional and personal skills and counselor educators have explored numerous training methods to promote such development, the concern about impaired counselors remains. There is minimal information in the literature that describes how counselors in training develop personal attitudes, skills, and characteristics that may prevent their impairment and facilitate their competency with their ...


Effects Of Age And Promotion In The Use Of Psychological Resources Of Promoted Employees, Janet M. Thorne-Chan Apr 2009

Effects Of Age And Promotion In The Use Of Psychological Resources Of Promoted Employees, Janet M. Thorne-Chan

Dissertations

There is little research on the personal experiences of employees as they make a career transition due to promotion. The purpose of this study was to examine how newly promoted employees use their psychological resources to cope with transition. The Career Transition Inventory (CTI) was administered to 32 hairstylists from 14 different salons in the Midwest. The five scales of the CTI (Readiness, Confidence, Control, Support, and Independence) were used to identify how psychological resources were used by promoted employees. The CTI scales were compared to the variables of Age and Promotion since these variables are mentioned in the literature ...


The Language Facilitation Training System: Vocal Verbal Behavior, Maija Graudins Jan 2009

The Language Facilitation Training System: Vocal Verbal Behavior, Maija Graudins

Honors Theses

The Language Facilitation Training System (LFTS) is a subsystem of the Behavioral Research Supervisory System (BRSS). Both of these are contained within BATS, which is the Behavior Analysis Training System. These systems were developed by Dr. Richard Malott in one of the Behavior Analysis programs at Western Michigan University.


Drug Use And Abuse By People With Autism, Todd A. Merritt Jan 2009

Drug Use And Abuse By People With Autism, Todd A. Merritt

Honors Theses

A developmental disability that is as prevalent as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is in society should have an extensive background of research, and this appears to be lacking, specifically concerning the issue of substance use and abuse. This article is a review of the current literature on drug use and abuse by people with Autism. Although some relevant studies have been conducted, no review of this literature has been done. Topics of interest include the prevalence of use and abuse of licit and illicit substances (e.g., ethanol, cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine), common drug-related problems, and targeted prevention and treatment ...