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Psychology

Western Michigan University

Theses/Dissertations

1991

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A Comparison Of The Effects Of Two Individual Monetary Incentive Systems On Work Productivity: Piece-Work Pay Versus Base Pay Plus Incentives, Kirk L. Gillette Dec 1991

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Two Individual Monetary Incentive Systems On Work Productivity: Piece-Work Pay Versus Base Pay Plus Incentives, Kirk L. Gillette

Master's Theses

This study compared the effectiveness of a piece-rate pay system in which 100% of the subject's pay was incentive-based with a base pay plus incentive system in which approximately 30% of the subject's pay was incentive-based. Two experiments were conducted. In each experiment, six subjects were exposed to both pay systems using a within-subject reversal design. Subjects participated in 6 to 9 three-hour sessions (Experiment 1) or 9 to 14 four-hour sessions (Experiment 2). Simulated bank checks with differing cash values were presented on a computer screen, and subjects entered the cash values using the computer keyboard. The ...


Effects Of Music As A Conditioned Stimulus And Progressive Muscle Relaxation In Reducing Anxiety, Marie Elaine Clarkson Dec 1991

Effects Of Music As A Conditioned Stimulus And Progressive Muscle Relaxation In Reducing Anxiety, Marie Elaine Clarkson

Master's Theses

The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether music could become a conditioned stimulus for lowered muscle tension and/or reduced anxiety.

There were three groups: (1) the PMR group receiving PMR alone, (2) the MUS group receiving music alone, and (3) the PMRM group receiving PMR followed by music. After four training sessions, a posttest was conducted in which all of the groups were given five minutes to relax. The PMR group had silence, the MUS group had music and the PMRM group had music which had previously been heard after relaxation training. Tension and anxiety reduction ...


Organizational Development Through The Implementation Of Strategic Plans, Susan M. Eickhoff Dec 1991

Organizational Development Through The Implementation Of Strategic Plans, Susan M. Eickhoff

Dissertations

Organizations today need effective and efficient total organizational change strategies in order to ensure both short- and long-term organizational health. As a result of an organization being a multi-dimensional entity, the ingredients for its change strategy must necessarily be representative of all its dimensions such as business management, information system, behavior analysis, behavioral systems analysis, total quality management and statistical process control techniques. Those ingredients of a comprehensive change strategy exist but have not been put together into a totally integrated package so far. In the present study, a fully-integrated organizational change strategy was systematically employed with the goal of ...


Acquisition Of Conflict Management Skills With High School Adolescent Females, Leslie Skinner-Hughes Dec 1991

Acquisition Of Conflict Management Skills With High School Adolescent Females, Leslie Skinner-Hughes

Dissertations

This study examined the effects of a conflict management training program on the performance levels of high school adolescent females. Twenty female adolescent students were randomly assigned in equal numbers to either an experimental or control group. The students in the experimental group participated in a one school-day training program in conflict management skills. The students in the control group participated in two hours of discussion on handling conflicts. Pre- and post-training performance was measured by videotape recordings, classroom behavior ratings, behavior checklist, and student records of referrals for discipline.

The results showed the following: (1) The videotapes revealed a ...


The Effects Of Relaxation Plus Imaginal Flooding Versus Relaxation Only On Panic Attacks In Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Jan E . Bachman Dec 1991

The Effects Of Relaxation Plus Imaginal Flooding Versus Relaxation Only On Panic Attacks In Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Jan E . Bachman

Dissertations

Many Vietnam veterans experience intrusive recollections of combat-related events in the form of nightmares and flashbacks, a primary symptom of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Imaginai flooding has shown some promise in reducing the frequency and intensity of these. Cognitive- behavioral therapies have also been used, but their effectiveness has not been studied. Experiment 1 attempted to determine whether a self-imposed version of imaginai flooding (called Self-Imaginai Flooding) could be used rather than the usual therapist-led procedure, and whether treatment effects could generalize from the treated to untreated intrusive memories. In a between groups design, with six Vietnam veteran subjects in ...


The Effects Of Individual Feedback And Group Feedback On The Nominal Group Technique, Monica Porter Dec 1991

The Effects Of Individual Feedback And Group Feedback On The Nominal Group Technique, Monica Porter

Dissertations

The nominal group technique (NGT) was modified and implemented in an educational setting. Procedures included (a) targeting and voting on the most important issue, (b) generating a list of possible solutions and providing rationales, and (c) completing a final report as a group consensus.

The effects of individual feedback and group feedback on the NGT were examined. Group 1 received individual feedback followed by group feedback, and Group 2 received group feedback followed by individual feedback.

Twenty undergraduates served as subjects and participated in problem solving tasks in which individual feedback and group feedback were provided on the subjects' written ...


Sequences Of Fixed-Ratio Schedules Of Reinforcement: The Effect Of Ratio Size In The Second And Third Fixed-Ratio On Pigeons' Choice, Susan Goeters Dec 1991

Sequences Of Fixed-Ratio Schedules Of Reinforcement: The Effect Of Ratio Size In The Second And Third Fixed-Ratio On Pigeons' Choice, Susan Goeters

Dissertations

The present study used a discrete-trials procedure to examine choice in pigeons presented with various three-component sequences of fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement. An experimenter-controlled stimulus was correlated with each sequence and pigeons were presented with a specified number of forced-exposure and choice trials. Three phases were implemented in an effort to investigate the conditions under which fixed-ratios other than the first in a sequence of three affect choice. In Phase 1, pigeons were given a choice between a fixed-ratio X fixed-ratio 1 fixed-ratio 25 and a fixed-ratio X fixed-ratio 25 fixed-ratio 1 sequence of food delivery. Across conditions, X was ...


The Effects Of Daily And Weekly Supervisor Feedback On The Performance Of University Clerical Staff, Christopher Benjamin Turla Aug 1991

The Effects Of Daily And Weekly Supervisor Feedback On The Performance Of University Clerical Staff, Christopher Benjamin Turla

Master's Theses

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a feedback system developed to increase the productivity and job satisfaction of clerical staff in a university unit that admitted and audited students. Weekly and daily feedback were compared. Employees self-recorded the quantity and type of tasks completed throughout the study. In feedback condition 1, the supervisor delivered feedback once a week to two employees and everyday to three employees. In feedback condition 2, feedback frequencies were switched such that employees who first received weekly feedback received daily feedback, and employees who first received daily feedback received weekly feedback. Job satisfaction was measured before ...


Nonidentity Matching Training As A Supplement To The Audio-Visual Combination Test, Melissa Wilson Aug 1991

Nonidentity Matching Training As A Supplement To The Audio-Visual Combination Test, Melissa Wilson

Master's Theses

The Audio-Visual Combination Test is an assessment tool developed by Kerr, Meyerson, and Flora (1977), and used by those working with developmentally disabled persons to assess learning-to-learn skills. The test measures motor, visual, and auditory discrimination learning.

The experimenter attempted to determine if there were an important step-visual nonidentity discrimination-between AVC subtests 4 and 5/6 of the test. Twelve developmentally disabled adults were tested with three different sets of tasks interposed between a revised subtest 4 and 5/6. Results showed that most subjects had greater difficulty with the visual nonidentity discrimination than with the auditory/visual discrimination, subtest ...


Effects Of Interactive And Linear Video On Patient Understanding Of Risks In Medical Procedures, Christopher P. Giuliano Aug 1991

Effects Of Interactive And Linear Video On Patient Understanding Of Risks In Medical Procedures, Christopher P. Giuliano

Dissertations

Three methods of providing information relevant to informed consent where a vaginal birth after cesarean section was being considered were evaluated; (1) the traditional and common method (physician presentation), (2) Linear Video Tape (LVT), and (3) Interactive Video Disc (IVD). The traditional and common method of presenting information led to only limited acquisition of knowledge resulting in patients making less than fully-informed decisions. Both the linear video tape and the interactive video disc led to significantly greater understanding of the risks and benefits of the procedure than did the physician presentation. The interactive disc and the linear video tape were ...


Temporal Contiguity As A Defining Feature Of The Terms Reinforcer And Discriminative Stimulus: A Survey Of Journal Editorial Staffs, Julie Ann Fillhard Aug 1991

Temporal Contiguity As A Defining Feature Of The Terms Reinforcer And Discriminative Stimulus: A Survey Of Journal Editorial Staffs, Julie Ann Fillhard

Master's Theses

Behavior analysis is a science that requires a consistent set of terms to describe independent and dependent variables and the relations between them. However, a review of literature indicates that behavior analysis is plagued by terminological inconsistencies, even with such basic terms as reinforcer and discriminative stimulus.

In the present study, 193 journal editorial staff members were surveyed to determine the importance of temporal contiguity in defining the terms reinforcer and discriminative stimulus. Eighty-seven editors (45%) responded to the survey which described two hypothetical scenarios and contained a series of questions relevant to each.

The results of the study indicate ...


The Effects Of Goal Setting And Supervisory Feedback On Staff Performance In A Human Service Setting, Michael D. Mack Aug 1991

The Effects Of Goal Setting And Supervisory Feedback On Staff Performance In A Human Service Setting, Michael D. Mack

Master's Theses

Goal setting and supervisory feedback were examined to determine their relative effects on the performance of direct care staff. The performance of five staff from a day treatment program for developmentally disabled adults was measured. The specific performance measure of interest was staff implementation rates of daily training programs with clients. The results demonstrated that adding performance feedback to goal setting had minimal impact on staff performance. Yet, goal setting alone as an initial technique was effective in improving the performance of staff. Unfortunately, the long-term effects of goal setting alone may be less desirable than these initial data indicate ...


A Parent Training Program For Teaching Preschool Children Independent Self-Care Skills, Dalene Rooks Degraaf Aug 1991

A Parent Training Program For Teaching Preschool Children Independent Self-Care Skills, Dalene Rooks Degraaf

Dissertations

Teaching children to be independent is a challenge for parents. Initially, parents directly prompt and consequate their children’s behavior. Later, the parents fade prompts and delay consequences expecting their children to use self-management skills and environmental cues to complete tasks. The purpose of this study was to observe some of the methods which parents use to teach their 4-year-old children independent self-care skills and test the effects of a parent training program. The program was designed to transfer stimulus control from the parent’s physical or verbal prompts to textual and picture prompts on a poster listing the morning ...


Ease Of Learning And The Emergence Of Equivalence Class Formation: A Comparison Of Topography-Based And Selection-Based Paradigms, Riad M. Wraikat Aug 1991

Ease Of Learning And The Emergence Of Equivalence Class Formation: A Comparison Of Topography-Based And Selection-Based Paradigms, Riad M. Wraikat

Dissertations

Michael (1985) identified two types of verbal behavior, topography-based (i.e., speaking or using sign language) and selection-based (i.e., symbol board). Sundberg & Sundberg (1990) and Wraikat (1991) compared these systems in terms of the ease of learning object naming (tact) and giving the correct sign or pointing to the correct symbol on hearing the object name (intraverbal). Sundberg & Sundberg (1990) also compared them for the spontaneous development of a new relation, identifying the object when hearing its name (stimulus class formation or equivalence). The results of both studies favored the topography-based system, but in each case some subjects were ...


Effects Of Differential Force Requirements On Choice Behavior Under Concurrent-Chain Schedules, Randal D. Reynolds Aug 1991

Effects Of Differential Force Requirements On Choice Behavior Under Concurrent-Chain Schedules, Randal D. Reynolds

Dissertations

Concurrent-chain research shows that choice behavior is sensitive to differential delays to reinforcement but apparently insensitive to differential response-requirement factors. To date, however, no studies have directly investigated the effects of differential force requirements on choice behavior under concurrent-chain schedules. This relationship will be the focus of the present study.

In Experiment 1 rats responded on conventional concurrent-chain schedules and were given a choice between different terminal-link force requirements. The force requirement on one terminal-link lever was 0.25 N while the force requirement on the other lever was varied from 0.25 N to 1.51 N across conditions ...


Contrived Versus Natural Reinforcers In The Acquisition Of A Verbal Repertoire By Adult Learners, Lisa Ann Leblanc Jun 1991

Contrived Versus Natural Reinforcers In The Acquisition Of A Verbal Repertoire By Adult Learners, Lisa Ann Leblanc

Dissertations

Previous research suggests that by making classroom contingencies for verbal responding more like those in the natural environment, i.e., by using motivative variables to evoke verbal responses which are followed by specific actions on the part of listeners, verbal repertoires can be taught more effectively to children and language impaired individuals. The present study examines the role of specific versus generalized conditioned reinforcement following adult students' question-asking on the acquisition of a verbal repertoire in a classroom setting and on the generalization of this repertoire to a more natural verbal environment.

Subjects were 32 university students in two American ...


The Effects Of Quality Contingent Extrinsic Rewards On Intrinsic Motivation, Kimberly Ann Filler O'Connor Jun 1991

The Effects Of Quality Contingent Extrinsic Rewards On Intrinsic Motivation, Kimberly Ann Filler O'Connor

Master's Theses

Although many studies have shown that performance-contingent rewards increase performance quantity, few have examined whether quality contingent rewards increase quality. One objective of the present study was to determine whether quality contingent rewards would improve quality.

A second, independent objective was to determine whether extrinsic quality contingent rewards would decrease a person's intrinsic interest in and quality performance of a task following termination of those rewards. To date, no other studies have examined the effects of quality contingent rewards on intrinsic interest and quality performance.

The results indicated that quality performance-contingent rewards do improve quality. Quality contingent rewards increased ...


The Effects Of Immediate Versus Delayed Feedback On Error Detection Accuracy In A Quality Control Simulation, Matthew A. Mason Jun 1991

The Effects Of Immediate Versus Delayed Feedback On Error Detection Accuracy In A Quality Control Simulation, Matthew A. Mason

Master's Theses

A computer simulation was developed to examine the effects of immediate versus delayed visual feedback on the accuracy of identifying specified aberrations in sample stimuli. In a self-paced computer tutorial, subjects learned to identify particular aberrations in a schematic diagram of a hard disk drive. During experimental sessions, subjects were exposed to a series of 200 samples presented four at a time sequentially on a computer screen, and were required to indicate with a computer mouse whether or not each sample drive contained an aberration. Accuracy of error detection was assessed under four experimental conditions: (1) self-paced, immediate feedback; (2 ...


The Effect Of A Conditioned Establishing Operations Procedure On Rats Responding On A Vi 30 Second Schedule For Sweetened Condensed Milk, Daniel James Knip Jun 1991

The Effect Of A Conditioned Establishing Operations Procedure On Rats Responding On A Vi 30 Second Schedule For Sweetened Condensed Milk, Daniel James Knip

Master's Theses

Previous research on conditioned hunger paired food deprivation with a neutral stimulus. Amount of food eaten was typically the usual dependent variable, and the stimulus was visual, auditory or gustatory. The present study used rate of response as dependent variable, and paired an olfactory stimulus with food deprivation.

An experimental and control group each contained eight rats. Rate of bar pressing for sweetened condensed milk was the dependent measure. The experimental animals were then exposed to a vanilla scent during a period of extreme food deprivation. They were next allowed to bar press for liquid food under one hour of ...


The Effects Of Mephenytoin On Schedule-Controlled Responding In The Pigeon, Victoria Mary Pellettiere Jun 1991

The Effects Of Mephenytoin On Schedule-Controlled Responding In The Pigeon, Victoria Mary Pellettiere

Master's Theses

Acute and chronic effects of mephenytoin (30 - 360 mg/kg) were examined in pigeons responding under a multiple fixed-ratio 50 fixed-interval 90-sec schedule of food delivery. The highest dose administered acutely (240 mg/kg) produced substantial reductions in rate of responding under both components of the multiple schedule; the effects of other doses were small and inconsistent. Tolerance appeared to develop to the rate-decreasing effects of mephenytoin following chronic exposure to the drag.


Effects Of Training Method On Inspector Accuracy In A Simulated Quality Control Task, Cathy L. Thorne Jun 1991

Effects Of Training Method On Inspector Accuracy In A Simulated Quality Control Task, Cathy L. Thorne

Dissertations

This study compared the effects of three training programs on inspector accuracy. The inspection task required 38 subjects to detect errors in geometric figures. All three training programs provided the same written descriptions of correct and incorrect figures, and all three training programs provided examples of correct figures. What differed among the programs was the type of incorrect figures. Individuals assigned to the Correct Sample Only Group were not shown any incorrect figures. Individuals assigned to the Critical Differences Group were shown incorrect figures which contained only one error at a time. Individuals assigned to the Multiple Differences Group were ...


The Training Of Initial Behavioral Assessment Interview Skills, Mark J. Hirsch Jun 1991

The Training Of Initial Behavioral Assessment Interview Skills, Mark J. Hirsch

Dissertations

Two manuals were used to train behavioral assessment interview skills. The first manual outlined eleven initial responses the therapist must make to determine the controlling variables related to a client’s problem. The second manual outlined strategies for dealing with evasive or nonappropriate responses made by a client. Subjects were graduate students from the psychology department of Western Michigan University who had no experience in conducting assessment interviews. Six subjects participated. Simulated therapy sessions between subjects acting as therapists and confederates acting as clients were conducted. Scripts were utilized to standardize confederate responses. Each session dealt with a clinical concern ...


The Effects Of A Conditioned Establishing Operation On Performance Of A Two-Component Chain, Kenneth Lee Alling Apr 1991

The Effects Of A Conditioned Establishing Operation On Performance Of A Two-Component Chain, Kenneth Lee Alling

Master's Theses

Subjects were exposed to a discrete-trial procedure in which reinforcement following the completion of a two-component response chain was dependent upon the presence or absence of the houselight. The procedure used closely resembles the hypothetical procedure suggested by Michael (1982) for developing control by a conditioned establishing operation. All subjects came to respond differentially in the presence and absence of the houselight. However, removal of the supposed conditioned reinforcer following completion of the first component of the response chain had little effect on control by the houselight, casting some doubt on Michael's (1982) theoretical analysis.


The Effects Of Public Posting On Job Performance With And Without Supervisory Participation, Jan Marie Miller Apr 1991

The Effects Of Public Posting On Job Performance With And Without Supervisory Participation, Jan Marie Miller

Master's Theses

The intervention was tested using a sequential presentation of conditions to assess the performance of clerical employees in a university admissions office. Ten workers received feedback on completion of mailroom tasks on a daily basis. Tasks included time of mail delivery and accuracy and quantity of responses to information requests. For mail delivery, two intervention elements were applied. First, group performance data were posted publicly. Second, verbal feedback from a supervisor was added to public posting. Improvement in time of mail delivery was observed when public posting was implemented; however, no reliable improvements were observed when supervisor feedback was added ...


Effects Of Phenobarbital In Combination With Phenytoin Or Valproic Acid On The Delayed-Matching-To-Sample Performance Of Pigeons, Catherine Ann Karas Apr 1991

Effects Of Phenobarbital In Combination With Phenytoin Or Valproic Acid On The Delayed-Matching-To-Sample Performance Of Pigeons, Catherine Ann Karas

Master's Theses

The present study examined the effects of phenobarbital (S, 10,20, and 40 mg/kg), phenytoin (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg), and valproic acid (40, 60, 80, and 120 mg/kg), and those of phenobarbital (10 and 20 mg/kg) in combination with phenytoin (2.5,5, and 7.5 mg/kg) or valproic acid (40, 60, and 80 mg/kg), on the delayed-matching-to-sample performance of pigeons. In general, high doses of each individual drug reduced accuracy. Drug combinations also reduced accuracy relative to control values. Reductions in accuracy produced by drug combinations were very similar ...


Improving The Performance Of Corporate Instructional Designers, Karolyn A. Smalley Apr 1991

Improving The Performance Of Corporate Instructional Designers, Karolyn A. Smalley

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the job aid developed by Brethower (1968) controlled instructional designers’ behavior so that they effectively and efficiently produced performance-based learning programs. This study consisted of developing and testing two iterations of the Analysis-Design Instructional Guide (job aid). Instructional designers who used either version of the job aid were able to meet a higher percentage of general criteria for performance-based learning programs than designers who did not. In addition, they took less time to develop programs than industry norms suggest. Even though the behavior of the designers was not completely ...


A Comparison Of Three Procedures For The Establishment Of A Novel Response With Delayed Reinforcement, Jayson W. Wilkenfield Apr 1991

A Comparison Of Three Procedures For The Establishment Of A Novel Response With Delayed Reinforcement, Jayson W. Wilkenfield

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to compare three procedures for examining the degree to which delayed response-dependent presentations of food would result in the acquisition of lever-pressing in rats. Although there is an abundance of research examining the maintenance of behavior with delayed reinforcement, few studies have investigated reinforcement delays in the acquisition of new discrete behaviors. Historically two different procedures have been employed in the study of delayed reinforcement. In a nonresetting delay procedure a response sets up the delivery of a reinforcer to occur after t seconds, and responses that may occur during the delay interval ...


Choice By Rats For Enriched Versus Standard Home Cages Plastic Pipes, Wood Platforms, Wood Chips, And Paper Towels As Enrichment Items, Anita Lynn Bradshaw Apr 1991

Choice By Rats For Enriched Versus Standard Home Cages Plastic Pipes, Wood Platforms, Wood Chips, And Paper Towels As Enrichment Items, Anita Lynn Bradshaw

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether simple additions to the home cages of rats made those cages preferable to standard housing arrangements. Results indicated that the majority of rats preferred cages with wood platforms, wood chips, and paper towels to otherwise identical cages without these items. Wood chips were not, however, practical with the cages used in the present study. Plastic pipes caused no problems but were not preferred by the majority of individual animals. Both wood platforms and paper towels created no problems and appeared to be useful as enrichment items. The latter were preferred ...