Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Psychology

Western Michigan University

Theses/Dissertations

1985

Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Reinforcement Increases The Strength Of An Elicited Response, Michael D. Peters Dec 1985

Reinforcement Increases The Strength Of An Elicited Response, Michael D. Peters

Dissertations

A response initially produced by noncontigent fixed-time delivery of brief electric shock was strengthened by reinforcement. Following the fixed-time shock baseline condition, response contingent shock absence (avoidance) was programmed for the lower probability of two response options for one group of squirrel monkeys. For the other group the interposed history was variable-interval food reinforcement. When responding was reliably maintained reinforcement was discontinued and a return made to fixed-time shock conditions as programmed prior to reinforcement. Upon a return to original conditions, rates were substantially elevated over baseline with the elevation sustained for many sessions. The avoidance group showed the most ...


Behavioral Toxicology Of A Glucocorticoid: Analysis Of Selected Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Repeated Prednisolone Treatment, Robert G. Sewell Dec 1985

Behavioral Toxicology Of A Glucocorticoid: Analysis Of Selected Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Repeated Prednisolone Treatment, Robert G. Sewell

Dissertations

Glucocorticoids are used medicinally for numerous chronic ailments. While dramatically effective, glucocorticoid treatment is replete with psychiatric complications. The behavioral toxicology of glucocorticoids, however, remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, 13 laboratory studies were performed to analyze the influence of prednisolone, a representative glucocorticoid, upon varied behavioral and physiological endpoints in rats. Experiments 1-3 showed prednisolone to produce marked hypodipsia, body weight loss, selective adrenal gland atrophy, hyperactivity, hyperalgesia, altered grasping responses, hyperglycemia, enhanced predation, and conditioned taste aversion. Most of these findings were directly dependent upon dose, and where explored, number of treatments. The remaining ten studies examined both acute and ...


Tamoxifen Effects Upon Body Weight, Water Intake, And Several Behaviors, And Tamoxifen’S Unconditioned Stimulus Properties In The Conditioned Taste Aversion Paradigm, Steven J. Anderson Dec 1985

Tamoxifen Effects Upon Body Weight, Water Intake, And Several Behaviors, And Tamoxifen’S Unconditioned Stimulus Properties In The Conditioned Taste Aversion Paradigm, Steven J. Anderson

Master's Theses

The antiestrogen tamoxifen citrate (Stuart Pharmaceuticals) is indicated for treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen (TMX) is frequently employed because of demonstrated effectiveness in tumor reduction and a low incidence of debilitating side effects compared to similar agents. Even though side effects are uncommon with use of TMX, medical and behavioral sequalae have been noted. The present , . study investigated several behaviors in female rats administered TMX in two separate studies. In the first investigation, the effects of 25 daily treatments of TMX upon body weight, water intake, and several behaviors were assayed. In the second study, aversion to a saccharin solution ...


Rule-Governed Behavior In Preschool Children, Cassandra Ann Braam Dec 1985

Rule-Governed Behavior In Preschool Children, Cassandra Ann Braam

Master's Theses

The control exerted by different types of rules on the behavior of preschool children was determined. Using a variation of a multielement design, four topographically similar rules were presented to seven four-year-old children. The rules varied in the deadlines and delay of consequences (rewards) specified. The results showed that: (a) requests or mands specifying only response requirements generally exerted poor control; (b) rules specifying an immediate deadline and an immediate reward exerted strong control; (c) rules specifying deadlines and a one-week delay of the reward exerted good control; and (d) rules specifying no deadlines for completion and a one-week delay ...


Instructional Control Of Leniency In Self-Appraisals, Maria Barnum Nelson Dec 1985

Instructional Control Of Leniency In Self-Appraisals, Maria Barnum Nelson

Master's Theses

Self- and supervisor ratings were obtained on four classifications of non-teaching public school employees across two instructional conditions. Self-ratings showed more leniency in the condition where employees were instructed not to meet with the supervisor to discuss the ratings; self-ratings showed less leniency in the condition where employees were instructed to meet with the supervisor to discuss the ratings. Despite foreknowledge of the research question and instructional conditions, supervisors showed a tendency to rate employees differentially according to the instructional conditions. The results of the analyses demonstrate the potency of instructional control on rating behavior by employees and supervisors. Questions ...


A Comparison Of Similar Versus Dissimilar Competing Response Practice In The Treatment Of Muscle Tics, Ellen L. Sharenow Dec 1985

A Comparison Of Similar Versus Dissimilar Competing Response Practice In The Treatment Of Muscle Tics, Ellen L. Sharenow

Master's Theses

Miltenberger, Fuqua, and McKinley (1985) reported that the competing response component of the habit reversal treatment package (Azrin & Nunn, 1973) when presented alone was as effective as the entire habit reversal procedure in suppressing muscle tics. In a related study, Miltenberger and Fuqua (1 9 8 5 , in press) reported that the performance of the competing response contingent on the occurrence of a variety of nervous habits resulted in greater response suppression than the non-contingent performance of the competing response. In an effort to determine whether the topography of the competing response was important to the reported effects, this study ...


Use Of A Supervisory Safety Checklist And Safety Meetings To Reduce And Prevent Hazardous Safety Conditions In An Automotive Plant, Todd Alan Brighton Aug 1985

Use Of A Supervisory Safety Checklist And Safety Meetings To Reduce And Prevent Hazardous Safety Conditions In An Automotive Plant, Todd Alan Brighton

Master's Theses

Hazardous safety conditions and incidents were operationally defined for an assembly division at an automotive plant. The conditions were observed and recorded on two different employee shifts for an 11 week period. The experimental design used had three distinct phases. In the first phase baseline data were recorded on the number of hazardous safety conditions by two safety observers. In the second phase two shift supervisors used the safety checklist to record hazardous safety conditions. In the last phase data were taken but the supervisory safety checklist was not used. The data from all observations were discussed in safety meetings ...


Validation And Validity Generalization Of Placement Exercises Used In The Selection Of Clerical Employees, Keith Edward Mitchell Aug 1985

Validation And Validity Generalization Of Placement Exercises Used In The Selection Of Clerical Employees, Keith Edward Mitchell

Master's Theses

A follow-up study was conducted to determine the predictive validity of a group of job-related Placement Exercises used in the selection of clerical employees for a northeastern utility company. The present study was also to determine if the obtained validities could be generalized to similar organizational settings.

The subjects included in this study were 98 clerical employees working in the job classifications of Junior Clerk, Clerk, Intermediate Clerk, and Secretary-Stenographer. The obtained results supported the hypothesis that a positive and significant relationship existed between performance on the Placement Exercises and supervisory ratings of employee job performance. After applying the results ...


The Effects Of Reward And Reinforcement On Intrinsic Interest, Alyce Muzette Dickinson Aug 1985

The Effects Of Reward And Reinforcement On Intrinsic Interest, Alyce Muzette Dickinson

Dissertations

Under certain circumstances, rewarding individuals for performing a task that they enjoy may decrease their subsequent interest in that activity when rewards are no longer available. Decreased task interest is not, however, an inevitable outcome of reward and the subsequent termination of reward. This study investigated one variable that may influence whether task interest will increase or decrease following reward termination: the degree to which the reward is reinforcing. The study also examined how long post-reward performance changes persisted when they occurred.

A multiple-trial, within-subject comparison design was employed in which three reward phases were alternated with post-reward phases. Two ...


The Use Of An Incentive System To Increase Worker Performance In A Financial Setting, Steven S. Armstrong Aug 1985

The Use Of An Incentive System To Increase Worker Performance In A Financial Setting, Steven S. Armstrong

Dissertations

The use of merchandise as a consequence in a performance based incentive system was assessed in a financial setting. Points were earned by each subject based on individual daily performance. These points were collected by each subject and used toward the purchase of merchandise. A multiple baseline across two groups of bank tellers showed substantial increases in worker behavior after the onset of contingent points. Differences between groups existed and an analysis is provided. Follow-up data revealed sustained performance and a cost-benefit analysis demonstrated substantial savings.


The Effect Of Medicaid Billing On Service To Developmentally Disabled Adults, Kambiz Alavi Aug 1985

The Effect Of Medicaid Billing On Service To Developmentally Disabled Adults, Kambiz Alavi

Dissertations

This study provides a detailed analysis of the daily service delivery records before and after the introduction of a Medicaid Billing Form at a day-activity center for developmentally disabled adults. The form required therapists to record daily service delivery (in 15-minute units) to Medicaid eligible clients. There were 38 clients, 23 Medicaid and 15 non-Medicaid, and four therapists. The data showed, for three of the four therapists, a clear and large increase in reported service delivery to Medicaid clients and a smaller increase to non-Medicaid clients. Six months after the introduction of the Medicaid Billing Form the therapists were required ...


The Feature-Value Effect In Children; An Attempt To Replicate And Further Experimentation, Kathleen Wright Aug 1985

The Feature-Value Effect In Children; An Attempt To Replicate And Further Experimentation, Kathleen Wright

Dissertations

In the "feature-value effect" faster acquisition occurs when a distinguishing feature is placed on the correct stimulus (S+) during discrimination training than when the distinguishing feature is placed on the incorrect stimulus (S-). The former is a "feature positive" discrimination task, whereas the latter is a "feature negative" discrimination task. The feature-value effect only occurs when the discrimination involves stimuli that are identical except for one distinguishing feature. The effect has been obtained in a number of nonhuman species as well as in children and adult humans. Experiments 1 and 2 failed to replicate the findings of previous experiments with ...


The Effects Of Self-Evaluation Procedures On The Numbers And Accuracy Of Alphabet Letter Writing Behavior Of Preschool Children, Kevin R. Coleman Aug 1985

The Effects Of Self-Evaluation Procedures On The Numbers And Accuracy Of Alphabet Letter Writing Behavior Of Preschool Children, Kevin R. Coleman

Master's Theses

This study assessed the effects of self-evaluation procedures on the rate and accuracy of alphabet letter writing. Three preschoolers served as subjects. During Phase I, students were given instructions, and the experimenter modeled accurate letter writing. During Phase II, instructions and modeling were again presented. Additionally, the students were given a rule statement that instructed them to use a stamper and a stamp pad to stamp their paper after first writing each of a row of four letters. The results indicated that the introduction of self-evaluation procedures was associated with immediate increases in frequency of attempts, but a decrease in ...


Applied Undergraduate Training In Psychology And Career Choice, Nancy S. Hinga-Wright Aug 1985

Applied Undergraduate Training In Psychology And Career Choice, Nancy S. Hinga-Wright

Master's Theses

The present investigation evaluated the relation between additional undergraduate practical training in psychology (other than standard course credit) and the graduate school or career choice of graduates with a bachelor's degree in psychology. Based on data from questionnaires and university student records, the results indicated a positive, significant relation between graduate school choice and subsequent career choice, although there was no significant relation between additional applied training and career choice. The results also showed no significant relation between grade point average and career choice, and sex and career choice. The conclusions suggested several outside variables that may influence students ...


The Use Of Job Aids As An Alternative To Training New Employees, William D. Powers Aug 1985

The Use Of Job Aids As An Alternative To Training New Employees, William D. Powers

Master's Theses

Lack of knowledge required to perform a job, has often been dealt with by implementing some sort of training program. However, some businesses cannot afford to implement training. This study tested the effectiveness of using job aides as an alternative to training two new employees at a small business which had no training program. Step-by-step instructional aids were developed for rebuilding Series 40 MT Delco starters and Series 10 SI Delco alternators. A multiple-base-line between subjects design, with an ABABAB reversal, was used.

The data showed the average time required by the new employees to rebuild Series 40 MT Delco ...


The Effect Of Word Abbreviation On Decoding Speed And Accuracy, Frances Piccione Aug 1985

The Effect Of Word Abbreviation On Decoding Speed And Accuracy, Frances Piccione

Master's Theses

An experiment was conducted to verify the existence and determine the magnitude of the human response latency differential between words and their abbreviations in a decoding task. Forty-eight Naval Officer Candidates learned a set of abbreviations obtained from operational aircraft cockpits. Abbreviations and corresponding words were divided into easy and hard difficulty levels. Subjects responded by saying the correct whole-word for both stimulus types. Response times measured by a voice key revealed a mean of 0.534 seconds for words and 0.662 seconds for abbreviations. An analysis of variance produced significant main effects (p < .05) for stimulus types and difficulty levels; the interaction effect was not significant. Also, t-tests for correlated scores revealed significant differences (p < .05) between difficulty levels within stimulus types.


Effect Of Fixed-Ratio Size On Response-Latencies Produced By Other Variables, Albert Edward Neal Aug 1985

Effect Of Fixed-Ratio Size On Response-Latencies Produced By Other Variables, Albert Edward Neal

Master's Theses

Using a discrete-trial, two-component multiple schedule, pigeons were required to complete a fixed-ratio in the presence of stimuli correlated with different probabilities of reinforcement (Experiment 1), or different amounts of reinforcement (Experiment 2). The amount of separation of graphed median latencies to the onset of the two stimulus conditions as a function of the different reinforcement conditions was investigated in relation to various fixed-ratio values. It was found that previous researchers had chosen an optimal fixedratio size; larger ratios produced greater separation between median latencies, but at the expense of increased session-to-session variability, while smaller ratios failed to produce median ...


The Effects Of Teacher Directed Small Group Instruction On Quality And Control Of Behavioral Contracts In A Large Study Section Of High School Students, Laurie A. Thompson-Montgomery Aug 1985

The Effects Of Teacher Directed Small Group Instruction On Quality And Control Of Behavioral Contracts In A Large Study Section Of High School Students, Laurie A. Thompson-Montgomery

Master's Theses

Individualized education has been described as the ideal teaching methodology. The purpose of the present study was to individualize teaching procedure through the use of behavioral contracts in a high school guided study class. The goal of the teacher-directed, small group instruction was to teach students the components of a specific contract task. Following this instruction, all students' contracts improved in the percent meeting content criteria. In addition to improvement in contract content, student on-task behavior also increased. Further, the number of student assignments completed on contract which were received by teachers increased after training. It appears that the use ...


The Effects Of Aspartame On Locomotion And Body Weight In Rats, Linda Dianne Dykema Larsen Apr 1985

The Effects Of Aspartame On Locomotion And Body Weight In Rats, Linda Dianne Dykema Larsen

Master's Theses

Nutrients, when ingested in isolation from other food stuffs or in excess, may produce drug-like action on neurotransmitter activity in the CNS. Administration of aspartame exclusively or in combination with d-amphetamine was found to produce weight loss and display of emotionality in rats as measured in an open field apparatus. The possible neurochemical action of aspartame was discussed relative to the well documented stimulatory effects on catecholamines of d-amphetamine and three putative mechanisms were explored: 1) formation of minor amines from the increased precursor pool, 2) increased synthesis of catecholamines in response to the increased precursor pool, and 3) decrease ...


The Effects Of Intermittent Photic Stimulation Upon Respiration Rate And Anxiety, Patricia Moulton Guilford Apr 1985

The Effects Of Intermittent Photic Stimulation Upon Respiration Rate And Anxiety, Patricia Moulton Guilford

Master's Theses

An experiment was performed to examine the effects of the visual stimulus property of flicker on respiration rate and state-anxiety level. Forty undergraduate college student volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups which received intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and a control group which did not receive IPS. Each IPS group received and the range of flicker frequencies, 4 cycles per second to 14 cycles per second, in a different pattern. All subjects were administered measures for trait-anxiety and changes in state-anxiety.

Results suggest that respiration rate positively covaries with the frequency of the intermittent visual stimulus within this range of ...


Effects Of Reinforcement Duration And Reinforcement On Response Latency: Stimulus-Reinforcer And Probability Response-Reinforcer Relationships, Henry David Schlinger Jr. Apr 1985

Effects Of Reinforcement Duration And Reinforcement On Response Latency: Stimulus-Reinforcer And Probability Response-Reinforcer Relationships, Henry David Schlinger Jr.

Dissertations

The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate the stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relationships in a two-key procedure in which the key that the stimuli appeared on (stimulus key) was separated spatially from the key on which responding was required (constant key) (Hesse, 1984; Keller, 1974). Using pigeons and multiple fixed ratio schedules, the effects of differences in reinforcement duration and reinforcement probability on response latencies to the constant key were compared. Since responding to the stimulus key was not effective in producing reinforcement, any responding that developed to that key was assumed to be due to the stimulus-reinforcer relationships ...


An Integrative Model Of Marital Therapy Based On The Psychoanalytic Behavioral And Systems Approaches, Dennis L. Mulder Apr 1985

An Integrative Model Of Marital Therapy Based On The Psychoanalytic Behavioral And Systems Approaches, Dennis L. Mulder

Dissertations

The Integrative Model of marital therapy is a synthesis of the theoretical constructs of the psychoanalytic, behavioral and systems approaches. Relevant literature of the selected approaches is reviewed. The concepts of marriage, marital conflict and marital therapy of each approach are described. The Integrative Model is based on three assumptions and six propositions. The Integrative Model attempts to interpret the intrapsychic dynamics of intimate relationships in a data language suitable for empirical study. It attempts to define the relationship between internal and external determinants of behavior. It proposes a method of intervention consistent with the cognitive/behavioral conceptual model and ...