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Psychology

Western Michigan University

Theses/Dissertations

1981

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A Comparison Of Reading And Listening Performances Of Braille And Print Readers, Betty P. Zook Dec 1981

A Comparison Of Reading And Listening Performances Of Braille And Print Readers, Betty P. Zook

Master's Theses

Blind and sighted subjects were tested on their capability to retain information after both reading and listening to specially prepared printed and taped materials. The sample consisted of graduate students and professional individuals. It was found that, on the average, subjects retained more after reading than listening. This effect was more pronounced in the braille reading subjects. As the level of complexity of the material increased, the difference in the points earned between the two modalities, reading and listening, increased significantly. A behavioral analysis suggested some reasons for this difference. It was suggested that further research into reading and listening ...


Effects Of Phenytoin On Schedule-Controlled Performance, Kathleen M. Krafft Dec 1981

Effects Of Phenytoin On Schedule-Controlled Performance, Kathleen M. Krafft

Dissertations

The present studies examined the effects of acute and chronic administrations of phenytoin on the responding of pigeons and rats maintained under fixed-ratio, fixed-interval, and interresponse-time-greater-than-t schedules of food reinforcement. These schedules typically engender different rates and temporal patterns of responding and are often differentially affected by drugs. The results indicated that phenytoin, given acutely, produced dose-dependent decreases in the response rate of rats and pigeons maintained under fixed-ratio and fixed-interval schedules. Response rates under the fixed-interval and inter response-time-greater-than-t schedules were little affected by the drug. A degree of tolerance was observed to phenytoin's rate-decreasing effects when the ...


Matching-To-Sample In The Pigeon: An Analysis Of The Effects Of Correction And Noncorrection Procedures, Deborah Lou Grossett Dec 1981

Matching-To-Sample In The Pigeon: An Analysis Of The Effects Of Correction And Noncorrection Procedures, Deborah Lou Grossett

Master's Theses

Contradictory results concerning the effect that presence or absence of a correction procedure has on matching-to-sample were obtained by past studies (Carter and Werner, 1978; Thomas, 1979). Carter and Werner (1978) reported that exposure to a correction procedure resulted in an increase in accuracy, while Thomas (1979) found no difference between the noncorrection and correction procedures. The present study showed that exposure to a correction procedure resulted in an increase in accuracy in comparison to a noncorrection procedure during acquisition, but not during maintenance.

Past studies (Holt and Shafer, 1973; Thomas, 1979), using a correction procedure, showed that presence of ...


The Effects Of Music On The Duration Of Time Spent In A Store By A Customer, Danita J. Mussatto Dec 1981

The Effects Of Music On The Duration Of Time Spent In A Store By A Customer, Danita J. Mussatto

Master's Theses

The present study was compared the effects of employing music and withholding music in a retail setting. Over a three week experimental period, the duration of time customers spent in a store was recorded. The music system was first employed (Phase I), next the customers were subject to an environment void of music (Phase II), and then the music system was reimplemented (Phase III). During Phase II customers spent significantly less time in the store than in Phase I or Phase III. Another store, employing music continually, was used to control extraneous sources of variability. The results provide empirical verification ...


Prompts And Feedback As A Means Of Increasing A Customer Service Behavior In A Family Restaurant, David B. Lennox Dec 1981

Prompts And Feedback As A Means Of Increasing A Customer Service Behavior In A Family Restaurant, David B. Lennox

Master's Theses

Although waiters and waitresses traditionally receive a gratuity based upon quality of service from customers, it may be difficult for them to interpret the amount of the gratuity as an indicator of good service or bad service. This ambiguity could be a result of different amounts of customer checks or faulty comparisons of total dollar amounts (total for the working shift) without taking into consideration the total dollar amount of the customer checks or the number of customers served. This study was conducted to provide accurate information for waitresses regarding gratuity percentage received from customers while monitoring its effects on ...


Improving On-The-Job Performance Of Restaurant Employees Through Behavior Modification Techniques, Patricia A. Kershek Dec 1981

Improving On-The-Job Performance Of Restaurant Employees Through Behavior Modification Techniques, Patricia A. Kershek

Master's Theses

Behavior modification techniques were used to improve the performance of individual employees in a restaurant setting. Desired performance was defined in operational terms. Contingent upon observations of desired behavior, procedures involving praise, performance charts, and bonuses were implemented according to an ABCB design. After applying both praise and performance charts, bonuses were added so that all three techniques were in operation. Then, bonuses were discontinued. Results indicated that while employee performance (quality of performance and time spent on the job) improved when praise and performance charts were applied, the addition of a bonus led to even further improvement. Hence, bonuses ...


The Perceived Utility Of The Job Model As A Planning Document For Faculty Members, Victoria Kai-Cacho Dec 1981

The Perceived Utility Of The Job Model As A Planning Document For Faculty Members, Victoria Kai-Cacho

Master's Theses

A job model for faculty activity plans was developed based on an interview and a questionnaire response from 14 Western Michigan University professors. Perceived accuracy and usefulness of the job model were measured by a questionnaire designed by the investigator. Responses were analyzed by computing the mean ratings of each item included in the questionnaire. The job model was perceived as an accurate and useful instrument for faculty activity plans, self-development and faculty evaluation. However, methodological limitations suggest that further empirical research with a large sample and participation of administrative officers and students, in addition to faculty members, will be ...


Effect Of Informational Posting And Employee Inspection On Safety Hazard Reduction In A Retail Drug Store, Craig A. Berger Dec 1981

Effect Of Informational Posting And Employee Inspection On Safety Hazard Reduction In A Retail Drug Store, Craig A. Berger

Master's Theses

Undesired safety conditions were operationally defined for a large retail drug store. The recording of unsafe conditions were conducted for two different employee shifts for ten weeks. A multiple baseline design (ABC-ACB) was used in which three conditions were introduced: (a) baseline, (b) public posting of a safety performance chart, and (c) individual employee inspections. Results indicated that the frequency of safety hazards declined 23% from baseline for the public post-condition and declined 44% for the employee inspection condition (averaged across both shifts). An advanced analysis of variance indicated significant mean differences (p < .01) between baseline and employee inspection for both shifts. An additional measure was taken correlating photograph ratings by employees on a safety dimension and an attractiveness dimension. The coefficient of correlation was statistically significant (r = .76; p <.05). The results indicate that a training program involving employee inspections may be an effective way of reducing undesirable safety conditions.


Effects Of Informational Data Upon Attendance In An Industrial Setting, Karen T. Suarez Dec 1981

Effects Of Informational Data Upon Attendance In An Industrial Setting, Karen T. Suarez

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of informational data on employee attendance in an industrial setting. It was believed that knowledge of attendance rates would encourage employees to improve their attendance. An average of 50 male employees ranging from 22 to 55 years of age were included in the study. The procedure involved the implementation of publicly posted graphs which displayed attendance rates for the total department and each shift according to an ABA reversal design. Attendance rates were calculated and graphs updated each week by the department's superintendent. In addition, a brief questionnaire was ...


The Effects Of Written Instructions And Videotape Modeling On The Quality Of Performance Feedback Provided For Subordinates, Ileana Habsburg-Snyder Aug 1981

The Effects Of Written Instructions And Videotape Modeling On The Quality Of Performance Feedback Provided For Subordinates, Ileana Habsburg-Snyder

Master's Theses

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of instructions and modeling in training supervisors to provide performance feedback to their subordinates. Four part-time supervisors served as subjects. An across subjects multiple-baseline design was used which employed a baseline phase, an instructions phase and a modeling phase. Data were collected on the percentage of component behaviors performed during roleplay test sessions and actual performance reviews. Modeling and instructions were found to be equally effective in training, however, a sequential presentation of both methods increased performance substantially. The effects of transfer of training were also examined. The results suggest that ...


The Effects Of Performance Appraisal On Staff Performance, Steven S. Armstrong Aug 1981

The Effects Of Performance Appraisal On Staff Performance, Steven S. Armstrong

Master's Theses

Performance appraisals are increasing in numbers, but their effectiveness has little empirical validation. A major objective of the present study was to examine the effects of performance appraisals on the actual performance of supervisees. In addition, it assessed the effect of qualitative, rather than quantitative statements by supervisors. Five staff members participated in this study while working as teaching assistants. Ten dependent variables were observed and recorded per individual, after which the experimenter reviewed the baseline data and targeted six dependent variables for change, based on their low frequencies. The independent variable consisted of a performance appraisal which was a ...


A Functional Analysis Of Response Contingent Full Physical Guidance, Richard J. Jackle Aug 1981

A Functional Analysis Of Response Contingent Full Physical Guidance, Richard J. Jackle

Master's Theses

Two experiments were conducted in this study of effects of full physical guidance (folding the subjects' hands) that was made contingent on a mechanically defined leg movement response. Two severely mentally impaired adolescents served as subjects. Experiment I compared the effects of baseline and contingent full physical guidance procedures upon the leg movement response. Experiment I I compared the effects of several procedures incorporating full physical guidance to ones which developed operant baselines of leg movement responses. The results Indicated that full physical guidance functioned as an evocative stimulus for Subject 1 and as mild reinforcement for Subject 2.


The Effect Of Active-Participation With Feedback In A Videotape, Discrimination-Training Program, Stephen M. Brewer Aug 1981

The Effect Of Active-Participation With Feedback In A Videotape, Discrimination-Training Program, Stephen M. Brewer

Master's Theses

With the use of a multiple-baseline design, the present experiment examined the effect of three training conditions on the acquisition of tutoring techniques in four volunteer college students. The three training conditions were: (1) Guidelines, subjects read and were tested over a manuscript; (2) Passive-Participation Without Feedback, subjects viewed 15 vignettes of a model's correct and incorrect use of tutoring techniques without receiving feedback on the model's behavior; and (3) Active-Participation With Feedback, subjects actively scored and received feedback on the same videotaped model's use of tutoring techniques. Subjects participated in one of the training conditions once ...


An Analysis Of The Behavioral Consequences Of An Attendance Bonus Program, David William Smith Aug 1981

An Analysis Of The Behavioral Consequences Of An Attendance Bonus Program, David William Smith

Master's Theses

Absenteeism is one of the most expensive and complex problems faced by management. Previous efforts to ameliorate attendance problems have focused on demographical analysis of absent workers, providing information of little value in designing remedial programs. The current project is an analysis of an Attendance Bonus Program in terms of contingencies of reinforcement. Six hundred union employees of a manufacturing plant served as subjects, with two comparison plants of 100 and 600 employees as comparative populations. Analysis of the prevailing contingencies identified a number of deficiencies. Attendance reinforcement aspects were appropriate, but a response criterion needs to be established. The ...


Choice As A Dependent Measure In Autoshaping: Sensitivity To Frequency And Duration Of Food Presentation, Mitchell Jon Picker Aug 1981

Choice As A Dependent Measure In Autoshaping: Sensitivity To Frequency And Duration Of Food Presentation, Mitchell Jon Picker

Master's Theses

Previous investigations have shown that rate, latency, and percentage of trials with at least one response are somewhat insensitive measures of the strength of autoshaped responding. In two experiments, nine pigeons were exposed to an autoshaping procedure in which the successive presentation of three stimuli were followed by food on either 100%, 50%, or 0% of the trials. Choice testing involved the simultaneous presentation of the three stimuli. In Experiment I, all pigeons consistently directed their initial choice responses and the majority of subsequent responses to the stimulus always followed by food. In Experiment II, rate, latency, and percentage of ...


Response Latency: A Function Of Within-Session Differences In Intertrial Interval, Training History, Cue Condition, And Ratio Requirement, James Bryant Nuzzo Aug 1981

Response Latency: A Function Of Within-Session Differences In Intertrial Interval, Training History, Cue Condition, And Ratio Requirement, James Bryant Nuzzo

Master's Theses

Skinner has suggested that latency does not vary in an orderly manner and short latencies result from the development of effective waiting behavior not specified by the experimental contingencies. Recent experimentation has found latency to vary as a function of a within-session difference in parameters of reinforcement correlated with two components of a discrete-trial multiple schedule. Also found was the attenuation of within-session differences in latencies with the change in intertrial interval (ITI) from 5 seconds to 20 seconds. This suggests that the ITI may be variable which controls latency. This study investigated the effect on latency of within-session differences ...


Women’S Roles And Vulnerability To Depression, Monika Johanna Haussmann Aug 1981

Women’S Roles And Vulnerability To Depression, Monika Johanna Haussmann

Dissertations

In this study, social-psychological variables were explored in the etiology of depression in women. Depression was examined as a function of undesirable life events, occupational and marital roles, and four vulnerability variables: (a) high relational and low direct achieving style, (b) dominance of partner, (c) powerlessness, and (d) negative attitudes toward feminism. The purpose of the study was to examine whether women in varying occupational and marital status groups would differ in degree of depression, proposed vulnerability variables, and selected background variables. The relationship of vulnerability and background variables to depression was explored.

It was hypothesized that vulnerability variables and ...


The Relationship Between Knowledge Of Teamwork, Satisfaction, And Perceived Performance Effectiveness Among Professional Human Service Teams, Sonya Monroe-Clay Aug 1981

The Relationship Between Knowledge Of Teamwork, Satisfaction, And Perceived Performance Effectiveness Among Professional Human Service Teams, Sonya Monroe-Clay

Dissertations

This study investigated the relationship between knowledge of teamwork, performance, and satisfaction in members of human service teams. Team Knowledge was conceptualized as encompassing four critical areas: Personal-Interpersonal, Team Environment, Team Leadership, and Team Processing.

Research findings in the literature point to certain general benefits of the team model. Nevertheless, some teams are dysfunctional, which may be reflected in poor performance and low morale or satisfaction. Lack of knowledge about teamwork was identified as a possible contributor to such problems.

A major hypothesis of the present study was that there is a direct relationship between team knowledge and satisfaction, team ...


A Nonvocal Method For Teaching Reading And Spelling To The Deaf, Amy A. Barmeier Aug 1981

A Nonvocal Method For Teaching Reading And Spelling To The Deaf, Amy A. Barmeier

Dissertations

Teaching reading and spelling to the deaf requires materials and methods which compensate for the two problems of the deaf child. The first is that the deaf typically have a small verbal history in either the sign language or lipreading modes. The second is that the deaf cannot identify unknown written words by phonetically sounding them out. In comparison, the hearing child has sophisticated sounding out skills and an extensive auditory-vocal history.

The seven experiments in this research investigated a method for teaching vocabulary comprehension and spelling to the deaf which assumed neither a verbal history with respect to the ...


Peer Training Of High-Risk Low-Frequency Staff Behaviors In An Institutional Setting, Richard Aart Van Den Pol Aug 1981

Peer Training Of High-Risk Low-Frequency Staff Behaviors In An Institutional Setting, Richard Aart Van Den Pol

Dissertations

Four experienced and four newly employed psychiatric attendants were assessed on their performance of three high-risk low-frequency behaviors during simulated emergencies. The three skills measured were Convulsive Seizure Management, Fire Safety Procedures, and Self-Defense. Each of the behaviors directly affected the safety and well-being of staff and retarded residents of the facility. The experienced employees, labelled "Trainers", received a series of workshops on how to perform and teach the requisite skills to other staff. Following each workshop, according to a multiple baseline across skills experimental design, the Trainers each taught one new staff member, labelled "Trainee" how to perform the ...


The Interpersonal Dimensions Of Depression As Differentiated By Cognitive Style, Frederick Tobias Sulier Aug 1981

The Interpersonal Dimensions Of Depression As Differentiated By Cognitive Style, Frederick Tobias Sulier

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between field dependence-independence cognitive style and the interpersonal behavior of depressives. The interpersonal behavior of depressives ranges from passive and withdrawn to hostile and aggressive. This wide variety of depressed interpersonal behavior has not been satisfactorily explained by research or clinical observation.

Reseach results have indicated that field dependent (FD) and field independent (FI) people differ in their interpersonal behavior. Nondepressed FD people are often oriented towards people, whereas nondepressed FI people are usually oriented away from other people. It was hypothesized that these interpersonal orientations would also apply to ...


The Stress Reducing Properties Of Five Intervening Variables, Edward R. Lyon Apr 1981

The Stress Reducing Properties Of Five Intervening Variables, Edward R. Lyon

Dissertations

Current research has demonstrated a relationship between stress and subsequent psychological and/or physical dysfunction. It has been shown, however, that some organisms, both animal and human, are more resilient to stress than others. Several researchers have suggested that intervening variables available to the organism may play a role in stress resilience. Intervening variables have been defined as any resource which has stress reducing properties. Examples of proposed intervening variables include intelligence, wealth, reasoning, friends, and assertiveness. Although many resources have been suggested as possible intervening variables, there has been little scientific research into this area. The present study investigated ...


Reduction Of Self-Stimulatory Behavior Through The Use Of Appropriate Toy Training And Sensory Reduction, Jacquelyn A. Rouh Apr 1981

Reduction Of Self-Stimulatory Behavior Through The Use Of Appropriate Toy Training And Sensory Reduction, Jacquelyn A. Rouh

Master's Theses

Reduction of self-stimulatory behaviors in retarded and autistic children is desirable for a variety of reasons, including prevention of self-injurious behavior and increase in appropriate leisure activities. In this study, three autistic boys who exhibited hand-clasping, chin-grazing, and finger-waving were exposed to toys and received toy training on selected groups of toys. The toys consisted of stimulating toys, selecting toys, selected to replicate the sensory effects of their self-stimulation, and non-stimulating toys, selected to replicate a modality different from their self-stimulation from 85% of intervals observed and 11.3% to 0% and 7%, respectively. The third subject required the use ...


Staff Incentive Programs: The Effects Of Time Off And Monetary Compensation On Professional Service Delivery, Sharon L. Surratt Apr 1981

Staff Incentive Programs: The Effects Of Time Off And Monetary Compensation On Professional Service Delivery, Sharon L. Surratt

Dissertations

The effects of two staff incentive procedures, time off from work and additional monetary compensation in increasing the amount of time that professional counselors spent in direct service (client oriented) activities were compared. The participation of six outpatient counselors, three male and three female, enabled the assessment of the differential impact of these incentive procedures by sex of the counselor. Throughout the study, which lasted 30 weeks, daily records were kept on the amount of time counseling staff engaged in 18 predefined categories of staff behavior. Using a repeated measures design, time off from work and/or additional monetary compensation ...


An Analysis Of Primary Prevention In A State Mental Health System, Salvatore Cullari Apr 1981

An Analysis Of Primary Prevention In A State Mental Health System, Salvatore Cullari

Dissertations

This study analyzed ten primary prevention demonstration projects located in various counties of Michigan. While only two programs showed significant post intervention effects, the amount of data available for interpretation was insufficient to allow any general conclusions. Problems encountered in program implementation and evaluation were cited, and procedures that may reduce these difficulties were discussed. A theoretical model for primary prevention based on a systems approach was also presented.


Stress Relative To The Onset Of Multiple Sclerosis Exacerbations, Charlene A. Horgen Apr 1981

Stress Relative To The Onset Of Multiple Sclerosis Exacerbations, Charlene A. Horgen

Master's Theses

Twelve Multiple Sclerosis (MS) participants recorded weekly on standardized forms, Life Change Units (LCU) and a Neurological Examination Checklist (NE), to determine if a relationship existed between stress and the onset of MS exacerbations. Dicotomizing the LCU values and contrasting these values with the corresponding NE scores, resulted in non-significance using a t-test. Non-significance was found when contrasting dicotomized NE scores and corresponding LCU values. No relationship was indicated when individual subject comparisons of weekly LCU-NE and LCU-NE with one week lag scores were correlated.


The Effects Of Individual Verbal Training Versus Group Verbal Training Upon Preschooler's Corresponding Snack Selection, John W. Hoedl Apr 1981

The Effects Of Individual Verbal Training Versus Group Verbal Training Upon Preschooler's Corresponding Snack Selection, John W. Hoedl

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to compare group correspondence training with individual correspondence training. Groups of individually-trained and group-trained preschoolers were observed for their selection of specific snack items (fruit). First, they were trained to say they would select fruit. Then, social reinforcers were used to attempt to reinforce correspondence. Next, tangible reinforcers were contingent upon correspondence. The Group-Trained Tangible Reinforcement Phase proved the most successful and was replicated across the other groups.


Completing Long-Term Undergraduate Projects: Some Critical Variables, Timothy K. Zoia Apr 1981

Completing Long-Term Undergraduate Projects: Some Critical Variables, Timothy K. Zoia

Master's Theses

Completion of long-term academic projects involves large amounts of behavior over long periods of time. Steady rates of task completion may be difficult. This study is concerned with the completion of long-term projects by undergraduates who have received a prestigious university scholarship. Project completion and hours worked were correlated with the amount of supervision that the students received. The correlation between frequent supervisory meetings and completing project on time was significant (r=.70; df=1; P<.001). Suggestions for maintaining steady student performance are offered.


The Effects Of Total Darkness On Stimulus Control, Richard E. Schulman Apr 1981

The Effects Of Total Darkness On Stimulus Control, Richard E. Schulman

Master's Theses

This experiment examined auditory stimulus control in a totally darkened as opposed to an illuminated chamber. All subjects (pigeons) were trained to keypeck in the presence of only a dimly lit green keylight, which was faded until responding was reliably occurring in a totally darkened chamber. When behavior stabilized under a Variable Interval (VI) 30 second schedule of reinforcement in a darkened chamber, subjects were divided into two groups for discriminating training. A Multiple VI 30 second Extinction (EXT) schedule was in effect, with 1-minute components separated by 5-second time-outs. The discriminative stimulus correlated with the VI component was a ...


Self-Injurious Behavior: Evaluations Of Controlling Variables And Interventions, Scott Nelson Schrum Apr 1981

Self-Injurious Behavior: Evaluations Of Controlling Variables And Interventions, Scott Nelson Schrum

Master's Theses

A nested multi-element within a multiple baseline design was used to evaluate potential controlling variables for the self-injurious behavior (SIB) of two severely retarded seventeen-year-old boys. Both subjects had extended histories of SIB which were somewhat unresponsive to prior behavioral programming. For each subject, four variables, attention, escape from a task, sensory stimulation, and mild punishment were evaluated. Results indicated that Subject 1's SIB was controlled by the response produced stimulation. A "package" intervention which included sensory attenuation and punishment procedures was evaluated with Subject 1 and shown to significantly suppress head hitting. A controlling variable was not identified ...