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Psychology

Western Michigan University

Theses/Dissertations

1980

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The Effects Of A Transfer Of Stimulus Control Procedure, Probes, And Reinforcement On The Acquisition And Generalization Of An Intraverbal Repertoire, Steven John Braam Dec 1980

The Effects Of A Transfer Of Stimulus Control Procedure, Probes, And Reinforcement On The Acquisition And Generalization Of An Intraverbal Repertoire, Steven John Braam

Master's Theses

A deaf, mentally-impaired youth was trained to emit intraverbal responses within the same response class to verbal stimuli which were presented in daily probe sessions (e.g., "food" evoked "apple", "bread","hot dog", etc.). Training consisted of a transfer of stimulus control procedure. If an incorrect response was made, the therapist would re-present the verbal training stimulus and immediately present a non-verbal prompt (picture) which evoked a verbal response. Since the transfer procedure was only Implemented contingent upon incorrect responding, it resulted in longer delays to trade-in for back-up reinforcers in sessions where mistakes were made. Correct responding Increased only ...


An Analysis Of The Role Of Reinforcement Magnitude In The Transfer Of Stimulus Control In A Receptive Discrimination Task, Beverly S. Adler Dec 1980

An Analysis Of The Role Of Reinforcement Magnitude In The Transfer Of Stimulus Control In A Receptive Discrimination Task, Beverly S. Adler

Master's Theses

The role of reinforcement magnitude in the transfer of stimulus control was analyzed using a delayed prompting procedure. A delay was gradually lengthened between the presentations of the relevant discriminative stimulus and an imitative prompt. During one condition, the contingencies of reinforcement were arranged such that the reinforcement available for anticipatory and prompt-controlled responses were equal. During another condition, responses which preceded delivery of the prompt were given more reinforcement than prompt-controlled responses. Two subjects were exposed to these conditions in the context of acquiring a series of receptive discrimination tasks. Results were inconclusive. Mean trials to criterion showed little ...


Teaching Self-Protective Behaviors To Preschool Children Using A Videotape Training Program, Paul James Yoder Dec 1980

Teaching Self-Protective Behaviors To Preschool Children Using A Videotape Training Program, Paul James Yoder

Master's Theses

This study investigated the effectiveness of a videotape training program to teach self-protective skills to preschool children. Children were taught to say, "I have to ask my teacher/parent," and to run to their teacher/parent when presented with one of two lures commonly used by child molesters. The videotape incorporated the direct instructional techniques of active pupil responding; the model, lead, and test format; and use of minimally different stimuli to teach children to discriminate between correct and incorrect responses. The results showed that although none of the subjects showed any improvement in responding after only one viewing, five ...


The Effects Of Cumulative Review In An Interspersal Procedure On The Acquisition And Retention Of Sight Words, Kathleen M. Wright Dec 1980

The Effects Of Cumulative Review In An Interspersal Procedure On The Acquisition And Retention Of Sight Words, Kathleen M. Wright

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Changing Appointment Making Procedures On Increasing The Number Of Initial Appointments Kept At A Family Planning Agency, Carla A. Jones Dec 1980

Effect Of Changing Appointment Making Procedures On Increasing The Number Of Initial Appointments Kept At A Family Planning Agency, Carla A. Jones

Master's Theses

The procedures for making initial client appointments at a family planning clinic were manipulated to increase the number of kept appointments. Receptionists and counselors made appointments on the two appointment forms used. Questions on the appointment sheet varied depending on the age of the caller. The 1,432 women participating in the study were placed into three groups (a) 19 years of age and under (b) 20 to 30 years of age and (c) 31 years of age and over. The results showed that the occupation of the person making the appointment at the agency did not affect the number ...


The Development And Validation Of Concept Programmed Materials Based On A Direct Instruction Model, Curt E. Lalonde Dec 1980

The Development And Validation Of Concept Programmed Materials Based On A Direct Instruction Model, Curt E. Lalonde

Master's Theses

The experiment validated a set of instructional materials designed to teach behavioral concepts. Twenty-two subjects matched on the basis of their scores on a pretest covering these concepts comprised the experimental and control groups. Following a pretest, subjects in these two groups completed both sets of materials. After exposure to the instructional materials, they took an alternate-form posttest on the same concepts. Gain scores on the posttest were significantly higher (p<.05, means = .91, -.55) for subjects who completed the experimental materials than for the subjects who completed the control materials, materials contained sequences of examples and nonexamples of the behavioral concepts which were designed to maximize learned of those concepts.


Effects Of Withdrawing Diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin) On Matching To Sample Performance In Mentally Retarded Persons, Vicky June Davis Dec 1980

Effects Of Withdrawing Diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin) On Matching To Sample Performance In Mentally Retarded Persons, Vicky June Davis

Master's Theses

The present study was designed to examine the effects of gradual DPH withdrawal on the matching to sample performance of three mentally retarded persons. The percentage of correct responses per session served as the dependent variable and the sample and comparison stimuli were red, green, and blue illumination of translucent response windows. The results showed that doses of diphenylhydantoin considerably lower than the suggested optimim therapeutic level can impair the performance of mentally retarded individuals on a simple discrimination task. As doses were reduced for each subject, there were increases in the percentage of correct responding with the highest percentage ...


Preferences Of Students For The Hutchings "Low Stress" Compared To The Conventional Algorithm Under Conditions Of Differentially Increasing The Number Of Problems With And Without Reinforcement, Pamela G. Buitendorp Drew Dec 1980

Preferences Of Students For The Hutchings "Low Stress" Compared To The Conventional Algorithm Under Conditions Of Differentially Increasing The Number Of Problems With And Without Reinforcement, Pamela G. Buitendorp Drew

Master's Theses

This study was an attempt to determine which computation procedure students would select under varying classroom conditions. It is a systematic replication of previous research by Gillespie (1976). Algorithm preferences of 14 third grade students, 10 high accuracy and four low accuracy on a math facts test, were investigated under conditions of differentially increasing the number of problems with and without reinforcement, Reversal designs were used. The students completed 4X5 array problems and chose which algorithm to use, but after choosing the same algorithm for three consecutive sessions, they were required to use the alternative algorithm the next session. Preference ...


A Treatment Package To Improve Academic Performance, Lynn Daniel Larrow Dec 1980

A Treatment Package To Improve Academic Performance, Lynn Daniel Larrow

Master's Theses

Six high school students volunteered to participate in a research project to improve their academic grades. Of these six subjects, it was found that subjects with low grade point averages (GPA) were the main beneficiaries of a behavior treatment package consisting of contingency contracting, graphing, and a self-management lecture. In addition, this study demonstrated that a contingency contract, employing a weekly consequence, and graphing can control an academic behavior, note taking. Finally, it was shown that a cost effective treatment package could produce GPA increases comparable to more expensive and time consuming treatments. It is hoped that the findings of ...


The Development And Application Of Service Management By Objectives Within One Program Of One Division Of A Michigan Intermediate School District, James Harper Kaye Dec 1980

The Development And Application Of Service Management By Objectives Within One Program Of One Division Of A Michigan Intermediate School District, James Harper Kaye

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


A Discrete Trial Choice Procedure For Assessing The Periodic Equivalent Of Aperiodic Ratio Schedules, Michael Joseph Boivin Dec 1980

A Discrete Trial Choice Procedure For Assessing The Periodic Equivalent Of Aperiodic Ratio Schedules, Michael Joseph Boivin

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Developing A Verbal Repertoire Using Sign Language And Skinner's Analysis Of Verbal Behavior, Mark L. Sundberg Dec 1980

Developing A Verbal Repertoire Using Sign Language And Skinner's Analysis Of Verbal Behavior, Mark L. Sundberg

Dissertations

A series of experiments on the use of sign language with hearing, non-vocal, mentally impaired individuals was conducted. Several researchers have shown that such persons can acquire signs; but in a recent review of the literature (Pulton & Algozzine, 1980), the authors conclude that there was no evidence that a "functional communication system" was acquired and in only one case had manual signing become a primary mode of communication. The problem may be related to the issue that most of the previous work on sign training has been based on traditional programs of language instruction. Such programs often place an emphasis on developing "cognitive processes" rather than language behavior, and the role of the environment is usually minimized. The current set of experiments involved the development of a sign language training program based on Skinner's (1957) behavioral analysis of language. A language repertoire was analyzed in terms of antecedent and consequent enviromental events, and the training procedures consisted of establishing verbal relationships. The methodology employed involved an analysis of the experimenter's verbal behavior (the training program) as a dependent variable which changed as a function of the contact with the contingencies of language instruction. Nine separate experiments were conducted over a period of five years. Each experiment (except two) involved the application of the current version of the training program, and each replication resulted in a new version. Each set of students acquired more effective communication skills than the previous group. The final set of individuals acquired a sign repertoire which was quite analogous to the vocal repertoire of a typical child. Even despite long histories of failure in language instruction, they acquired large sign repertoires and engaged in a good deal of signing under a wide variety of circumstances. In fact, in some cases, language developed faster than normal vocal development, with students showing more than two years of language development (by traditional measures) in a matter of months. All the students showed a clear improvement in articulation and a decrease in disruptive behavior; however, no attempt was made to directly attribute the improvement to signs although it seemed the case. Experiments were also conducted on the use of fingerspelling as a "bridge" between sign language and vocal behavior. The data indicate that fingerspelling can improve a student's articulation and that it can function as an effective "tool" to fade from sign usage. The success of ...


Establishing Verbal Behavior: The Effects Of Using Establishing Operations And Imitative Prompts To Teach Mands To Two Non-Verbal Elderly Retarded Persons, Terry Steven Bradford Aug 1980

Establishing Verbal Behavior: The Effects Of Using Establishing Operations And Imitative Prompts To Teach Mands To Two Non-Verbal Elderly Retarded Persons, Terry Steven Bradford

Master's Theses

The present study tested a procedure to establish vocal mands in a 47- year-old non-verbal male with Down's syndrome and manually signed mands in a 64-year-old severely retarded female who was physically incapable of speech. In a multiple baseline design across subjects and settings, subjects were taught to complete four behavioral sequences. An establishing operation was then introduced: an item required to complete each sequence was systematically removed once as a probe for manding. Following this, relevant establishing operations were paired with imitative prompts to train manding missing items. Following mastery of a ll mands during booster training, subjects ...


The Effects Of A Lottery On Completion Of Medical Records By Physicians, Richard William Beers Aug 1980

The Effects Of A Lottery On Completion Of Medical Records By Physicians, Richard William Beers

Master's Theses

Completion of hospital medical records by physicians is a frequent problem to hospital administrations. A performance based lottery was used to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing the number of medical records which were unfinished and considered delinquent. Thirty-three male physicians were included in this study. Physicians earned or lost lottery chances in weekly drawings for a dinner at a restaurant or gift certificate to a local store. Results show an immediate increase in rate of record completion which declines over the course of the eight week experimental condition. Age of records were inversely correlated to the rate of completion. The ...


Effects Of Relative Heterogeneity Of Competence In Peer-Tutoring Dyads, Meredith Dawson Argyropoulos Aug 1980

Effects Of Relative Heterogeneity Of Competence In Peer-Tutoring Dyads, Meredith Dawson Argyropoulos

Master's Theses

Students in a high school English class received simple instructions before and during participation in brief daily reciprocal tutoring sessions. Three levels of competence were established on the basis of spelling scores obtained on a group-administered standardized achievement test. Dyad members were twice unlike-paired and once like-paired in competence during the experiment, producing six competence during the experiment, producing six competency permutations. Differential assignment of instructional units after pretesting assured that scores reflected individual gains rather than individual competence relative to that of the other students. Differences in group means within and across pairing conditions were statistically insignificant, indicating that ...


The Effect Of Operant Conditioning Of Heart Rate On Ambient Skin Conductance And Cognitive Interpretation, Steven Scott Ehlert Aug 1980

The Effect Of Operant Conditioning Of Heart Rate On Ambient Skin Conductance And Cognitive Interpretation, Steven Scott Ehlert

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Variables Related To The Effectiveness Of Instructions: A Theoretical Analysis Of Experimental Results, Stephen Paul Enge Aug 1980

Variables Related To The Effectiveness Of Instructions: A Theoretical Analysis Of Experimental Results, Stephen Paul Enge

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Fixed-Interval And Random-Interval Escape Paradigms On Presession And Postsession Levels Of Corticosterone In The Rat, Duane Dregits Aug 1980

Effects Of Fixed-Interval And Random-Interval Escape Paradigms On Presession And Postsession Levels Of Corticosterone In The Rat, Duane Dregits

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Job Enlargement And Job Enrichment - A Meta-Analytic Study, Kenny Benedict Cemane Aug 1980

Job Enlargement And Job Enrichment - A Meta-Analytic Study, Kenny Benedict Cemane

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Generalization In The Acquisition Of Autoshaping A Replication Procedure, Omar Mangrum Aug 1980

The Role Of Generalization In The Acquisition Of Autoshaping A Replication Procedure, Omar Mangrum

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Self-Protective Behavior: Acquisition And Generalization Of Preschool Children's Responses To Strangers, Pamela K. Kies Aug 1980

Self-Protective Behavior: Acquisition And Generalization Of Preschool Children's Responses To Strangers, Pamela K. Kies

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


An Investigation Of Some Effects Of Timeout Using The Repeated Acquisition Design With Children, Anita Lynn Wilson Aug 1980

An Investigation Of Some Effects Of Timeout Using The Repeated Acquisition Design With Children, Anita Lynn Wilson

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


An Evaluation Of A Videotape Discrimination Training Program To Teach One-To-One Training Skills, Norman L. Schultz Aug 1980

An Evaluation Of A Videotape Discrimination Training Program To Teach One-To-One Training Skills, Norman L. Schultz

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Thioridazine (Mellaril) On Titrating Delayed Matching To Sample Performance In Mentally Retarded Adults, Timothy Theodore Wysocki Aug 1980

Effects Of Thioridazine (Mellaril) On Titrating Delayed Matching To Sample Performance In Mentally Retarded Adults, Timothy Theodore Wysocki

Dissertations

Four mentally retarded adults participated twice daily in assessments of their performance of a titrating delayed matching to sample discrimination. Trials began with the center of three response panels illuminated by one of three colors. Depression of the center panel terminated the light on the center panel and, following a delay, resulted in the presentation of two comparison colors on the side panels. Pressing the side panel illuminated by the same color which had been presented on the center panel yielded a reinforcer, while incorrect responses produced a brief timeout. The delay between depression of the center response panel and ...


Teaching Health-Related Behaviors To Young Children Through Social Skills Training, Mary Louise Stevens Aug 1980

Teaching Health-Related Behaviors To Young Children Through Social Skills Training, Mary Louise Stevens

Dissertations

Part I consisted of training four kindergarten subjects to make eye contact, assertive comments and assertive actions in reference to social and health-related situations. Training occurred on a one-to-one basis with an adult female and results were assessed with a multiple baseline design. Skill acquisition and maintenance were assessed by measuring ratio of eye contact to speech duration, assertive content and assertive actions on training scenes. Generalization of social skills was assessed by means of: (1) similar, but untrained scenes, (2) choice tests between products with and without sugar, (3) in vivo tests in the school and home environment, (4 ...


The Effects Of Sex-Role Attitudes On Womens' Self-Actualization And Life Satisfaction, Mary Ann Vigilanti Aug 1980

The Effects Of Sex-Role Attitudes On Womens' Self-Actualization And Life Satisfaction, Mary Ann Vigilanti

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sex-role attitudes on levels on self-actualization and satisfaction with life among a group of randomly selected women. This study also explored the relationships between occupational primacy as defined through paid employment and homemaker on overall life satisfaction, and employment commensurate with education/training and its relationship to self-actualization. This relationship between overall life satisfaction and measures of self-actualization was also investigated.

Data was collected from 264 women of which 236 responses were included for final hypotheses testing. All subjects were women 18 years and older who lived within the ...


The Effects Of Hypnosis And Mastery Imagery On Task Performance, Robert J. Russell Aug 1980

The Effects Of Hypnosis And Mastery Imagery On Task Performance, Robert J. Russell

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of combining mastery imagery with hypnosis to facilitate performance on a motor task, and to identify the variables which are responsible for such an effect. Ninety-nine students were pretested on the Pursuit Rotor Task and screened for hypnotic susceptibility. From this screening, 40 high susceptible subjects were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1) hypnosis and mastery imagery, (2) hypnosis, (3) mastery imagery (H), and (4) no-treatment control. Ten low susceptible subjects were directly assigned to a second mastery imagery (L) condition which served as a special comparison group ...


The Repeated Acquisition Procedure As A Means Of Analyzing Rule-Governed Behavior, Margaret E. Peterson Aug 1980

The Repeated Acquisition Procedure As A Means Of Analyzing Rule-Governed Behavior, Margaret E. Peterson

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Progressive Cigarette Smoke Dilution Upon Smoking Pattern And Stress Responses In Humans, David M. Keenan Aug 1980

The Effects Of Progressive Cigarette Smoke Dilution Upon Smoking Pattern And Stress Responses In Humans, David M. Keenan

Dissertations

Nine chronic cigarette smokers were exposed to one of three schedules of cigarette smoke dilution. The rate of smoke dilution was held constant, but the time interval for achieving maximum dilution varied from one, two and four weeks.


The Structured Meeting System: A Procedure For Supervising The Completion Of Nonrecurring Tasks, Barbara J. Fulton Aug 1980

The Structured Meeting System: A Procedure For Supervising The Completion Of Nonrecurring Tasks, Barbara J. Fulton

Dissertations

Supervision of delegated tasks is often a source of organizational problems, because workers do not complete tasks as efficiently as managers expect. Analysis of the work setting suggests that behaviors of both supervisors and supervisees are governed by overlapping contingencies; different supervisor behaviors probably result in different contingencies for supervisee behavior. The analysis also reveals two categories of tasks: recurring tasks and nonrecurring tasks, with the latter type requiring frequent supervisor attention to assign new tasks and monitor previous ones. Contingencies for nonrecurring tasks were targeted for study in the present research, because of indications by managers that productivity and ...