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Lgbtq+ Student Safety On Western Michigan University's Campus, Kaitlyn Sedorchuk Apr 2019

Lgbtq+ Student Safety On Western Michigan University's Campus, Kaitlyn Sedorchuk

Honors Theses

Campus climate, in general, has been a popular area of research for many years, and this also includes campus climate for LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, plus) students. Outside of the campus climate survey done back in 2013, there has been no recent campus climate research done on Western Michigan University’s campus as of Spring 2019. This means that there has been no research focusing on queer students’ perceptions of Western’s campus, as well.

In order to help and rectify this and create a platform in which queer students attending Western Michigan University could share their experiences ...


The Effects Of Attachment Anxiety On Trait Anxiety And Borderline Personality Symptoms Through Specific Pathways Of Emotion Regulation, Jessica Good Apr 2019

The Effects Of Attachment Anxiety On Trait Anxiety And Borderline Personality Symptoms Through Specific Pathways Of Emotion Regulation, Jessica Good

Honors Theses

Previous research has shown that deficits in emotion regulation impair coping skills for individuals clinically diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) resembling trait anxiety, as well as those clinically diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD; Herr, Rosenthal, Geiger, & Erikson, 2013; Beeney et al., 2015; Putnam & Silk, 2005; Nielsen et al., 2017; Mennin, Heimberg, Turk, & Fresco, 2002; Marganska, Gallagher, & Miranda, 2013). The current study hypothesized that (a) the specific types of emotion dysregulation measuring lack of clarity and impulsivity would mediate the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD while the other types do not, and (b) the specific types of emotion dysregulation measuring nonacceptance of emotions, lack ...


Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Accessibility At Drive-Through Restaurants, Regina Mcleod Apr 2019

Deaf And Hard Of Hearing Accessibility At Drive-Through Restaurants, Regina Mcleod

Honors Theses

People who are deaf or hard of hearing deserve fair and accessible accommodations, which include drive-through restaurants. It is not a fair solution to force this population to go inside an establishment to order, especially due to the fact that many restaurants close the inside of their restaurants at night but will leave their drive-throughs open. According to legal cases and surveys conducted, accessibility at drive-through restaurants is a prodigious issue for members of the deaf and hard of hearing communities in the United States. Based upon these findings, there is a major lack of accessibility, in addition to discrimination ...


Increasing Political Behaviors In Local Communities, Bionca Stewart Apr 2019

Increasing Political Behaviors In Local Communities, Bionca Stewart

Honors Theses

The present project aimed to apply principles of behavioral science, specifically prompting, to increase voter turnout in a low voter community. The study used a mixed-model group experimental design in which voting in an experimental and control group was measured across two occasions. The sample population consisted of one off-campus community, which was District 4 of the City of Kalamazoo. This district was chosen because it was the district within the city with the lowest voter turnout in the 2016 election. The participants were randomly selected from within the district and randomly assigned to an experimental (N=68) and control ...


Gender Differences In Adhd, Jillian Vogley Apr 2019

Gender Differences In Adhd, Jillian Vogley

Honors Theses

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a learning disability that is very prevalent in today’s society. A closer look at this disability reveals that there are differences with males and females with regards to how the symptoms manifest. Females have a tendency to exhibit inattention whereas males are often hyperactive, which is much more obvious to others around them. This difference in symptoms has led to a drastic difference in terms of how ADHD is diagnosed and causes it to be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in females compared to males. The consequences that this delayed diagnosis may have on females can ...


The Effects Of Qr Code Prompts Posted To A Solar Charging Bench On Website Visibility, Sage Campbell Apr 2019

The Effects Of Qr Code Prompts Posted To A Solar Charging Bench On Website Visibility, Sage Campbell

Honors Theses

This study will investigate the effects of graphic prompts with integrated quick response (QR) codes posted to a solar charging bench. The hypothesis is that posted prompts and the bench itself will increase website traffic and visibility of sustainable actions at Western Michigan University. Website traffic will be monitored using Google Analytics software which will allow for tracking of website visits specifically from scanning the QR code. Thus, data from bench installation and from bench installation with prompts will be compared with baseline data from before installation of the bench and before installation graphic prompts. Data that supports the hypothesis ...


Comparing Prompting Methods For Teaching Receptive Identification, Laurel Jungblut Apr 2019

Comparing Prompting Methods For Teaching Receptive Identification, Laurel Jungblut

Honors Theses

Receptive language is the occurrence of an appropriate response to the spoken language of another individual. This is a key element of development, especially in regard to the acquisition of spoken language (Grow & LeBlanc, 2013). While this appropriate responding is a skill generally acquired by typically developing children via interactions with their caregivers, in most situations it must be explicitly taught to children with developmental delays (Charlotte L. Carp, Sean P. Peterson, Amber J. Arkel, & Anna I. Petursdottir, 2012). An absence or delay of this skill will result in a child missing many important learning opportunities, leading to further delays ...


Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar Apr 2019

Increasing The Frequency Of Tutors' Reinforcement Of Compliance Behaviors, Sruthi Rameshkumar

Honors Theses

Abstract

Compliance behaviors occurring prior to the delivery of an instruction, such as handing over preferred items, making eye contact, and folding hands in the ready position help prepare students for success in discrete-trial training (DTT) interventions. These behaviors are usually taught in early intervention with a continuous reinforcement schedule, but once they are mastered, they are rarely revisited or maintained. Without intermittent reinforcement of these behaviors, they are likely to decrease in frequency and may lead to the use of restrictive or intrusive methods to gain compliance during DTT sessions. The current study used a multiple-baseline across participants design ...


Increasing Waiting And Turn-Taking Among Preschool Aged Children With A Verbal-Delay Diagnosis, Alexa Hill Apr 2018

Increasing Waiting And Turn-Taking Among Preschool Aged Children With A Verbal-Delay Diagnosis, Alexa Hill

Honors Theses

The goal of this thesis was to create and implement an intervention that used errorless teaching and focused on increasing a sharing and waiting response for a student who had a verbal delay diagnosis. The two students involved in the project were both two-year-olds who attended an early childhood special education (ECSE) classroom with other preschool-aged children who had similar diagnoses. A single-subject simple baseline design was used and involved several phases designed with multiple responses to show the effectiveness of icons to facilitate sharing among two non-verbal students. Each response was prompted (when necessary) and they were all reinforced ...


The Abrahamics On Depression, Rhyan Wengorovious Dec 2017

The Abrahamics On Depression, Rhyan Wengorovious

Honors Theses

This study provides an understanding of the relationship between the Abrahamic religions and depression at Western Michigan University. It covers both causes and treatments from explanatory models of Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Interviews of clergy members from each religion (from the Kalamazoo, MI area) were conducted and analyzed. A large focus of the study regards aspects of each religion that provide protective factors from depression, beliefs on why depression occurs and treatment plans suggested for depressed individuals. Similarities and differences between the three religions are considered.


Addressing Common Mental Health Issues Prevalent Among Honors College Students, Steven Pham Aug 2017

Addressing Common Mental Health Issues Prevalent Among Honors College Students, Steven Pham

Honors Theses

The prevalence and severity of mental health disorders on college campuses has been increasing nationwide. This review aims to address some of the prevalent mental health issues that continuously plague college students today. Recent trends in college student mental health are analyzed as well as literature regarding common disorders including depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. A comparison of honors and non-honors students is provided to contribute to an otherwise lacking area of research surrounding honors student populations. Effective practices and policies for colleges and universities to incorporate into their counseling services are also considered, with viable goals centering on the ...


Within-Session Progressive Gestural-Prompt Delay To Teach Receptive Identification, Breanne Stiemsma Apr 2017

Within-Session Progressive Gestural-Prompt Delay To Teach Receptive Identification, Breanne Stiemsma

Honors Theses

Receptive identification skills are important for any child to learn. Without these skills, various aspects of development can become impaired. There are many ways to teach receptive identification. This project pulled ideas from previous studies on within-session progressive gestural-prompt delays as well as the different methods of teaching receptive identification skills, simple-conditional method and the condition-only method. The student was not acquiring receptive identification skills with the traditional methods used in the classroom. Within-session progressive gestural-prompt delay was used in this project to teach receptive identification of objects. An AB single-subject design was used in this project. The student responded ...


Teaching Imitation To Children With Autism Using Most-To-Least Prompt Fading In Front Of A Mirror, Giulia Avelar Apr 2017

Teaching Imitation To Children With Autism Using Most-To-Least Prompt Fading In Front Of A Mirror, Giulia Avelar

Honors Theses

Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty acquiring imitative skills, which may serve as an important factor in developing social skills and language (Miller et al., 2015; Ledford & Wolery, 2010; Young et al., 1994). Research has shown that most-to-least prompting is most effective for children who do not learn quickly (Libby et al., 2008). The goal of this study was to discover whether the presence of a mirror affected the rate of acquisition of imitative behaviors compared to a no-mirror condition, using most-to-least within-session prompt fading. This study used a multiple baseline design across sets of behaviors. Sets of behaviors were ...


Teaching Two Children Diagnosed With Autism To Tolerate Physical Contact, Kelsey Webster Apr 2017

Teaching Two Children Diagnosed With Autism To Tolerate Physical Contact, Kelsey Webster

Honors Theses

It was hypothesized that the fading in of a prompt hierarchy coinciding with the delivery of tangibles, edibles, and attention or praise reinforcers would decrease problem behavior and noncompliance in two male children with autism who displayed problem behavior and resistance while being physically prompted. A single-subject research design was used to present the prompt hierarchy across various conditions in a school setting. Both participants initially engaged in problem behavior on 100% of the trials but quickly reduced in intensity of problem behaviors by the end of the intervention. There is no current research conducted on how to decrease problem ...


Increasing Shared Attention In Children With Developmental Delays, Shelby Esman Apr 2017

Increasing Shared Attention In Children With Developmental Delays, Shelby Esman

Honors Theses

Joint attention behaviors may be essential to the development of language and social interaction skills (Whalen and Schreibman, 2003). Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often lack these behaviors which may explain the difficulty many of them have communicating appropriately with others (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Previous research has shown that prompting procedures and social reinforcement have been successful in teaching children with ASD to shift their eye gaze between an adult and the object of interest when prompted to do so (Taylor and Hoch, 2008). This present study set out to create and test a procedure designed to teach ...


Using Video Modeling To Teach Functional Direction Following, Breanna Burns Apr 2017

Using Video Modeling To Teach Functional Direction Following, Breanna Burns

Honors Theses

Many children with developmental disabilities have a hard time learning skills, such as following directions, in a small group setting. Video modeling has been shown as an effective way to teach certain skills to children with autism and other developmental disabilities (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004; Wu, Cannella-malone, Wheaton et al, 2016). Little research has been done on using video modeling to teach functional directions. Generalizing direction following skills to appropriate contexts is important for children to be successful in the many environments they encounter in a typical school setting. The purpose of this project was to teach functional direction following using peer video ...


Explicit Programming For Icon Rings: Visual-Based Discrimination, Samantha Borowski Apr 2017

Explicit Programming For Icon Rings: Visual-Based Discrimination, Samantha Borowski

Honors Theses

Instructional icons are helpful as basic direction following is the basis for complex skills needed later in life. These instructions should have a good training so that children can get the basic skills and can move on to the complex skills. The goal of the project was to increase the correct responses to instructional icons. Visuals are a good tool for learning because it attaches a picture with the event that is happening or will happen. Children with autism sometimes struggle when they are introduced to a new environment so having a system in place to help make instruction following ...


Toilet-Training A Child With Autism In A School Setting, Kristianna Ferrier Apr 2017

Toilet-Training A Child With Autism In A School Setting, Kristianna Ferrier

Honors Theses

Children with autism and developmental disabilities typically take longer to learn skills. Specific training that requires more repetition to obtain mastery should be used to teach specific tasks (MacDuff, Kratz, & McClannahan, 2001). Toilet training is no exception and must be directly taught to children with Autism. Toilet training is a fundamental skill for independent living and greatly reduces the work load of care givers (Chung, 2007). The child in this study was chosen based on a toilet training readiness checklist. The present study is a combination of the scheduled sitting protocol by Azrin and Foxx (1971) with the omission of ...


Increasing Vocalization And Echoic Stimulus Control, Logan Wurster Apr 2017

Increasing Vocalization And Echoic Stimulus Control, Logan Wurster

Honors Theses

Deficits in verbal behavior can be harmful to children’s growth and development of other crucial skills and can also increase problem behavior (Eldevik, Eikeseth, Jahr, & Smith, 2006; Charman, Magiati, & Howlin, 2007; Cividini-Motta, 2014). Results from previous research show that vocal imitation training, stimulus-stimulus pairing, rapid motor imitation, and mand-model approaches have been successful in teaching echoic behavior. However, there is little evidence to show that these methods are successful for children who are making little to no verbal responses. (Carroll & Klatts, 2008; Bennett & Yoon, 2000; Greer & Ross, 2003; & Hawkins & Schuster, 2007). The purpose of this project is to increase vocalizations and establish echoic stimulus control in three young boys ...


Culture Of Gentleness: A Behavioral Approach, Stevie Parcell Apr 2017

Culture Of Gentleness: A Behavioral Approach, Stevie Parcell

Honors Theses

The purpose of this paper is to explain the fundamentals of an ideological framework for caregivers providing services to people with disabilities called a Culture of Gentleness. The material is traditionally taught within the two-day Working with People training, and the efforts to spread this theory is headed by the Center for Positive Living Supports located in Clinton Township, Michigan. The material is then analyzed through a behavior analytic perspective. Each segment of the initial training will be discussed through both a Culture of Gentleness and behavioral perspective, rooted in Applied Behavior Analysis. Although established in the practice of Positive ...


Teaching A Scanning Response To A Child With Autism, Katherine Burnham Apr 2017

Teaching A Scanning Response To A Child With Autism, Katherine Burnham

Honors Theses

Children with autism have been known to exhibit abnormal scanning responses, or lack them entirely, as shown by the results of various studies (Sasson et al., 2008; Landry & Bryson, 2004). Studies have indicated that scanning may be a behavioral cusp and the lack of a normal scanning response in children with autism may be inhibiting the acquisition of many other subsequent skills (Bosch & Fuqua, 2001). By implementing an intervention to teach the scanning response, it was hypothesized that our participants would develop the prerequisite scanning skill, and therefore performance on a matching-to-sample procedure would improve. Through a basic AB design ...


Self Management: Overcoming Barriers To Success, Jazmyn Souryamat Feb 2017

Self Management: Overcoming Barriers To Success, Jazmyn Souryamat

Honors Theses

Individuals with an autism spectrum diagnosis often have a social-skills deficit that may include the tendency to avoid eye contact. In addition, they may have sensory issues and become easily overwhelmed by excessive sensory stimuli. Self-management is a treatment that has been found to enhance the quality of life for individuals with or without an autism spectrum diagnosis. It has been helpful in treating procrastination, used to increase physical activity, lower caloric intake, and increase independence. In this study, self-management treatments were used to increase instances of appropriate social responding and to decrease behaviors that posed a barrier to personal ...


College Student Development And Emerging Adulthood, Gina Cavanaugh Apr 2016

College Student Development And Emerging Adulthood, Gina Cavanaugh

Honors Theses

College student development theories focus on the experiences and growth that individuals and groups encounter throughout their time attending colleges and universities. During this time, many traditionally aged college students are in the period of emerging adulthood. In industrialized societies, this age range is characterized by a prolonged period of adolescence and a lack of taking on adult responsibilities. This exploration highlights the emerging adult college student population in the United States and the development these individuals may undergo.


Increasing Vocalizations In Children With Autism, Nicholette Christodoulou Apr 2016

Increasing Vocalizations In Children With Autism, Nicholette Christodoulou

Honors Theses

This study focuses on increasing vocalizations for students with Autism spectrum disorder. A three-part intervention was used to attempt to establish an echoic repertoire in students who had little to no vocalizations. Both students attended an early intervention classroom with a special education school. Students were selected from their classroom if they showed little to no vocalization or echoic skills. The goal during the first phase was to collect all sounds being made by the student to increase the overall number of vocalizations being made. This was done by continuous reinforcement using edible reinforcers. In phase two, the student’s ...


Sensor-Enabled Reduction Of Stereotypy, Aaron Brzezinski Apr 2016

Sensor-Enabled Reduction Of Stereotypy, Aaron Brzezinski

Honors Theses

The goal of this study was to create and implement an intervention to reduce stereotypic behavior in a child with Autism. The participant was chosen based on a high occurrence of target behavior and was recruited through his treatment center. The target behaviors were selected based on the subjective evaluation of his treatment provider and parents. The dependent variable in this study was hand-flapping. The independent variable was DRO training that included a buzzer and a chime noise contingent on the presence or absence of stereotypy respectively. A Microsoft Kinect© 2.0 was used to track occurrence of target behavior ...


Transitioning Children With Autism From A Discrete Trial Classroom To A Group Classroom, Alexandra Ennis Apr 2016

Transitioning Children With Autism From A Discrete Trial Classroom To A Group Classroom, Alexandra Ennis

Honors Theses

The goal of this project was to prepare children diagnosed with autism for the transition to group learning environments by teaching them to sit in their chair and attend while the teacher is at least five feet away. This is a skill that will help kids succeed when they make the transition from an early intervention program to a group learner environment because it allows the teacher to focus more on learning important skills. A proximity procedure was put in place for two children that focused on gradually increasing the distance between the tutor and the student with use of ...


The Effect Of Bedside Handoffs On Patients’ Perceived Fears, Maija Paldan Apr 2016

The Effect Of Bedside Handoffs On Patients’ Perceived Fears, Maija Paldan

Honors Theses

Background and Significance: Fear, anxiety, and apprehension can have a profound effect upon patient outcomes, possibly leading to a worsened health condition or delay in recovery. Current literature finds that communication and social support by the nursing staff may foster patients’ understanding of their care and their experiences of feeling safe. The bedside handoff is one way of enhancing communication and providing support within nurse patient interactions. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of bedside handoffs on patients’ perceived fear, anxiety, and apprehension.

Methods: A secondary analysis was performed upon a larger quantitative data set from ...


Experiential Avoidance Post-Trauma: Investigating Predictors Of Traumatic Stress And Problematic Behavior., Elise Trim Dec 2015

Experiential Avoidance Post-Trauma: Investigating Predictors Of Traumatic Stress And Problematic Behavior., Elise Trim

Honors Theses

Experiential avoidance (EA) is the unwillingness to remain in contact with distressing thoughts, feelings, memories, and other private experiences (Hayes et al., 2004; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999). Although the use of EA may lead to immediate reductions in distress, prolonged use can result in problem behaviors such as substance misuse (Hayes, Wilson, Gifford, Follette, & Strosahl, 1996). Although a strong temporal relationship has yet to be established, findings suggest a possibility that EA could be a mechanism by which posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are developed and maintained (Krause, Mendelson, & Lynch, 2003; Rosenthal, Polusny, & Follette, 2006; Dvorak, Arens, Kuvaas, Williams, & Kilwein, 2013). Undergraduate students (N = 107; Mage = 20) were recruited to complete self-report measures regarding EA, childhood trauma history, PTSD symptoms, and problem behaviors using an anonymous online survey. Consistent with predictions and the current literature, EA was significantly associated with childhood trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, sexual promiscuity, and aggression in the expected directions. EA predicated PTSD symptoms and problem behaviors above and beyond childhood trauma history, strengthening the predictive model as hypothesized. Clinical ...


Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study Of Mikey, Gabrielle Lober Dec 2015

Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study Of Mikey, Gabrielle Lober

Honors Theses

This paper describes Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) including diagnostic criteria, suspected causes, prevalence, comorbidities, and influences on client factors. A hypothetical case study is presented to give readers an illustration of what someone with ASD might look like. Possible treatment based on evidence and selected frame of references will be given for the hypothetical client. This paper is not all inclusive of the role of occupational therapy in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder, but gives an illustrative example.


The Impact Of Globalization On Access For Individuals With Disabilities, Katherine Williamson Dec 2015

The Impact Of Globalization On Access For Individuals With Disabilities, Katherine Williamson

Honors Theses

This comparative ethnomethodology study is focused on the global context elements that help explain public policies and its consequences on types of access available to individuals with disabilities in the United States Midwest and West Africa. The goal of this study is to identify the role of individuals with disabilities in a global society by answering two research questions. First, what are the public policies in place for physical, social, and educational access in the United States Midwest and West Africa? Second, how is physical, social, and educational access being provided in the United States Midwest and West Africa? The ...