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Western Michigan University

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Parenting Challenges Of Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Discipline, Child Education, Technology Use, And Outdated Health Beliefs, Ludivine Brunissen, Eli Rapoport, Kate Fruitman, Andrew Adesman Sep 2020

Parenting Challenges Of Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Discipline, Child Education, Technology Use, And Outdated Health Beliefs, Ludivine Brunissen, Eli Rapoport, Kate Fruitman, Andrew Adesman

GrandFamilies: The Contemporary Journal of Research, Practice and Policy

BACKGROUND: As of 2015, approximately three million children in the United States were being raised primarily by their grandparents. This study aims to examine, in a large national sample, to what extent grandparents raising grandchildren (GRGs) have difficulty with discipline and meeting their grandchild’s educational and social needs, find computers/other technology challenging, and subscribe to outdated health beliefs.

METHODS: An anonymous online parenting questionnaire was administered to GRGs recruited through state and local grandparent support groups and elderly service agencies.

RESULTS: 733 grandparents that self-identified as the primary caregiver of one or more grandchildren met inclusion criteria. 56 ...


Teaching Children With Autism To Make Independent Requests Using An Echoic-To-Mand Procedure, Michael L. Tomak Jun 2020

Teaching Children With Autism To Make Independent Requests Using An Echoic-To-Mand Procedure, Michael L. Tomak

Dissertations

Mands are a vital skill for the development of a child’s communicative repertoire and are typically a major focus of early intensive behavior interventions (EIBI). Naturalistic teaching is more efficient than Discrete-Trial Training (DTT) for teaching mands (Jennet, Harris, & Delmolino, 2008); and therefore, the present study used crucial components from naturalistic teaching to teach mands in a discrete-trial format, using an echoic-to-mand procedure. This intervention increased the children’s independent vocal requests. Initially, they learned to mand for items in sight and eventually for those out of sight.


Teaching Receptive Identification To Children Who Were Unsuccessful With A Standard Training Program, Kaylee R. Tomak Jun 2020

Teaching Receptive Identification To Children Who Were Unsuccessful With A Standard Training Program, Kaylee R. Tomak

Dissertations

This research strongly suggests that essentially all children with the skill of generalized matching can learn receptive identification, even if they have failed to do so, using the standard least-to-most prompting procedure. The effective alternative procedures were antecedent picture prompting (Stone & Malott, 2010), consequence picture prompting (Carp et al., 2012), and receptive-exclusion training (McIlvane et al., 1984). In addition, these procedures generally produced high levels of maintenance, and they also typically produced a high level of generalization to novel stimulus sets. However, no single alternative procedure was more effective or more efficient across all of the children. In this research ...


The Effects Of Low Dose Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Administration In A Rodent Model Of Delay Discounting, Robert J. Kohler Jun 2020

The Effects Of Low Dose Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Administration In A Rodent Model Of Delay Discounting, Robert J. Kohler

Dissertations

The resurgence of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) as a therapeutic tool requires a revival in research, both basic and clinical, to bridge gaps in knowledge left from a previous generation of work. Currently, no study has been published with the intent of establishing optimal microdose concentrations of LSD in an animal model. In the present study, rats were administered a range of LSD doses to quantify potential augmentations in choice behavior in a rodent model of delay discounting. In the first experiment, rats were administered LSD (20 or 40 μg/kg, i.p.) or saline at the start of terminal ...


Training Practitioners On The Effects Of Psychotropic Medication Via A Web-Based Platform, Anita Li Jun 2020

Training Practitioners On The Effects Of Psychotropic Medication Via A Web-Based Platform, Anita Li

Dissertations

Many individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) receive multiple therapeutic services in an attempt to supplement behavioral therapy. These services include pharmacological interventions. Two drugs, risperidone (Risperdal) and aripiprazole (Abilify), are FDA-approved to treat “irritability” in children with ASD. Research shows that the effects of risperidone and aripiprazole on irritability varies greatly across treated individuals. Therefore, individualized monitoring and evaluation must be conducted to provide the physician with data to determine if the medication is resulting in desired changes and effects. Certified behavior analysts are trained in data collection and experience high levels of contact with individuals diagnosed with ...


International, Remote Behavioral-Skills Training Of Discrete-Trial Procedures For Teachers In Saudi Arabia, Bayan Alsubaie Jun 2020

International, Remote Behavioral-Skills Training Of Discrete-Trial Procedures For Teachers In Saudi Arabia, Bayan Alsubaie

Dissertations

The current study sought to internationally expand the use of applied behavior analysis services by applying discrete trial training (DTT) to preschool students with autism, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). At a university setting in the United States, the trainer provided the training to three teachers at the KSA Qodrah Center, a center for special education, by using a remote communication technique. I, as the trainer, used the behavioral-skills training (BST) model to train the teachers; this involved instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. The training was three hours a day, three days per week. The teachers learned to ...


The Effects Of Involvement In Religious Practices On Recovering Substance Users., Taylor Currier Apr 2020

The Effects Of Involvement In Religious Practices On Recovering Substance Users., Taylor Currier

Honors Theses

This paper reviews empirical studies focused on spirituality and its effects on those in the recovery process from substance abuse. This paper will look at qualitative studies as well as quantitative research to see which form has derived the best results on how spirituality has affected substance abuse recovery. Prolonged recovery is the goal for those that struggle with substance use. Behavior change is an important in sustaining sobriety with those dealing with addiction. It is predicted that those who engage in spiritual growth within their community have a higher likelihood of prolonged recovery than those that do not believe ...


Reading A Literary Passage: Anticipation, Emotion, And Comprehension, Jacob Hurwitz Apr 2020

Reading A Literary Passage: Anticipation, Emotion, And Comprehension, Jacob Hurwitz

Honors Theses

Trigger warnings (TWs) are statements that provide students a caution that upcoming educational content may be emotionally disturbing. The idea is that TWs allow students to psychologically prepare themselves. However, recent studies suggest TWs may function as threat cues, rather than preparatory cues, eliciting anticipatory anxiety and avoidance. The present study examined the difference between presenting antecedent information to students in the form of a TW versus an alternative, a coping cue, introduced as a Content Notice. In a between-groups design, undergraduate students (N = 113) who received extra credit for study participation were randomized to receive a TW or CN ...


A Comparison Study Of Naming, Kassidi Krzykwa Apr 2020

A Comparison Study Of Naming, Kassidi Krzykwa

Honors Theses

Bidirectional naming is the ability to acquire a listener response or tact for a stimulus and then emit the other operant without further training. Incidental naming refers to the ability to emit the listener response and tact for the item without direct reinforcement after just being exposed to the name of the item. The development of naming could allow a child to learn more readily from the natural environment. However, it is unclear if bidirectional naming and incidental naming are two separate skills, or if one is potentially a prerequisite for the other. For this project, procedures outlined by Greer ...


Stimulus Fading On Teaching Receptive Identification, Dennis Pomorski Apr 2020

Stimulus Fading On Teaching Receptive Identification, Dennis Pomorski

Honors Theses

Many of the skills needed to live happily and independently are not in the repertoires of children diagnosed with autism, and they do not learn these skills through exposure to others (MacDuff, 2001). One of the skills children diagnosed with ASD struggle to develop is receptive identification. There is often a risk of prompt dependence or failure to transfer stimulus control to the desired stimuli when using LTM prompting methods. Children with autism spectrum disorder may require a different approach in developing a receptive language repertoire. The purpose of this study was to teach a child diagnosed with ASD receptive ...


Using A Progressive Time Delay To Increase Mands In A Child With Autism, Brielle Babcock Apr 2020

Using A Progressive Time Delay To Increase Mands In A Child With Autism, Brielle Babcock

Honors Theses

Mands are a building block for all communication and are therefore important to teach to individuals who do not consistently use mands. Skinner defined a mand as a “verbal operant in which the response is reinforced by a characteristic consequence and is under the control of relevant conditions of deprivation or aversive stimulation” (Hall & Sundberg 1987). By providing individuals with a way to express their desires and needs, individuals display less problem behaviors. A functional form of communication is imperative to typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorders alike. The goal of the current study was to increase the frequency of manding as well as the variety of mands in a naturalistic teaching format. Through the manipulation of the environment, and the implementation of prompts, researchers were able to train an echoic into a mand and generalize those mands to a more natural environment. The study began by teaching mands in a discrete-trial setting, using four phases to increase independent responses; upon mastery, the study was implemented in a naturalistic setting for maintenance. By the end of the study, the individual showed significant differences from baseline.


A Parametric Analysis Of The Sunk Cost Effect, Amanda F. Devoto Apr 2020

A Parametric Analysis Of The Sunk Cost Effect, Amanda F. Devoto

Dissertations

Sunk costs are previous investments of time, effort, or money toward a goal that cannot be recovered. People often honor sunk costs by continuing to pursue a goal, despite the availability of an alternative path that would pay off faster, a phenomenon called the sunk cost effect. Prior research has identified variables that influence the sunk cost effect. One variable found in hypothetical scenario-based research and in behavior-based research (Pattison et al., 2011) has been percent of goal completed. The current study was designed to (1) replicate and extend research by Pattison and colleagues and (2) compare results from the ...


A Functional Analysis Of Losses In A Risky Choice Procedure, David W. Sottile Apr 2020

A Functional Analysis Of Losses In A Risky Choice Procedure, David W. Sottile

Dissertations

Loss chasing is a maladaptive pattern of risky behavior in which the frequency of risky behavior temporarily increases after a loss. The conditions under which loss chasing occurs are not well understood. Conditioned reinforcement appears to play a role in loss chasing, but the consideration of antecedent variables is necessary for a complete account. The purpose of this study was to test the role of (1) a stimulus that indicated the number of trials left in the session (i.e., a trial counter), and (2) the effect of the ordinal value of a trial in a risky choice task on ...


Examination Of The Impact Of Contingent Praise And Monetary Rewards On Intrinsic Motivation And Creative Performance, Merrilyn Akpapuna Apr 2020

Examination Of The Impact Of Contingent Praise And Monetary Rewards On Intrinsic Motivation And Creative Performance, Merrilyn Akpapuna

Master's Theses

Despite many decades of debate, the question of whether or not extrinsic motivation is detrimental to intrinsic motivation and creativity continues to spark discussion among professionals (Cameron & Pierce, 1994). This is an important issue for business owners who do not want to stifle creativity and intrinsic motivation in an effort to increase productivity. Even though many authors have labelled extrinsic motivation as archaic and harmful (Deci, 1971; Kohn, 1993; Pink, 2009), the available empirical evidence does not match such levels of condemnation. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of several interventions (performance-contingent money, performance-contingent praise, and performance-contingent money plus praise) in increasing creativity. Two within-subject multiple reversal designs were used to examine the impact that these interventions had on 27 college students. A hybrid within subject and between group analysis was carried out. The within ...


Integrating Social Emotional Skill Development Throughout College Access Program Activities: A Profile Of The Princeton University Preparatory Program, Catherine M. Millett, Marisol J. C. Kevelson Jan 2020

Integrating Social Emotional Skill Development Throughout College Access Program Activities: A Profile Of The Princeton University Preparatory Program, Catherine M. Millett, Marisol J. C. Kevelson

Journal of College Access

In a prior study we demonstrated that college access program participants have positive views of the extent to which the program supports the development of their social and emotional skills and related college help-seeking behaviors in college. In this follow-up study, we explore the extent to which participant views vary by length of participation in the program in high school (i.e., dosage) and the extent to which alumni enrolled in college differ from college graduate alumni in their perceptions of the influences of the college access program. Results reveal that a multi-year college access program may influence different social ...


Childhood Trauma And Early Adult Engagement In Deviant Behavior: A Measure Of Experiential Avoidance And Impulsivity Association, Angelene Green Dec 2019

Childhood Trauma And Early Adult Engagement In Deviant Behavior: A Measure Of Experiential Avoidance And Impulsivity Association, Angelene Green

Honors Theses

Childhood trauma (CT) has been associated with early adult behavioral deviance (BD), as maintained by previous research. The current study examined experiential avoidance (EA) and impulsivity (IMP) as mechanisms through which childhood trauma and resulting behavioral deviance are related. Participants for the study included 588 students of Western Michigan University, comprised of both males and females. The participants ranged between the ages of 18 and 35. For data collection, participants completed an online survey through an online platform. Participants were directed to select responses in accordance with the variables of interest. For the purpose of identity preservation, the survey responses ...


Behavioral Skills Training And Literacy: Supporting Reading Instructors In Adult Education Centers, Mya L. Hernandez Dec 2019

Behavioral Skills Training And Literacy: Supporting Reading Instructors In Adult Education Centers, Mya L. Hernandez

Dissertations

The present study evaluates the effects of a behavioral skills training package (BST) on training adult literacy tutors to implement the steps of BST when teaching parents with low literacy. Four adult literacy tutors participated in the study along with one parent with low literacy. The primary dependent variable was the percentage of steps of the BST package implemented correctly during tutor training probe measures. Secondary measures were taken on the parent’s performance of each step of the literacy activities on which they were trained. In baseline, all tutors were provided with instructions for performing two literacy activities and ...


Comparing The Results Of And Evaluating Preferences For Functional Analyses And Concurrent Operant Analyses, Marrisa B. Allen Dec 2019

Comparing The Results Of And Evaluating Preferences For Functional Analyses And Concurrent Operant Analyses, Marrisa B. Allen

Dissertations

It is recommended that a functional analysis (FA) be conducted before treating serious problem behaviors. However, it is not always feasible or desirable to do so. For example, the problem behavior may be too dangerous, or the setting may not allow procedures that evoke problem behavior. An alternative solution may be to identify reinforcers for adaptive behavior in order to develop a treatment plan to reduce problem behavior by increasing socially appropriate/adaptive behavior. Berg et al. (2007) evaluated whether the same social events identified as reinforcers for adaptive behavior by a concurrent operant (i.e., choice) analysis (COA) would ...


Measurement Of Defusion: Further Validation Of The Drexel Defusion Scale, Christopher A. Briggs Dec 2019

Measurement Of Defusion: Further Validation Of The Drexel Defusion Scale, Christopher A. Briggs

Dissertations

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) seeks to develop psychological flexibility through the engagement of the six interrelated processes. Four processes employ mindfulness and acceptance strategies and consist of acceptance, defusion, present moment awareness, and the contextualized self. Two other processes, values and committed action, are grouped with present moment awareness and the contextualized self and are termed behavior change strategies. One issue encountered by contemporary behavioral approaches in general, and ACT in particular, is the measurement of the proposed processes. Measurement is complicated by the functional nature of some of the repertoires described making the development of instruments for assessment ...


Attempts To Reduce Elopement Using Blocking, A Time-Out Procedure, And Differential Reinforcement, Sydney M. Harbaugh Dec 2019

Attempts To Reduce Elopement Using Blocking, A Time-Out Procedure, And Differential Reinforcement, Sydney M. Harbaugh

Dissertations

The current study was designed to replicate and extend the results of Harbaugh, Kohler & Malott, 2016, to decrease elopement and flopping by a child diagnosed with autism. The intervention in the present study consisted of a package combining differential reinforcement, response blocking, and a time-out procedure. Following successful reduction in the rate of elopement, a Behavioral Skills Training program was implemented with the child’s family to ensure generalization and maintenance of appropriate walking.


The Effects Of Self-Observation On Implementation Of Direct Instruction Reading Curricula, Katherine Mahaffy Dec 2019

The Effects Of Self-Observation On Implementation Of Direct Instruction Reading Curricula, Katherine Mahaffy

Dissertations

The current study evaluated the effects of structured self-observations on the rate and accuracy of learn unit presentations by graduate student tutors in a reading program. Four graduate students were trained to implement reading curricula using instructions, modeling, and the training manuals for reading curricula. Dependent variables were accuracy of antecedents, accuracy of consequences, and rate of learn units for the lesson. A secondary dependent variable was the rate of contingent social praise and token delivery during the lesson. During the intervention, tutors learned how to record learn units using the Teacher Performance Rate and Accuracy Scale (TPRA) and then ...


The Effects Of Energy Dashboards And Competition Programming On Cyclic Electricity Consumption On A College Campus, Katherine Jane-Binder Martini Dec 2019

The Effects Of Energy Dashboards And Competition Programming On Cyclic Electricity Consumption On A College Campus, Katherine Jane-Binder Martini

Dissertations

This report examined issues pertaining to the efficacy and cost effectiveness of energy dashboards in the effort to influence electricity-related behavior change on college campuses. Given the increasing popularity of energy dashboards along with a lack of data to support their effectiveness, more rigorous research to evaluate the efficacy of this technology is necessary. An intervention including the installation of physical and internet based energy dashboards along with an energy reduction competition was evaluated. A literature review and long term cyclical data on energy use is included that provides arguments against the potential for long-term effectiveness of these interventions despite ...


The Impact Of A Multisensory Stimulation Environment Within A Memory Care Assisted Living Facility, Dana M. Prince Dec 2019

The Impact Of A Multisensory Stimulation Environment Within A Memory Care Assisted Living Facility, Dana M. Prince

Dissertations

The use of Multisensory Stimulation Environments (MSSE) has grown increasingly more common in the United States (U.S.) as a nonpharmacological intervention for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD). However, typical MSSE designs require a secluded room isolated from outside stimulation and demand direct supervision from the care provider during treatment. Due to projected shortages in the clinical workforce and the population of older adults on the rise, a study was designed to reveal the effectiveness of an open-floorplan MSSE to reduce the demand of care providers during the use of the MSSE while allowing subjects diagnosed with dementia ...


The Effectiveness Of Oral Retelling As A Reading Comprehension Strategy For Elementary Students With Reading Delays, Brandi Michelle Fontenot Dec 2019

The Effectiveness Of Oral Retelling As A Reading Comprehension Strategy For Elementary Students With Reading Delays, Brandi Michelle Fontenot

Dissertations

Comprehension is an essential component of reading proficiency that produces long-term gains for learners. However, many upper elementary school-age children struggle with reading comprehension. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a self-monitoring intervention on reading comprehension for three elementary school-age children with reading delays. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, behavioral skills training was used to teach participants the elements of a story retell and how-to self-monitor their own story retells. In Study 2, a multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of self-monitoring on four dependent variables: a ...


A Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Gutter Pan And Curb Top Placement With A Full Gateway Configuration Of The In-Street Sign On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians, Newton Dec 2019

A Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Gutter Pan And Curb Top Placement With A Full Gateway Configuration Of The In-Street Sign On Driver Yielding To Pedestrians, Newton

Master's Theses

Driver yielding behavior at crosswalks directly affects pedestrian safety. In this study we examined whether the placement of the signs in the gutter pan or on top of the curb, while using a full gateway configuration of the in-street sign, influenced the efficacy of the treatment. Data were collected at sites using both in gutter and on top of curb full gateway configurations. The gutter pan configuration resulted in a higher percentage of driver yielding behavior to pedestrians in the crosswalk. The gateway treatment was shown to be more effective in the gutter pan configuration than the curb top configuration ...


Functional Analysis In The Home Setting Of An Older Adult With Neurocognitive Disorder, Norton Dec 2019

Functional Analysis In The Home Setting Of An Older Adult With Neurocognitive Disorder, Norton

Master's Theses

Currently within the behavioral gerontology literature there are no published studies that include a functional assessment in the home setting. The primary goal of the present study was to address this gap by conducting a functional analysis on a challenging behavior of an older adult with neurocognitive disorder in the home. This study occurred in two phases. During phase one, researchers conducted an antecedent functional analysis on the bizarre speech of an 81-year-old female with suspected dementia across four conditions (television on, no interactions initiated; television on, interactions initiated; television off, no interactions initiated; television off, interactions initiated). Results from ...


Analysis Of Advance Placement Distance Of The Gateway In-Street Sign On Increased Yielding Distance, Turske Dec 2019

Analysis Of Advance Placement Distance Of The Gateway In-Street Sign On Increased Yielding Distance, Turske

Master's Theses

The National Highway Traffic Safety Association (2018) reported approximately 6,000 pedestrians were fatally injured by vehicles in 2016, with an increasing trend in fatalities over the past decade. The gateway configuration of In-Street signs has been shown to produce an increase in the percentage of drivers yielding right-of-way to pedestrians; this study examined at what distance in advance of the gateway the configuration was most effective in inducing drivers to yield right of way further in advance of the crosswalk. This study also counterbalanced time of day across placement distances. Data were collected on all vehicles that passed through ...


Acceptability Of Social Media Incentives To Increase Physical Activity, Amanda Devoto, Anthony Defulio Aug 2019

Acceptability Of Social Media Incentives To Increase Physical Activity, Amanda Devoto, Anthony Defulio

The Hilltop Review

Background: Contingency management can be effective in promoting physical activity, but the change frequently does not sustain after the intervention is withdrawn. A feasible and sustainable physical activity intervention is needed. Social media may meet the criteria for a sustainable intervention, as it is free to use and enormously popular.

Introduction: The goal of the current study was to assess acceptability of using social media as an incentive for a physical activity intervention.

Materials and Methods: The current study surveyed 102 Mechanical Turk users on their social media use, physical activity habits, and interest in a proposed physical activity intervention ...


A Single Session Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy To Promote Health-Related Behavior Change: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Monica Barreto Aug 2019

A Single Session Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy To Promote Health-Related Behavior Change: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Monica Barreto

Dissertations

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified physical activity, nutrition, and sleep as three key health-related behaviors that can help the prevention of chronic disease. Only a fraction of the population met the recommended guidelines across these domains. It is important to develop interventions that can be simultaneously focused, flexible, efficient, and efficacious as a means of impacting population health. This study examined the efficacy of a single 60-minute Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) session targeting health-related behavior change and compared it to an information-only wait-list (WL) control condition. Forty-five collegians (Mage = 22.35 [6.91], 78% female ...


Examining The Effects Of Cell Phone Use On Caregiver Supervision And Child Injury Risk, Mckenna Corlis Aug 2019

Examining The Effects Of Cell Phone Use On Caregiver Supervision And Child Injury Risk, Mckenna Corlis

Dissertations

Unintentional injuries are the leading killer of children in the United States. Research indicates caregiver supervision decreases child injury risk, but has not examined how different distractions may affect this relation. Specifically, research has not considered if and how caregiver cell phone use affects child injury risk. Given the prevalence and distracting effects of cell phones noted in previous studies, it is imperative to examine how caregiver cell phone use and child injury risk relate.

The present study examined how distractions influenced caregivers’ ability to tend to their child and their child’s engagement in risky behavior. Using a within-subjects ...