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The Effects Of Levels Of Processing On Retention Of Word Meaning, Dorothy A. Flannagan Aug 1986

The Effects Of Levels Of Processing On Retention Of Word Meaning, Dorothy A. Flannagan

Master's Theses

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the three encoding techniques of rote memory, semantic, and self-reference, on short-term and long-term retention levels of unfamiliar vocabulary words and their meanings. Seventy-two college students participated in the experiment, with 24 students in each encoding group. All participants viewed 20 target words and their definitions, and were exposed to each word for 30 seconds. Each group was given instructions designed to promote a type of encoding specific to their group. After a five-minute distractor task, subjects were given a list of the target words and were tested on ...


Effectiveness Of Computer-Based, Modified Computer-Based And Workshop Training In The Learning/Application Of Leadership Skills, Karen E. Chappell May 1986

Effectiveness Of Computer-Based, Modified Computer-Based And Workshop Training In The Learning/Application Of Leadership Skills, Karen E. Chappell

Master's Theses

This study examined the effectiveness of training methods in effective leadership principles. Forty-two male and female Introductory Psychology students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: computer-based training (CBT), computer-based training with videotaped vignettes (CBTV), or group-based workshop training with videotaped vignettes (GBW). Training effectiveness was assessed on two dependent variables, pretest/posttest scores in conceptual knowledge and pretest/posttest scores in applied knowledge. Only partial support was found for the hypothesis that there would be significant differences in mean pretest and mean posttest scores on both conceptual and applied knowledge as a result of training method. Method of ...


Endurance And Affiliation : Traits As A Priori Self Schemata In Memory, Nancy Mackay Bruckner May 1986

Endurance And Affiliation : Traits As A Priori Self Schemata In Memory, Nancy Mackay Bruckner

Master's Theses

This study investigated the hypotheses that subjects' scores on the trait of endurance would have s. positive, significant correlation with their recall of endurance-related adjectives, and that subjects' scores on the trait of affiliation would have a positive, significant correlation with their recall of affiliation-related words. One hundred forty-five male and female undergraduates from the University of Richmond answered questions from the Affiliation and Endurance scales of the Personality Research Form (Jackson, 1967). As a separate task subjects decided whether or not each of fortyeight adjectives described themselves. Sixteen of these adjectives referred to endurance, sixteen to affiliation, and sixteen ...


An Attributional Analysis Of Students' Reactions To Success And Failure, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 1986

An Attributional Analysis Of Students' Reactions To Success And Failure, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Like it or not, evaluation is as much a part of education as is learning. In most schools and universities students are regularly tested and evaluated by their teachers, who communicate their appraisals in the form of a grade. When the papers are handed back, the grades are posted, or report cards are sent home, students find out if they have succeeded or if they have failed.

How do students react to these academic evaluations? According to a growing number of studies, the answer to this question depends upon their attributions: students' inferences about the causes of their performances and ...


The Future Of Elderly Women : Psychosocial Factors Influencing The Aging Transition, Michelle Dever Jan 1986

The Future Of Elderly Women : Psychosocial Factors Influencing The Aging Transition, Michelle Dever

Honors Theses

In the U.S. today there is an increasing number of elderly in the population. There are over twenty million persons who are 65 years of age and older. It is predicted that there will be over 32 million older Americans by the year 2000. There has been a greater increase in the number of older women compared to men with women having a greater life expectancy also. The effects of aging on individuals and their ability to adapt to society needs to examined in our society today. There is a special need to study elderly women and the difficulties ...


The Relationship Of Stress, Coping, And Social Support To Depression, Katherine B. Wissman Jan 1986

The Relationship Of Stress, Coping, And Social Support To Depression, Katherine B. Wissman

Honors Theses

The relationship of the sources, mediators, and manifestations of stress were examined in a review of the literature. Stress is comprised of microstressors and daily hassles in addition to negative life events and changes. Direct, problem-focused coping mechanisms were found to be more effective in reducing stress than emotion-focused strategies. Social support reduces stress through strong main effects, but the interaction of stress and support depends on the specific types of stress and support under study.


Observational Investigation Of School-Aged Children's Peer Relations, Darcy Milhaven Jan 1986

Observational Investigation Of School-Aged Children's Peer Relations, Darcy Milhaven

Honors Theses

In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of early peer relations in the social and emotional development of children (Hartup, 1983; Cowen, Pederson, Babagian, Izzo, & Trost, 1973; Roffl Sells, & Golden, 1972). The recognition of the contribution of peer relations to later adult adjustment has lead to a significant increase in the investigation of children's social relations. In particular, three general methodologies have been employed in these studies. First, informant reports with their origin in the sociometric tradition have utilized peer-, adult-, and self-reports to assess children's social reputations, behavioral characteristics, and self-perceptions (e.g., Coie, Dodge, & Cappotelli, 1982; Newcomb & Bukowski, 1983). Second, children's social cognitions have been evaluated to reveal age and sociometric differences in children's knowledge of social processes and conventions (e.g., Milich & Dodge, 1984; Selman & Jaquette, 1984). Third, the behavioral components of peer relations have been examined in observational investigations that have ranged from microscopic analysis in analogue settings to macroscopic analysis in naturalistic settings (e.g., Brody & Stoneman, 1981; Barker & Wright, 1955).


The Effects Of Sex Typing, On The Perception Of Gender In Projected Animal Content, Steven J. Lash Jan 1986

The Effects Of Sex Typing, On The Perception Of Gender In Projected Animal Content, Steven J. Lash

Honors Theses

The present study replicates and extends Lash and Polyson's (1986) findings that a majority of mental images of commonly projected animals are gender associated. In the present study 91 subjects created mental images of the same animals and rated them on degree of masculinity-femininity and clarity on seven point Likert scales. The two studies were very consistent for feminine animals, but many of the masculine associated animals in the original study were found to be non-gender associated. With few exceptions the gender associations generalized across sex type as measured by the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, visualizing ability, and sex of ...


Styles Of Leadership : Leader Behavior In A Crisis Situation, Jacqueline J. Delisle Jan 1986

Styles Of Leadership : Leader Behavior In A Crisis Situation, Jacqueline J. Delisle

Honors Theses

This study examined leadership behavior in a simulated crisis situation. The subjects were 16 undergraduate students enrolled in a leadership class. Subjects completed a leadership behavior questionnaire, and two leaders were chosen on the basis of their scores. The remainder of the subjects were assigned to groups in a manner which balanced their average scores. The findings indicated that the appointed leaders made significantly less suggestions as emergent leaders arose and gained power. Possibilities for future research were proposed.