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Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Nss Protein Supports Infection And Systemic Movement Of A Potyvirus And Is A Symptom Determinant, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta, Patricia A. Harte-Maxwell Jan 2018

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Nss Protein Supports Infection And Systemic Movement Of A Potyvirus And Is A Symptom Determinant, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Sergio M. Gabriel Peralta, Patricia A. Harte-Maxwell

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant viruses are inducers and targets of antiviral RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressor proteins that interfere with antiviral RNA silencing. The NSs protein is an RNA silencing suppressor in orthotospoviruses, such as the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The mechanism of RNA silencing suppression by NSs and its role in virus infection and movement are poorly understood. Here, we cloned and tagged TSWV NSs and expressed it from a GFP-tagged turnip mosaic virus (TuMV-GFP) carrying either a wild-type or suppressor-deficient (AS9) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro). When expressed in cis, NSs restored pathogenicity and promoted ...


Intermolecular Rna Recombination Occurs At Different Frequencies In Alternate Forms Of Brome Mosaic Virus Rna Replication Compartments, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Arturo Diaz, Paul Ahlquist Jan 2018

Intermolecular Rna Recombination Occurs At Different Frequencies In Alternate Forms Of Brome Mosaic Virus Rna Replication Compartments, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Arturo Diaz, Paul Ahlquist

Papers in Plant Pathology

Positive-strand RNA viruses replicate their genomes in membrane-bound replication compartments. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) replicates in vesicular invaginations of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. BMV has served as a productive model system to study processes like virus-host interactions, RNA replication and recombination. Here we present multiple lines of evidence showing that the structure of the viral RNA replication compartments plays a fundamental role and that recruitment of parental RNAs to a common replication compartment is a limiting step in intermolecular RNA recombination. We show that a previously defined requirement for an RNA recruitment element on both parental RNAs is not to ...


Clean Low-Biomass Procedures And Their Application To Ancient Ice Core Microorganisms, Zhi-Ping Zhong, Natalie E. Solonenko, Maria C. Gazitua, Donald V. Kenny, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Virginia I. Rich, James L. Van Etten, Lonnie G. Thompson, Matthew B. Sullivan Jan 2018

Clean Low-Biomass Procedures And Their Application To Ancient Ice Core Microorganisms, Zhi-Ping Zhong, Natalie E. Solonenko, Maria C. Gazitua, Donald V. Kenny, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Virginia I. Rich, James L. Van Etten, Lonnie G. Thompson, Matthew B. Sullivan

Papers in Plant Pathology

Microorganisms in glacier ice provide tens to hundreds of thousands of years archive for a changing climate and microbial responses to it. Analyzing ancient ice is impeded by technical issues, including limited ice, low biomass, and contamination. While many approaches have been evaluated and advanced to remove contaminants on ice core surfaces, few studies leverage modern sequencing to establish in silico decontamination protocols for glacier ice. Here we sought to apply such “clean” sampling techniques with in silico decontamination approaches used elsewhere to investigate microorganisms archived in ice at ~41 (D41, ~20,000 years) and ~49 m (D49, ~30,000 ...


Tor-Autophagy Branch Signaling Via Imp1 Dictates Plant-Microbe Biotrophic Interface Longevity, Guangchao Sun, Christian Elowsky, Gang Li, Richard Wilson Jan 2018

Tor-Autophagy Branch Signaling Via Imp1 Dictates Plant-Microbe Biotrophic Interface Longevity, Guangchao Sun, Christian Elowsky, Gang Li, Richard Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Like other intracellular eukaryotic phytopathogens, the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe (Pyricularia) oryzae first infects living host cells by elaborating invasive hyphae (IH) surrounded by a plant-derived membrane. This forms an extended biotrophic interface enclosing an apoplastic compartment into which fungal effectors can be deployed to evade host detection. M. oryzae also forms a focal, plant membrane-rich structure, the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC), that accumulates cytoplasmic effectors for translocation into host cells. Molecular decision-making processes integrating fungal growth and metabolism in host cells with interface function and dynamics are unknown. Here, we report unanticipated roles for the M. oryzae Target-of-Rapamycin ...


Field Evaluation Of Commercially Available Small Unmanned Aircraft Crop Spray Systems, Wayne Woldt, D. Martin, M. Latheef, Greg Kruger, Robert J. Wright, Justin Mcmechan, Christopher A. Proctor, Tamra Jackson-Ziems Jan 2018

Field Evaluation Of Commercially Available Small Unmanned Aircraft Crop Spray Systems, Wayne Woldt, D. Martin, M. Latheef, Greg Kruger, Robert J. Wright, Justin Mcmechan, Christopher A. Proctor, Tamra Jackson-Ziems

Papers in Plant Pathology

Agricultural research and development on small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) has been directed toward UAS enabled sensing to detect features of interest. While compelling, there is an immediate need to increase the breadth and depth of UAS-based research, to move beyond sensing, and explore active intervention in agricultural production systems. This paper is focused on the concept of crop protection through ultra-precise, unmanned aerial application systems, and seeks to initiate research discussion in this important area of opportunity. Toward this end, two different, commercially available, small Unmanned Aerial Application Systems (sUAAS - defined as less than 55 lbs. maximum take-off weight ...


Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth Promotion And Predictability Of Efficacy By In Vitro Physiological Traits, Rufus J. Akinrinlola, Gary Y. Yuen, Rhae A. Drijber, Anthony O. Adesemoye Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth Promotion And Predictability Of Efficacy By In Vitro Physiological Traits, Rufus J. Akinrinlola, Gary Y. Yuen, Rhae A. Drijber, Anthony O. Adesemoye

Papers in Plant Pathology

Bacilli are commonly used as plant growth-promoting agents but can be limited in effectiveness to certain crop and soil environments. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify Bacillus strains that can be consistent in promoting the growth of corn, wheat, and soybean and (2) determine whether physiological traits expressed in vitro can be predictive of growth promotion efficacy/consistency and be used for selecting effective strains. Twelve Bacillus strains isolated from wheat rhizospheres were evaluated in greenhouse pot tests with nonsterile soil for their effects on the growth of corn, soybean, and wheat. The strains also were assessed ...


Pushing The Resolution Limit By Correcting The Ewald Sphere Effect In Single-Particle Cryo-Em Reconstructions, Dongjie Zhu, Xiangxi Wang, Qianglin Fang, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann, Zihe Rao, Xinzheng Zhang Jan 2018

Pushing The Resolution Limit By Correcting The Ewald Sphere Effect In Single-Particle Cryo-Em Reconstructions, Dongjie Zhu, Xiangxi Wang, Qianglin Fang, James L. Van Etten, Michael G. Rossmann, Zihe Rao, Xinzheng Zhang

Papers in Plant Pathology

The Ewald sphere effect is generally neglected when using the Central Projection Theorem for cryo electron microscopy single-particle reconstructions. This can reduce the resolution of a reconstruction. Here we estimate the attainable resolution and report a “block-based” reconstruction method for extending the resolution limit. We find the Ewald sphere effect limits the resolution of large objects, especially large viruses. After processing two real datasets of large viruses, we show that our procedure can extend the resolution for both datasets and can accommodate the flexibility associated with large protein complexes.


Metagenomic Analysis Of Viruses Associated With Maize Lethal Necrosis In Kenya, Mwathi Jane Wamaitha, Deepti Nigam, Solomon Maina, Francesca Stomeo, Anne Wangai, Joyce Njoki Njuguna, Timothy A. Holton, Bramwel W. Wanjala, Mark Wamalwa, Tanui Lucas, Appolinaire Djikeng, Hernan Garcia Ruiz Jan 2018

Metagenomic Analysis Of Viruses Associated With Maize Lethal Necrosis In Kenya, Mwathi Jane Wamaitha, Deepti Nigam, Solomon Maina, Francesca Stomeo, Anne Wangai, Joyce Njoki Njuguna, Timothy A. Holton, Bramwel W. Wanjala, Mark Wamalwa, Tanui Lucas, Appolinaire Djikeng, Hernan Garcia Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Maize lethal necrosis is caused by a synergistic co-infection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a specific member of the Potyviridae, such as Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) or Johnson grass mosaic virus (JGMV). Typical maize lethal necrosis symptoms include severe yellowing and leaf drying from the edges. In Kenya, we detected plants showing typical and atypical symptoms. Both groups of plants often tested negative for SCMV by ELISA. Methods: We used next-generation sequencing to identify viruses associated to maize lethal necrosis in Kenya through a metagenomics analysis. Symptomatic and asymptomatic leaf samples were ...


Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, Amauri Bogo, Carla C. Comparin, Rosa M. Valdebenito Sanhueza, Patricia Ritschel, Ricardo T. Casa, Fábio N. Silva, Sydney E. Everhart Jan 2018

Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, Amauri Bogo, Carla C. Comparin, Rosa M. Valdebenito Sanhueza, Patricia Ritschel, Ricardo T. Casa, Fábio N. Silva, Sydney E. Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

The causal agents of apple bull’s-eye rot in southern Brazil have recently been described as Neofabraea actinidiae and N. brasiliensis. Isolates of both species were evaluated for response of mycelial growth index (MGI) to different temperatures, enzyme production, mycelial growth inhibition and effective concentrations (EC50 and EC100) of the fungicides triflumizole, pyrimethanil and thiophanate methyl, as well as aggressiveness on fruits of ‘Fuji’ hybrid and ‘Pink Lady’. There was significantly lower mycelium growth in N. brasiliensis compared with N. actinidiae at all temperatures tested. Neither species grew at 3 and 32°C. There were minor differences in ...


Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, Lauren M. Segal, Richard A. Wilson Jan 2018

Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, Lauren M. Segal, Richard A. Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Fungal interactions with plants can involve specific morphogenetic developments to access host cells, the suppression of plant defenses, and the establishment of a feeding lifestyle that nourishes the colonizer often—but not always—at the expense of the host. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is central to the infection process, and the stage-specific production and/or neutralization of ROS is critical to the success of the colonization process. ROS metabolism during infection is dynamic—sometimes seemingly contradictory—and involves endogenous and exogenous sources. Yet, intriguingly, molecular decision-making involved in the spatio-temporal control of ROS metabolism is largely unknown. When also ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Of Genes Encoding Core Components Of The Ubiquitin System In Soybean (Glycine Max) Reveals A Potential Role For Ubiquitination In Host Immunity Against Soybean Cyst Nematode, Chunyu Zhang, Li Song, Mani Kant Choudhary, Bangjun Zhou, Guangchao Sun, Kyle C. Broderick, Loren Giesler, Lirong Zeng Jan 2018

Genome-Wide Analysis Of Genes Encoding Core Components Of The Ubiquitin System In Soybean (Glycine Max) Reveals A Potential Role For Ubiquitination In Host Immunity Against Soybean Cyst Nematode, Chunyu Zhang, Li Song, Mani Kant Choudhary, Bangjun Zhou, Guangchao Sun, Kyle C. Broderick, Loren Giesler, Lirong Zeng

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Ubiquitination is a major post-translational protein modification that regulates essentially all cellular and physiological pathways in eukaryotes. The ubiquitination process typically involves three distinct classes of enzymes, ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3). To date, a comprehensive identification and analysis of core components comprising of the whole soybean (Glycine max) ubiquitin system (UBS) has not been reported.

Results: We performed a systematic, genome-wide analysis of genes that encode core members of the soybean UBS in this study. A total of 1431 genes were identified with high confidence to encode putative soybean UBS components, including 4 ...


First Report Of Xanthomonas Vasicola Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak On Corn In The United States, K. A. Korus, J. M. Lang, A. O. Adesemoye, C. C. Block, N. Pal, J. E. Leach, T. A. Jackson-Ziems Jun 2017

First Report Of Xanthomonas Vasicola Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak On Corn In The United States, K. A. Korus, J. M. Lang, A. O. Adesemoye, C. C. Block, N. Pal, J. E. Leach, T. A. Jackson-Ziems

Papers in Plant Pathology

In 2014 and 2015, Zea mays samples (field, seed, and popcorn) were submitted to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln displaying long, dark, yellow to brown, water-soaked, linear lesions confined to the interveinal spaces of the leaves. Initial symptoms appeared as small water-soaked flecks that expanded between veins to form irregular lesions. In some cases, the disease progressed to cover 40 to 50% of the leaf area. The disease was confirmed by symptom expression and bacterial streaming in 41 counties in Nebraska as well as Yuma Co., Colorado, and Phillips Co., Kansas, both contiguous ...


Novel Gene-Sequence Markers For Isolate Tracking Within Monilinia Fructicola Lesions, Madeline E. Dowling, Guido Schnabel, Harriet G. Boatwright, Sydney E. Everhart Feb 2017

Novel Gene-Sequence Markers For Isolate Tracking Within Monilinia Fructicola Lesions, Madeline E. Dowling, Guido Schnabel, Harriet G. Boatwright, Sydney E. Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Monilinia fructicola is a diverse pathogen of pome and stone fruits that causes severe economic losses each year. However, little is known about inoculum flow within or between orchards and pathogen establishment in an orchard, because few methods exist for detecting diversity or tracking isolates over time. SSR loci are an effective option, but may be confounded by a high degree of mutability and potential sensitivity to abiotic stress.

Results: Through transcriptome analysis, we identified novel markers mrr1, DHFR and MfCYP01 and validated stability of these markers under fungicide stress in natural infection sites. Nucleotide variation within mrr1, DHFR ...


The Morphogenesis-Related Ndr Kinase Pathway Of Colletotrichum Orbiculare Is Required For Translating Plant Surface Signals Into Infection-Related Morphogenesis And Pathogenesis, Sayo Kodama, Junya Ishizuka, Ito Miyashita, Takaaki Ishii, Takumi Nishiuchi, Hideto Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Kubo Jan 2017

The Morphogenesis-Related Ndr Kinase Pathway Of Colletotrichum Orbiculare Is Required For Translating Plant Surface Signals Into Infection-Related Morphogenesis And Pathogenesis, Sayo Kodama, Junya Ishizuka, Ito Miyashita, Takaaki Ishii, Takumi Nishiuchi, Hideto Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Kubo

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant infection by pathogenic fungi involves the differentiation of appressoria, specialized infection structures, initiated by fungal sensing and responding to plant surface signals. How plant fungal pathogens control infection-related morphogenesis in response to plant-derived signals has been unclear. Here we showed that the morphogenesis-related NDR kinase pathway (MOR) of the cucumber anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare is crucial for appressorium development following perception of plant-derived signals. By screening of random insertional mutants, we identified that the MOR element CoPag1 (Perish-in-theabsence-of-GYP1) is a key component of the plant-derived signaling pathway involved in appressorium morphogenesis. Constitutive activation of the NDR kinase CoCbk1 ...


Phenotypic And Genotypic Characterization Of Relevant Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates, Thomas J. Justo Miorini, Anthony G. Pannullo, T. Hornby, Robert Higgins, Sydney E. Everhart, James R. Steadman Jan 2017

Phenotypic And Genotypic Characterization Of Relevant Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates, Thomas J. Justo Miorini, Anthony G. Pannullo, T. Hornby, Robert Higgins, Sydney E. Everhart, James R. Steadman

Papers in Plant Pathology

Knowledge of pathogen population structure is useful to identify isolates for screening cultivars and lines for resistance. For S. sclerotiorum, causal agent of white mold in more than 400 plant species, including common bean and soybean, breeding for resistance is particularly challenging. The objective of this study was to characterize phenotypic and genotypic variation of S. sclerotiorum isolates from soybean production areas of the U.S.A. (15), Brazil (75), and Argentina (5) to compare them with 366 isolates from dry bean characterized previously (Everhart et al., 2016).


Muti Site Screening Identifies And Verifies Levels Of Resistance To White Mold In Common Bean In 2016, Robert Higgins, James R. Steadman Jan 2017

Muti Site Screening Identifies And Verifies Levels Of Resistance To White Mold In Common Bean In 2016, Robert Higgins, James R. Steadman

Papers in Plant Pathology

The development of common bean cultivars with partial resistance and/ or avoidance to white mold (WM) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum would benefit producers by reducing yield loss and reducing input costs for fungicides. Our main objective in this study is to identify bean germplasm supplied by bean breeders from across the USA and Belgium with levels of partial resistance to WM. Breeders sent seed of 9 bean lines for field testing and 25 bean lines for greenhouse testing with putative sources of resistance to our laboratory. The seeds were divided in equal amounts for field (400g/line) and/or greenhouse ...


Best Practices For Population Genetic Analyses, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Sydney E. Everhart, B. J. Knaus, Zhian N. Kamvar Jan 2017

Best Practices For Population Genetic Analyses, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Sydney E. Everhart, B. J. Knaus, Zhian N. Kamvar

Papers in Plant Pathology

Population genetic analysis is a powerful tool to understand how pathogens emerge and adapt. However, determining the genetic structure of populations requires complex knowledge on a range of subtle skills that are often not explicitly stated in book chapters or review articles on population genetics. What is a good sampling strategy? How many isolates should I sample? How do I include positive and negative controls in my molecular assays? What marker system should I use? This review will attempt to address many of these practical questions that are often not readily answered from reading books or reviews on the topic ...


Control Of White Mold Of Dry Bean And Residual Activity Of Fungicides Applied By Chemigation, Thomas J.J. Miorini, Carlos G. Raetano, Sydney E. Everhart Jan 2017

Control Of White Mold Of Dry Bean And Residual Activity Of Fungicides Applied By Chemigation, Thomas J.J. Miorini, Carlos G. Raetano, Sydney E. Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes white mold of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Chemigation with fungicides is used for disease control, but effectiveness of this application method and impact of irrigation level on residual fungicide activity in the plant over time under field conditions has not been well characterized. To assess the best method of application and fungicide for disease control, we conducted field studies in three field sites in São Paulo State in Brazil. Contact fungicide, fluazinam, was applied via center pivot at three irrigation levels (2.5, 5.1, 10.1 mm) at the ...


Glucose-Abl1-Tor Signaling Modulates Cell Cycle Tuning To Control Terminal Appressorial Cell Differentiation, Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, Guangchao Sun, Richard Wilson Jan 2017

Glucose-Abl1-Tor Signaling Modulates Cell Cycle Tuning To Control Terminal Appressorial Cell Differentiation, Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, Guangchao Sun, Richard Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates growth and development with available nutrients, but how cellular glucose controls TOR function and signaling is poorly understood. Here, we provide functional evidence from the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that glucose can mediate TOR activity via the product of a novel carbon- responsive gene, ABL1, in order to tune cell cycle progression during infection-related development. Under nutrient-free conditions, wild type (WT) M. oryzae strains form terminal plant-infecting cells (appressoria) at the tips of germ tubes emerging from three-celled spores (conidia). WT appressorial development is accompanied by one round of mitosis ...


Species Delimitation And Description Of Mesocriconema Nebraskense N. Sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae), A Morphologically Cryptic, Parthenogenetic Species From North American Grasslands, Magdalena Olson, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers, Sean Olson, Thomas O. Powers Jan 2017

Species Delimitation And Description Of Mesocriconema Nebraskense N. Sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae), A Morphologically Cryptic, Parthenogenetic Species From North American Grasslands, Magdalena Olson, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers, Sean Olson, Thomas O. Powers

Papers in Plant Pathology

Nematode surveys of North American grasslands conducted from 2010 to 2015 frequently recovered a species of criconematid nematode morphologically resembling Mesocriconema curvatum. These specimens were recovered from remnant native prairies in the central tallgrass ecoregion of North America, and not from surrounding agroecosystems. Historical records indicate that M. curvatum is a cosmopolitan species feeding on a wide range of agronomic and native plants. DNA barcoding indicates North American grasslands contain at least 10 phylogenetically distinct lineages of Mesocriconema that resemble, but are not, M. curvatum. Analysis of the two most common lineages reveals two distinctly different population structures. The variation ...


An 18s Rdna Perspective On The Classification Of Criconematoidea, Thomas O. Powers, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers Jan 2017

An 18s Rdna Perspective On The Classification Of Criconematoidea, Thomas O. Powers, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers

Papers in Plant Pathology

In the nematode family Criconematidae, a taxonomy primarily based on cuticle characters has created classifications that are notoriously volatile. Molecular characters may lead to their stabilization. A phylogenetic tree of Criconematoidea was constructed using 166 new near full-length 18S rDNA sequences and 58 sequences from GenBank. Bayesian and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses produced trees with similar topologies. Major features include a strongly supported clade that includes Criconematidae and Hemicycliophoridae, excluding Paratylenchidae and Tylenchulidae. Another well-supported clade groups Criconema, Ogma, Crossonema, and Hemicriconemoides plus Xenocriconemella, combining nematodes with cuticular scales with those without scales at any life stage. Mesocriconema, Discocriconemella limitanea ...


Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Deletion Mutants Elicit More Severe Symptoms Than Wild-Type Virus In Multiple Cereal Hosts, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Christian G. Elowsky, Robert A. Graybosch Jan 2017

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Deletion Mutants Elicit More Severe Symptoms Than Wild-Type Virus In Multiple Cereal Hosts, Satyanarayana Tatineni, Christian G. Elowsky, Robert A. Graybosch

Papers in Plant Pathology

Previously, we reported that coat protein (CP) of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) (genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) tolerates deletion of amino acids 36 to 84 for efficient systemic infection of wheat. In this study, we demonstrated that WSMV mutants with deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 but not of 36 to 57 induced severe chlorotic streaks and spots, followed by acute chlorosis in wheat, maize, barley, and rye compared with mild to moderate chlorotic streaks and mosaic symptoms by wild-type virus. Deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 from the WSMV genome accelerated cell-to-cell movement, with increased ...


Detection And Characterization Of Xanthomonas Vasicola Pv. Vasculorum (Cobb 1894) Comb. Nov. Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak Of Corn In The United States, J. M. Lang, E. Ducharme, J. Ibarra Caballero, E. Luna, T. Hartman, M. Ortiz-Castro, K. A. Korus, J. Rascoe, T. A. Jackson-Ziems, K. Broders, J. E. Leach Jan 2017

Detection And Characterization Of Xanthomonas Vasicola Pv. Vasculorum (Cobb 1894) Comb. Nov. Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak Of Corn In The United States, J. M. Lang, E. Ducharme, J. Ibarra Caballero, E. Luna, T. Hartman, M. Ortiz-Castro, K. A. Korus, J. Rascoe, T. A. Jackson-Ziems, K. Broders, J. E. Leach

Papers in Plant Pathology

Bacterial leaf streak of corn (Zea mays) recently reached epidemic levels in three corn-growing states and has been detected in another six states in the central United States. Xanthomonas vasicola was identified as the causal agent of this disease. A multilocus sequence alignment of six housekeeping genes and comparison of average nucleotide identity from draft genome sequence were used to confirm phylogenetic relationships and classification of this bacteria relative to other X. vasicola strains. X. vasicola isolates from Nebraska and South Africa were highly virulent on corn and sugarcane and less virulent on sorghum but caused water-soaking symptoms that are ...


Plant Disease Management, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Anthony O. Adesemoye, Loren J. Giesler, Robert M. Harveson, Stephen N. Wegulo, Joshua J. Miller, James D. Harbour Jan 2017

Plant Disease Management, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Anthony O. Adesemoye, Loren J. Giesler, Robert M. Harveson, Stephen N. Wegulo, Joshua J. Miller, James D. Harbour

Papers in Plant Pathology

Fungicides are an important component of the pesticide program for some Nebraska fields. While not all fields of corn, dry bean, sorghum, soybean, sugarbeet, sunflower, and wheat will require a fungicide application, it’s critical that you know the correct product for the disease in your field when you do need it.

Identification. The first step with any disease management program is to make sure you have correctly identified the problem. Identification is critical as there are many bacterial diseases with symptoms similar to fungal diseases, and fungicides will have no activity on them. For help identifying crop diseases, visit ...


Understanding Fungicide Resistance, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Loren J. Giesler, Anthony O. Adesemoye, Robert M. Harveson, Stephen N. Wegulo Jan 2017

Understanding Fungicide Resistance, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Loren J. Giesler, Anthony O. Adesemoye, Robert M. Harveson, Stephen N. Wegulo

Papers in Plant Pathology

Fungicide resistance has developed in some diseases of row crops as well as specialty crops. This implies that fungicide applications to control such diseases may no longer be effective. Scientific studies have shown that fungicide resistance develops through natural selection of a mutant strain of a pathogen in a population that is resistant to fungicides. Resistance is very difficult to eliminate but can be delayed through appropriate management practices. The availability of inexpensive options with single mode of action products being available makes this an important issue so we do not repeat what was done in weed management.

Introduction

Frogeye ...


What's New In Plant Pathology, Joshua J. Miller, Anthony O. Adesemoye, Loren Giesler, Robert M. Harveson, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Stephen N. Wegulo, James D. Harbour, Terra Hartman Jan 2017

What's New In Plant Pathology, Joshua J. Miller, Anthony O. Adesemoye, Loren Giesler, Robert M. Harveson, Tamra A. Jackson-Ziems, Stephen N. Wegulo, James D. Harbour, Terra Hartman

Papers in Plant Pathology

Changes to the Disease Management Section of the 2017 Guide for Weed, Disease, and Insect Management in Nebraska

Bacterial Leaf Streak of Corn—An Emerging Disease in Nebraska and First Report in the United States

Pest and Plant Diagnostic Clinic Position Change

New Products … Ethos XB … Majestene

Table 1. Foliar products for disease control that were updated in the 2017 Guide for Weed, Disease, and Insect Management in Nebraska

Table 2. Seed treatment products for disease control that were updated in the 2017 Guide for Weed, Disease, and Insect Management in Nebraska

Table 3. Biological products that were updated in ...


The Magnaporthe Oryzae Nitrooxidative Stress Response Suppresses Rice Innate Immunity During Blast Disease, Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, David E. Hartline, Janet D. Wright, Christian G. Elowsky, Travis J. Bourret, Richard A. Wilson Jan 2017

The Magnaporthe Oryzae Nitrooxidative Stress Response Suppresses Rice Innate Immunity During Blast Disease, Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, David E. Hartline, Janet D. Wright, Christian G. Elowsky, Travis J. Bourret, Richard A. Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Understanding how microorganisms manipulate plant innate immunity and colonize host cells is a major goal of plant pathology. Here, we report that the fungal nitrooxidative stress response suppresses host defenses to facilitate the growth and development of the important rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in leaf cells. Nitronate monooxygenases encoded by NMO genes catalyze the oxidative denitrification of nitroalkanes. We show that the M. oryzae NMO2 gene is required for mitigating damaging lipid nitration under nitrooxidative stress conditions and, consequently, for using nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen sources. On plants, the Δnmo2 mutant strain penetrated host cuticles like wild type ...


Response Of Sorghum Stalk Pathogens To Brown Midrib Plants And Soluble Phenolic Extracts From Near Isogenic Lines, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Patrick M. O'Neill, Scott E. Sattler, Tammy Gries, Mark A. Berhow, Jeffrey F. Pedersen Jan 2017

Response Of Sorghum Stalk Pathogens To Brown Midrib Plants And Soluble Phenolic Extracts From Near Isogenic Lines, Deanna L. Funnell-Harris, Patrick M. O'Neill, Scott E. Sattler, Tammy Gries, Mark A. Berhow, Jeffrey F. Pedersen

Papers in Plant Pathology

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has drawn attention as potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuels production, and reducing lignin is one way to increase conversion efficiency. Little research has been previously conducted to assess the response of reduced lignin sorghum lines to the Fusarium stalk rot pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum and the charcoal rot pathogen, Macrophomina phaseolina. Loss of function mutations in either the Brown midrib (Bmr) 6 or 12 gene that both encode a monolignol biosynthetic enzyme in the pathway that produces subunits of the lignin polymer, results in reduced lignin content. Near-isogenic bmr6, bmr12, and ...


Population Structure And Phenotypic Variation Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum From Dry Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) In The United States, Zhian N. Kamvar, Bimal Sajeewa Amaradasa, Rachana Jhala, Serena Mccoy, James R. Steadman, Sydney Everhart Jan 2017

Population Structure And Phenotypic Variation Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum From Dry Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) In The United States, Zhian N. Kamvar, Bimal Sajeewa Amaradasa, Rachana Jhala, Serena Mccoy, James R. Steadman, Sydney Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

The ascomycete pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic pathogen on over 400 known host plants, and is the causal agent of white mold on dry bean. Currently, there are no known cultivars of dry bean with complete resistance to white mold. For more than 20 years, bean breeders have been using white mold screening nurseries (wmn) with natural populations of S. sclerotiorum to screen new cultivars for resistance. It is thus important to know if the genetic diversity in populations of S. sclerotiorum within these nurseries (a) reflect the genetic diversity of the populations in the surrounding region and (b ...


Best Practices For Population Genetic Analyses, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Sydney E. Everhart, B. J. Knaus, Z. N. Kamvar Jan 2017

Best Practices For Population Genetic Analyses, Niklaus J. Grünwald, Sydney E. Everhart, B. J. Knaus, Z. N. Kamvar

Papers in Plant Pathology

Population genetic analysis is a powerful tool to understand how pathogens emerge and adapt. However, determining the genetic structure of populations requires complex knowledge on a range of subtle skills that are often not explicitly stated in book chapters or review articles on population genetics. What is a good sampling strategy? How many isolates should I sample? How do I include positive and negative controls in my molecular assays? What marker system should I use? This review will attempt to address many of these practical questions that are often not readily answered from reading books or reviews on the topic ...