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Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene

2013

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The Epidemic Of Extended-Spectrum-Β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia Coli St131 Is Driven By A Single Highly Pathogenic Subclone, H30-Rx, Lance B. Price, James R. Johnson, Maliha Aziz, Connie Clabots, Brian Johnston, Veronika Tchesnokova, Lora Nordstrom, Maria Billig, Sujay Chattopadhyay, Marc Stegger, Paal S. Andersen, Talima Pearson, Kim Riddell, Peggy Rogers, Delia Scholes, Barbara Kahl, Paul Keim, Evgeni V. Sokurenko Dec 2013

The Epidemic Of Extended-Spectrum-Β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia Coli St131 Is Driven By A Single Highly Pathogenic Subclone, H30-Rx, Lance B. Price, James R. Johnson, Maliha Aziz, Connie Clabots, Brian Johnston, Veronika Tchesnokova, Lora Nordstrom, Maria Billig, Sujay Chattopadhyay, Marc Stegger, Paal S. Andersen, Talima Pearson, Kim Riddell, Peggy Rogers, Delia Scholes, Barbara Kahl, Paul Keim, Evgeni V. Sokurenko

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

The Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) clone is notorious for extraintestinal infections, fluoroquinolone resistance, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production, attributable to a CTX-M-15-encoding mobile element. Here, we applied pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the ST131 clone. PFGE-based cluster analyses suggested that both fluoroquinolone resistance and ESBL production had been acquired by multiple ST131 sublineages through independent genetic events. In contrast, the more robust whole-genome-sequence-based phylogenomic analysis revealed that fluoroquinolone resistance was confined almost entirely to a single, rapidly expanding ST131 subclone, designated H30-R. Strikingly, 91% of the CTX-M-15-producing isolates also ...


Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs Dec 2013

Work Stress Reactivity And Health Outcomes: A Study Of Nurses, Laurie Marie Jacobs

Dissertations and Theses

Negative events encountered in daily life influence individual well-being. Individuals vary in their reactivity to these events, the extent to which they are behaviorally, physiologically, and psychologically influenced by them (Almeida, 2005; Neupert, Almeida, & Charles, 2007). Reactivity to events in the form of changes in health behavior could represent either an attempt at coping (Cooper, Frone, Russell, & Mudar, 1995) or a stressor-related failure of self-control (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). Such changes in behavior could have later effects on health.

Although a great deal of attention has been paid to both the immediate and long-term effects of stressors on individuals, little is understood about the potential relationship between these immediate and long-term consequences. Exploration of this connection could not only expand the understanding of the relationships between stressors, behavior, and well-being, but also inform intervention strategies.

One important domain in which stressors occur is work; certain occupations such as nursing expose individuals to a greater likelihood of experiencing stressors simply by nature of the tasks and/or environment involved. As a nursing shortage continues, stress is in fact one of the most-often cited reasons for nurses to leave the profession (Cangelosi, Markham, & Bounds, 1998). Using a sample drawn from the Oregon Nurse Retention Project and the relatively novel statistical method of slopes-as-predictors, I examined the relationships between work stressors and nurses' health behaviors (alcohol consumption, diet, exercise) and then used those relationships as predictors of follow-up outcomes (depression, life satisfaction, perceived health).

Significant variability was found for five combinations of stressors and health behaviors, indicating that varying patterns of health behavior reactivity were indeed present in this sample; moreover four of those five stressor-behavior (reactivity) slopes emerged as significant predictors of later health and well-being. Notably, reactivity ...


Feasibility And Preliminary Outcomes From A Pilot Study Of The Smile Curriculum For Mother-Infant Co-Occupational Engagement And Maternal Self-Efficacy, Emily Whitlock Dec 2013

Feasibility And Preliminary Outcomes From A Pilot Study Of The Smile Curriculum For Mother-Infant Co-Occupational Engagement And Maternal Self-Efficacy, Emily Whitlock

Theses and Dissertations

OBJECTIVE: To report on the feasibility and preliminary outcomes from a pilot study of the SMILE curriculum, a new educational program designed to enhance the mother-infant relationship by focusing on improvement of co-occupational engagement within daily routines.

METHOD: Six mothers, each with an infant diagnosed with special medical needs who received services in a local birth-to-three program, participated in an exploratory design study. Each mother was assigned to a SMILE curriculum intervention group or a waiting-list control group. Mothers were evaluated pre- and post-intervention using the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMP-SE) Scale for measurement of maternal self-efficacy and the Center ...


Trends In Work-Related Injury Rates And The Associated Incurred Costs In Long-Term Care Centers, Darcie Lange Olson Dec 2013

Trends In Work-Related Injury Rates And The Associated Incurred Costs In Long-Term Care Centers, Darcie Lange Olson

Theses and Dissertations

Background. Nursing assistants, working in long-term care facilities, have consistently been among the top occupational groups experiencing work-related musculoskeletal injuries. These injuries have been attributed the physical demands of lifting and moving the individuals in their care. Great strides in research have identified successful risk reduction strategies such as the implementation safe patient handling and mobility programs. The benefits of these programs have been advocated over the last two decades, but the rate of injuries among nursing assistants continues to be more than double the national average for all other industries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ...


Molecular Epidemiology Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 And Its H30 And H30-Rx Subclones Among Extended-Spectrum-Β-Lactamase-Positive And -Negative E. Coli Clinical Isolates From The Chicago Region, 2007 To 2010, Ritu Banerjee, Ari Robicsek, Michael A. Kusikowski, Stephen Porter, Brian D. Johnston, Evgeni Sokurenko, Veronika Tchesnokova, Lance B. Price, James R. Johnson Dec 2013

Molecular Epidemiology Of Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 131 And Its H30 And H30-Rx Subclones Among Extended-Spectrum-Β-Lactamase-Positive And -Negative E. Coli Clinical Isolates From The Chicago Region, 2007 To 2010, Ritu Banerjee, Ari Robicsek, Michael A. Kusikowski, Stephen Porter, Brian D. Johnston, Evgeni Sokurenko, Veronika Tchesnokova, Lance B. Price, James R. Johnson

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

We assessed Escherichia coli ST131 and its H30 and H30-Rx subclones for virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) type. Although both subclones were associated with ESBL production, H30-Rx isolates had higher resistance scores and were associated specifically with CTX-M-15. Three virulence genes (iha, sat, and iutA) were more prevalent among H30 than non-H30 ST131 isolates. Thus, the H30 and H30-Rx subclones are more antimicrobial resistant and have virulence profiles that are distinct from those of non-H30 ST131 isolates.


Detection Of Silica Particles In Lung Tissue Of Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals By Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy, Kristen Coleman Dec 2013

Detection Of Silica Particles In Lung Tissue Of Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals By Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy, Kristen Coleman

Theses and Dissertations

For years crystalline silica has been recognized as an occupational hazard of the dusty trades with exposures resulting in silicosis. As recently as 1997, IARC categorized the respirable portion of crystalline silica as a Grade 1 human carcinogen indicating that silica may be implicated in the development of lung cancer. Evidence in the literature indicates that silica may be not only an occupational hazard, but an environmental hazard as well, with patients with no known exposure showing measurable quantities of silica within cancerous tissue samples.

This study aims to establish a methodology using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy to examine silica ...


Evaluation Of Pulmonary Function Cross-Shift Changes In Dairy Parlor Workers Using Spirometry & Exhaled Nitric Oxide, Michael James Gallagher Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Pulmonary Function Cross-Shift Changes In Dairy Parlor Workers Using Spirometry & Exhaled Nitric Oxide, Michael James Gallagher

Theses and Dissertations

Inhalation of organic dust, including endotoxin, has been associated with inflammatory response of the pulmonary system. Limited studies have evaluated the work shift effects of endotoxin on respiratory outcomes for workers in the dairy industry, such as spirometry changes. Measurement techniques for exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) have been standardized by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and used as a biomarker to identify diseases marked with lung inflammation. Dairy parlor workers are known to work long hours in one location with little job variability. The objectives of this study were to quantify exposure concentrations of inhalable dust and endotoxin among dairy ...


Use Of Passive Samplers To Characterize The Spatial Heterogeneity Of Coarse Particle Mass Concentration And Composition In Cleveland, Oh, Eric J. Sawvel Dec 2013

Use Of Passive Samplers To Characterize The Spatial Heterogeneity Of Coarse Particle Mass Concentration And Composition In Cleveland, Oh, Eric J. Sawvel

Theses and Dissertations

The overall goals of this dissertation are: 1) to better quantify the spatial heterogeneity of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) and its chemical composition; and 2) to evaluate the performance (accuracy and precision) of passive samplers analyzed by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDS) for PM10-2.5. For these goals, field studies were conducted over multiple seasons in Cleveland, OH and were the source of data for this dissertation.

To achieve the first goal, we characterized spatial variability in the mass and composition of PM10-2.5 in Cleveland, OH with the aid of inexpensive passive samplers. Passive ...


Listen Protect Connect For Traumatized Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study Of Psychological First Aid., Marizen Ramirez, Karisa Harland, Maisha Frederick, Rhoda Shepherd, Marleen Wong, Joseph E Cavanaugh Nov 2013

Listen Protect Connect For Traumatized Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study Of Psychological First Aid., Marizen Ramirez, Karisa Harland, Maisha Frederick, Rhoda Shepherd, Marleen Wong, Joseph E Cavanaugh

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Publications

BACKGROUND: Listen Protect Connect (LPC), a school-based program of Psychological First Aid delivered by non-mental health professionals, is intended to support trauma-exposed children. Our objective was to implement LPC in a school setting and assess the effectiveness of LPC on improving psychosocial outcomes associated with trauma.

METHODS: A pilot quasi-experiment was conducted with middle school children self-identified or referred to the school nurse as potentially exposed to stressful life experiences. LPC was provided to students by the school nurse, and questionnaires were administered at baseline, 2-, 4- and 8-weeks to assess life stressors, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression ...


Truck Driver Dies When Tractor-Trailer Leaves The Road And Plunges Into A Creek-Bed, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center Nov 2013

Truck Driver Dies When Tractor-Trailer Leaves The Road And Plunges Into A Creek-Bed, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center

Fatality Case Reports--Motor Vehicle

In the early morning hours of a fall day, exact time unknown and the length of time driving unknown, a 28-year-old male truck driver was driving north on an interstate transporting 30,000 lbs. of blue plastic injection molding pellets. The truck driver exited the highway behind a guardrail and traveled 1,320 feet, striking a wire fence and several trees before plummeting into a creek bed, shearing the cab open. At 10:27 a.m., a citizen called in to the fire department to report a mysterious blue substance observed in the creek a couple of miles down from ...


Toxicology Testing In Fatally Injured Workers: A Review Of Five Years Of Iowa Face Cases., Marizen Ramirez, Ronald L Bedford, Ryan Sullivan, T Renee Anthony, John Kraemer, Brett Faine, Corinne Peek-Asa Nov 2013

Toxicology Testing In Fatally Injured Workers: A Review Of Five Years Of Iowa Face Cases., Marizen Ramirez, Ronald L Bedford, Ryan Sullivan, T Renee Anthony, John Kraemer, Brett Faine, Corinne Peek-Asa

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Publications

Toxicology testing of fatally injured workers is not routinely conducted. We completed a case-series study of 2005-2009 occupational fatalities captured by Iowa's Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program. The goals of our research were to: (1) measure the proportion of FACE cases that undergo toxicology testing, and describe the factors associated with being tested, and (2) measure the rate of positive toxicology tests, the substances identified and the demographics and occupations of victims who tested positive. Case documents and toxicology laboratory reports were reviewed. There were 427 occupational deaths from 2005 to 2009. Only 69% underwent toxicology testing ...


Rapid Differentiation Between Livestock-Associated And Livestock-Independent Staphylococcus Aureus Cc398 Clades, Marc Stegger, Cindy M. Liu, Jesper Larsen, Katerina Soldanova, Maliha Aziz, Tania Contente-Cuomo, Andreas Petersen, Stien Vandendriessche, Judy N. Jiménez, Caterina Mammina, Alex Van Belkum, Saara Salmenlinna, Frederic Laurent, Robert L. Skov, Anders R. Larsen, Paal S. Andersen, Lance B. Price Nov 2013

Rapid Differentiation Between Livestock-Associated And Livestock-Independent Staphylococcus Aureus Cc398 Clades, Marc Stegger, Cindy M. Liu, Jesper Larsen, Katerina Soldanova, Maliha Aziz, Tania Contente-Cuomo, Andreas Petersen, Stien Vandendriessche, Judy N. Jiménez, Caterina Mammina, Alex Van Belkum, Saara Salmenlinna, Frederic Laurent, Robert L. Skov, Anders R. Larsen, Paal S. Andersen, Lance B. Price

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (CC398) isolates cluster into two distinct phylogenetic clades based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealing a basal human clade and a more derived livestock clade. The scn and tet(M) genes are strongly associated with the human and the livestock clade, respectively, due to loss and acquisition of mobile genetic elements. We present canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP) assays that differentiate the two major host-associated S. aureus CC398 clades and a duplex PCR assay for detection of scn and tet(M). The canSNP assays correctly placed 88 S. aureusCC398 isolates from a reference collection into the ...


Workplace As Community: Influence Of Working Conditions On Health Behaviors, Laura Punnett Nov 2013

Workplace As Community: Influence Of Working Conditions On Health Behaviors, Laura Punnett

Community Engagement and Research Symposia

Plenary presentation about the influence of working conditions on health behaviors research done by The Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace (CPH-NEW), a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Center for Excellence. Working conditions link to health outcomes directly, and through health behaviors. The Center evaluates multiple models for integrating health promotion with occupational health interventions, with a strong emphasis on musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and mental health outcomes; the underlying role of work organization; and the importance of worker involvement in program design and implementation.


Construction Induction Training: How Effective For The Housing And Civil Construction Industries In Wa?, Susanne Bahn, Llandis Barratt-Pugh Nov 2013

Construction Induction Training: How Effective For The Housing And Civil Construction Industries In Wa?, Susanne Bahn, Llandis Barratt-Pugh

Susanne Bahn Dr

Introducing practices to reduce the number of work-related injuries in the construction industry is a continual challenge, specifically in WA where the industry is adapting to the additional pressures of a second development boom this century. In 2006, Worksafe WA responded by introducing mandatory certification in safety awareness training for all employees, before they could begin work on a construction site. This paper reviews the impact of this training on the housing and civil sectors of the industry. It presents both the perceptions of the stakeholders from their survey responses and from the analyses the lost time injury/disease statistics ...


Introducing Mandatory Training Systems? Investigating The Implementation Of Compulsory Pre-Site Construction Training, Llandis Barratt-Pugh, Susanne Bahn Nov 2013

Introducing Mandatory Training Systems? Investigating The Implementation Of Compulsory Pre-Site Construction Training, Llandis Barratt-Pugh, Susanne Bahn

Susanne Bahn Dr

There can be no more effective learning than that achieved by training systems to reduce death and injury. In such cases the imposition of a mandatory course would appear justifiable, especially where there is a history of unfortunate incidents and current rapid workforce growth. Installing learning as an imperative within a vibrant industry requires considerable negotiation between stakeholders to turn evidence into policy, industry intent, regulatory curriculum and subsequent workplace practice. This paper reflects back and reviews the introduction of such training within the construction industry in Western Australia as it adapts to the additional pressures of the development boom ...


Arborists Die After Falling, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center Nov 2013

Arborists Die After Falling, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center

Kentucky Haz Alerts--Falls

To Prevent Arborists Injuries:

  • Never allow an aerial lift to be used as a crane or material lifting device.
  • All trees and limbs should be inspected for structural weakness such as rot, before work starts.
  • Arborists should wear appropriate personal protective equipment while performing tree trimming activities.

Special Factors for Aerial Lifts:

  • Do not exceed the boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer.
  • When working from an aerial lift, use a body harness that is properly attached.


How Could, Should, And Would Physicians Use Facebook With Patients, Joy Peluchette, Katherine Karl, Alberto Coustasse Nov 2013

How Could, Should, And Would Physicians Use Facebook With Patients, Joy Peluchette, Katherine Karl, Alberto Coustasse

Management Faculty Research

After reviewing the benefits and risks of social media, we examine online discussion boards to determine the thoughts of physicians and patients regarding the use of Facebook to communicate with one another about health-related issues. Of the 290 comments analyzed, we found 42 percent were opposed to physicians using Facebook. Additionally, most (51.7 were opposed to physicians being Facebook “friends” with patients. Most opponents expressed concerns about privacy and the need to maintain professional boundaries in the physician-patient relationship. We provide suggestions for how healthcare administrators can effectively manage their social media presence and provide assistance to physicians.


Situational Awareness: Reframing Within Fire Service Culture, Martha Dow, Len Garis, Larry Thomas Oct 2013

Situational Awareness: Reframing Within Fire Service Culture, Martha Dow, Len Garis, Larry Thomas

Publications and Research

There is increasing attention being paid to better understanding and consequently decreasing the incidence of on-the-job injuries and deaths within the fire service across North America. Heightening situational awareness is being explored as the most critical factor in maintaining the safety of participants in high risk, low frequency events. Situational awareness is generally defined as “understanding the current environment and being able to accurately anticipate future problems to enable effective action”. Situational awareness is cited as a critical factor in most research exploring safety in fire suppression activities and in many cases the “No. 1 factor identified by firefighters filing ...


White Paper On Pcbs In The Built Environment, Andre Barton Ashley Jr., Cheryl Marcham, Et Al. Sep 2013

White Paper On Pcbs In The Built Environment, Andre Barton Ashley Jr., Cheryl Marcham, Et Al.

Publications

Dr. Marcham was part of the 9-member team that wrote this paper. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of man-made chemicals associated with a potential risk to human health and the environment. They were used in many building materials, particularly caulking, grout, expansion joint material and paint, from approximately 1950 to 1978. Both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) have published extensive material evaluating human health impacts from exposure to PCBs. The apparent public health risks, including developmental effects in children, reproductive effects and long-term risks for cancer development ...


Epidemiology Of Esophageal Cancer, Yuwei Zhang Sep 2013

Epidemiology Of Esophageal Cancer, Yuwei Zhang

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma ...


Case Study: The Importance Of The Assessment Technique In Chemical Safety Training On A College Campus, James H. Withers, Steven A. Freeman Sep 2013

Case Study: The Importance Of The Assessment Technique In Chemical Safety Training On A College Campus, James H. Withers, Steven A. Freeman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Safety training is an integral part of every organization's overall safety program. A variety of delivery methods are used to conduct training with the most common learning outcome being performance on a written exam. The safety professional must consider numerous issues when composing a written exam, including question design and exam difficulty, to establish a meaningful passing level and to assess overall training effectiveness. A research study was undertaken to further explore issues related to question design and exam difficulty relative to a chemical safety course offered in both classroom- and computer-based formats on a college campus. The objectives ...


Allostatic Load Amplifies The Effect Of Blood Lead Levels On Elevated Blood Pressure Among Middle-Aged U.S. Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study, Ami R. Zota, Edmond R. Shenassa, Rachel Morello-Frosch Aug 2013

Allostatic Load Amplifies The Effect Of Blood Lead Levels On Elevated Blood Pressure Among Middle-Aged U.S. Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study, Ami R. Zota, Edmond R. Shenassa, Rachel Morello-Frosch

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background

Scientists and regulators have sought to understand whether and how physiologic dysregulation due to chronic stress exposure may enhance vulnerability to the adverse health effects of toxicant exposures. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether allostatic load (AL), a composite measure of physiologic response to chronic exposure to stress, amplifies the effect of lead exposure on blood pressure among middle-aged adults.

Methods

We analyzed associations between blood lead levels and blood pressure in a nationally representative sample of 8,194 U.S. adults (aged 40-65 years) participating in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999--2008. Outcomes were ...


Livestock-Associated Methicillin And Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Is Present Among Industrial, Not Antibiotic-Free Livestock Operation Workers In North Carolina, Jessica L. Rinsky, Maya Nadimpalli, Steve Wing, Devon Hall, Dothula Baron, Lance B. Price, Jesper Larsen, Marc Stegger, Jill Stewart, Christopher D. Heaney Jul 2013

Livestock-Associated Methicillin And Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Is Present Among Industrial, Not Antibiotic-Free Livestock Operation Workers In North Carolina, Jessica L. Rinsky, Maya Nadimpalli, Steve Wing, Devon Hall, Dothula Baron, Lance B. Price, Jesper Larsen, Marc Stegger, Jill Stewart, Christopher D. Heaney

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Objectives

Administration of antibiotics to food animals may select for drug-resistant pathogens of clinical significance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the United States, studies have examined prevalence of MRSA carriage among individuals exposed to livestock, but prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) carriage and the association with livestock raised with versus without antibiotic selective pressure remains unclear. We aimed to examine prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and molecular characteristics of S. aureus among industrial livestock operation (ILO) and antibiotic-free livestock operation (AFLO) workers and household members in North Carolina.

Methods

Participants in this cross-sectional study were interviewed and provided a ...


Quantifying Uncertainty In Low Velocity Human Aspiration Studies: Effect Of Secondary Aspiration And Thin-Walled Reference Sampling In Low Velocity Conditions, Kimberly Rose Anderson Jul 2013

Quantifying Uncertainty In Low Velocity Human Aspiration Studies: Effect Of Secondary Aspiration And Thin-Walled Reference Sampling In Low Velocity Conditions, Kimberly Rose Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

In order to evaluate a biologically relevant measure of exposure, inhalable samplers are designed to match the aspiration efficiency of the human head. Human inhalability is evaluated in wind tunnel studies using mannequins as human surrogates or using numerical and computational methods. There has been differences between human aspiration efficiency estimates using wind tunnel studies and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, particularly for larger particle sizes (>68 µm). The objective of this dissertation was to evaluate biases in low velocity inhalability studies in an effort to explain the discrepancies in results between experimental and computational inhalability studies. This research addressed ...


Bioaerosol Exposure Assessment And The Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Assay, Kimberly Ann Hoppe Jul 2013

Bioaerosol Exposure Assessment And The Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Assay, Kimberly Ann Hoppe

Theses and Dissertations

In June 2008, the Cedar River crested flooding more than 5,000 Cedar Rapids homes. Residents whose homes were flooded were invited to participate in this study. We characterized exposures and symptoms experienced by individuals inhabiting 73 flood-damaged homes. Exposures and questionnaire-based health assessments were compared at two levels of remediation, in-progress and completed. Homes with remediation in-progress (n=24), as compared to the completed homes (n=49), had significantly higher airborne concentrations of mold, bacteria, iPM, endotoxin and glucan. Residents of in-progress homes had a significantly higher prevalence of doctor diagnosed allergies (adjusted OR=3.08; 95%CI: 1 ...


Factory Laborer Dies When A Car Driven By Coworker Crashes Into Him In Parking Lot, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center Jun 2013

Factory Laborer Dies When A Car Driven By Coworker Crashes Into Him In Parking Lot, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center

Fatality Case Reports--Motor Vehicle

On a summer day, a 29-year-old male manufacturing laborer was outside under a small metal stairway in the loading dock area of the manufacturing plant during his lunch break. Another employee entered her car in the employee parking lot to leave on her lunch break. Her car unexpectedly malfunctioned when in reverse, sped backward, and crashed into the stairway under which the worker was taking a break. The collision pushed the metal stairway along the wall of the factory, crushing the worker between the building and the passenger side of the car. Emergency medical services arrived and transported the worker ...


The Effect Of The Sphere Standards On The Incidence Of Communicable And Infectious Diseases In A Complex Humanitarian Emergency, Masashi Rotte Jun 2013

The Effect Of The Sphere Standards On The Incidence Of Communicable And Infectious Diseases In A Complex Humanitarian Emergency, Masashi Rotte

Master of Public Health Thesis and Capstone Presentations

The purpose of this study was to determine what effect achieving the Sphere Standards relating to water and sanitation had on the incidence of communicable diseases in a returnee camp in South Sudan during a complex humanitarian emergency. The water and sanitation infrastructure of the returnee camp was tracked over time until it met the Sphere Standards. The total camp population was also tracked over the same period of time and compared to daily counts of diseases diagnosed in a medical clinic at the camp. A daily incidence of disease was then calculated for each communicable disease that was tracked ...


Day Care Monitor Dies After Crash Of 15-Passenger Van, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center Jun 2013

Day Care Monitor Dies After Crash Of 15-Passenger Van, Kentucky Injury Prevention And Research Center

Fatality Case Reports--Motor Vehicle

In the late afternoon of a spring day, a day care van operator and a monitor loaded 16 children into a 15-passenger van. Carrying a total of 18 passengers in the 15-passenger van, the operator and the monitor proceeded to transport the children to their homes. After dropping off two children at their residences, the van was traveling 46-50 mph in the left hand lane headed east in a 35 mph zone on a non-divided four-lane state road. As the van approached a side street on the right, the right rear tire blew out and the van veered sharply to ...


Agricultural Health Study Participants Encouraged To Respond, Elizabeth J. Buffington Jun 2013

Agricultural Health Study Participants Encouraged To Respond, Elizabeth J. Buffington

Integrated Crop Management News

Be a part of important research about the health of farmers and their spouses by completing the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) survey. The health follow up will be mailed starting in June 2013 to all AHS participants. Over 40,000 people completed the last interview, and the study investigators would like even more to participate this time around.


Exploring Changes In Open Defecation Prevalence In Sub-Saharan Africa Based On National Level Indices, Deise I. Galan, Seung-Sup Kim, Jay P. Graham May 2013

Exploring Changes In Open Defecation Prevalence In Sub-Saharan Africa Based On National Level Indices, Deise I. Galan, Seung-Sup Kim, Jay P. Graham

Environmental and Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background

In sub-Saharan Africa, it is estimated that 215 million people continue to engage in open defecation. This practice facilitates the transmission of diarrheal diseases – one of the leading causes of mortality in children under 5 in sub-Saharan Africa. The main purpose of this study is to: estimate changes in open defecation prevalence between 2005 and 2010 across countries in sub-Saharan Africa; examine the association between national level indices and changes in open defecation prevalence; and assess how many countries can achieve ‘open defecation free status’ by 2015.

Methods

After applying selection criteria, this study analyzed country-level data for 34 ...