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Mechanical Engineering

Aluminum

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Study Of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing With Aluminum Alloy 2219, Sritam Kumar Dash Oct 2019

Study Of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing With Aluminum Alloy 2219, Sritam Kumar Dash

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis discusses WAAM (wire arc additive manufacturing) technology using TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method with aluminum 2219 as the substrate and aluminum 2319 as the filler material. The most important characteristic of this method of manufacturing is very little wastage of material as it does not follow the conventional method of manufacturing where material is removed from a bigger block to finally achieve the desired shape. This method uses a layer by layer approach to build the part. Generally, in additive manufacturing, the production time may vary depending on the type of method used. The material deposition rate ...


Study Of Combustion Performance Of Al/Ptfe B/Ptfe And B/Al/Ptfe Composites, Liyun Feng Jan 2019

Study Of Combustion Performance Of Al/Ptfe B/Ptfe And B/Al/Ptfe Composites, Liyun Feng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metal particles like aluminum and boron are of great interest as additives to energetic materials due to their high gravimetric and volumetric heat of combustion. However, the ignition temperatures of metals are quite high and their burning rates which depend upon the surface area of the burning metal agglomerates are quite slow. The naturally formed oxide layer on the surface of metal particles can further inhibit their ignition and combustion by limiting fuel/oxidizer transport. The boron oxide layer on boron particles is of particular interest due to the strong diffusion barrier formed by its presence. However, the ignition temperature ...


Laser Ablation Of Aluminum, Erika Nosal, Zachary Rahe, Arthur Pamboukis Jan 2019

Laser Ablation Of Aluminum, Erika Nosal, Zachary Rahe, Arthur Pamboukis

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The laser ablation of metal carries relevance in a variety of engineering industries. This includes, but is not limited to, processes such as micromachining, or implementation on aircraft weaponry. The latter application is the reasoning for why aluminum is the specific metal in consideration, as it is commonly used for the construction of aircraft components.

The scope of this project was to optimize the energy dispersed through laser ablation on aluminum by mathematical modeling. The transient conduction process in the aluminum was modeled using a 2-dimensional cylindrical coordinate system in both MATLAB and ANSYS/Fluent. These models were adopted to ...


Improving The Delivered Specific Impulse Of Composite Rocket Propellant Through Alteration Of Chemical Composition: Methodology And Parameters For Characterization Of Propellant And Validation Of Simulation Software Common To The Amateur Rocketry Community, Isaac O'Brien, Austin Ryan Jan 2019

Improving The Delivered Specific Impulse Of Composite Rocket Propellant Through Alteration Of Chemical Composition: Methodology And Parameters For Characterization Of Propellant And Validation Of Simulation Software Common To The Amateur Rocketry Community, Isaac O'Brien, Austin Ryan

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In this study, two solid composite rocket propellants were designed utilizing ProPEP, a rocket propellant formulation software common in the amateur and hobby rocketry communities. The two propellants were designed to optimize specific impulse relative to a literature propellant designed by 1020 Research Labs. The literature propellant was also tested in order to validate the design of experiment as well as the mixing and testing procedures. All three propellants, which includes the literature propellant RCS-P, and the two novel propellants AKR-P1 and AKR-P2 were characterized with static tests. The results of the static tests provide data on propellant performance and ...


In Silico Analysis Of Advanced Processing Methods For Light-Weight Alloys Powders, Marjan Nezafati Dec 2018

In Silico Analysis Of Advanced Processing Methods For Light-Weight Alloys Powders, Marjan Nezafati

Theses and Dissertations

Light-weight Al and Mg-based metal-matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) are lauded as one of the most promising structural materials for vehicle, military, and construction applications. These MMNCs are often synthesized using the powder metallurgy (PM) process under liquid nitrogen cryogenic environments to control the grain sizes. It is believed that proper incorporation of the nitrogen species into the bulk lattice during processing could strongly enhance the mechanical properties of MMNCs by forming N-rich dispersoids. In this work, using the density-functional theory (DFT), the adsorption, absorption and diffusion behavior of nitrogen molecule/atoms have been studied and related to t Al and Mg ...


All-Terrain Storage Surfboard Carts, Ben M. Kennedy, Danny Riedeman, Roberto Gonzalez Dec 2018

All-Terrain Storage Surfboard Carts, Ben M. Kennedy, Danny Riedeman, Roberto Gonzalez

Mechanical Engineering

All Terrain Storage consists of three mechanical engineering students: Roberto Gonzalez, Ben Kennedy, and Danny Riedeman. The goal of All Terrain Storage is to design and create two portable storage devices for the non-profit organization AmpSurf. AmpSurf helps veterans, people with disabilities, and anyone else who could be helped through adaptive surfing and other outdoor activities. Their current method of storing and transporting equipment for events is carrying it from the trailer in the parking lot through the sand onto the beach. This document will provide: a more thorough introduction to AmpSurf and the project, the objectives, background information, the ...


Friction Bit Joining Of Similar Alloy Sheets Of High-Strength Aluminum Alloy 7085, Matthew R. Okazaki Jun 2018

Friction Bit Joining Of Similar Alloy Sheets Of High-Strength Aluminum Alloy 7085, Matthew R. Okazaki

Theses and Dissertations

Friction Bit Joining (FBJ) is a new technology used primarily in joining dissimilar metals. Its primary use has been focused in the automotive industry to provide an alternative joining process to welding. As automotive manufacturing has continually pushed toward using dissimilar materials, new joining processes have been needed to replace traditional welding practices that do not perform well when materials are not weld compatible. FBJ meets these needs perfectly as it provides strength as well as the ability to join materials of almost any kind.The purpose of this research was to explore different applications of the FBJ process. Traditionally ...


Novelis Teaching Table, Phillip Laplante, Robert Hemker, Taylor Mcgriff, Juan Restrepo, Shelly Abraham Apr 2018

Novelis Teaching Table, Phillip Laplante, Robert Hemker, Taylor Mcgriff, Juan Restrepo, Shelly Abraham

KSU Journey Honors College Capstones and Theses

Novelis is a company that specializes in metal casting, recycling, and rolling. They primarily focus on aluminum rolling for cans and car bodies but are an industry leader in numerous related areas. As the rolling process is not taught in most general engineering courses, Novelis periodically teaches new engineers and technicians about the specifics of this relatively mathematically complex process. Most of the current teaching methods are through PowerPoint presentations and group exercises, with minimal hands-on involvement. One of the most useful tools for teaching the rolling process is an actual jeweler’s rolling mill, which Novelis currently possesses, but ...


Scalable Patterning Using Laser-Induced Shock Waves, Saidjafarzoda Ilhom, Khomidkhodza Kholikov, Peizhen Li, Claire Ottman, Dylan Sanford, Zachary Thomas, Omer San, Haluk E. Karaca, Ali O. Er Apr 2018

Scalable Patterning Using Laser-Induced Shock Waves, Saidjafarzoda Ilhom, Khomidkhodza Kholikov, Peizhen Li, Claire Ottman, Dylan Sanford, Zachary Thomas, Omer San, Haluk E. Karaca, Ali O. Er

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

An advanced direct imprinting method with low cost, quick, and minimal environmental impact to create a thermally controllable surface pattern using the laser pulses is reported. Patterned microindents were generated on Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloys and aluminum using an Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm combined with a suitable transparent overlay, a sacrificial layer of graphite, and copper grid. Laser pulses at different energy densities, which generate pressure pulses up to a few GPa on the surface, were focused through the confinement medium, ablating the copper grid to create plasma and transferring the grid pattern onto ...


Toward A Production Ready Fbj Process For Joining Dissimilar Combinations Of Gadp 1180 Steel And Aa 7085-T76, Kevin Alexander Shirley Mar 2018

Toward A Production Ready Fbj Process For Joining Dissimilar Combinations Of Gadp 1180 Steel And Aa 7085-T76, Kevin Alexander Shirley

Theses and Dissertations

Friction Bit Joining (FBJ) is a new technology that can be used to join dissimilar materials together. This ability makes it a good candidate for creating light weight structures for the automotive industry by combining lightweight materials such as aluminum to stronger materials like advanced high-strength steels. The automotive industry and many other industries have great interest in reducing structure weight to increase fuel efficiency. The purpose of this research is to make FBJ of GADP 1180 to AA 7085-T76 a production ready process by (1) better understanding the effects of process parameters, bit design and tool design on joint ...


Effect Of Ultrasonic Treatment On The Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of Al6061 And Composite, Ana S. Exime Nov 2017

Effect Of Ultrasonic Treatment On The Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Of Al6061 And Composite, Ana S. Exime

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, the effect of ultrasonic treatment (UST) parameters such as amplitude, sonication time, and melt temperature on microstructure and microhardness of Al 6061 alloy is evaluated. The effect of UST on the dispersion of tungsten disulfide (WS2) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) as reinforcement particles in Al 6061 during casting is also studied. The cast Al 6061 with UST demonstrated 32% grain size reduction and 8% increase in the microhardness for optimum processing conditions. The cavitation process induced by UST is responsible for the refinement in microstructure and increase of hardness by enhancing the degassing and nucleation process ...


In-Situ Particle Sizing Of Agglomerates In Aluminized Solid Composite Propellants Using Digital Inline Holography (Dih), Michael S. Powell Dec 2016

In-Situ Particle Sizing Of Agglomerates In Aluminized Solid Composite Propellants Using Digital Inline Holography (Dih), Michael S. Powell

Open Access Theses

Aluminized ammonium perchlorate composite propellants (APCP) form large molten agglomerated particles that can result in poor combustion performance and increased two-phase flow losses. Quantifying agglomerate size distributions is important for assessing these losses for different types of aluminum fuels that can help improve rocket performance. It is highly desirable to measure particle sizes in-situ using non-intrusive optical methods, rather than conventional particle collection, which can have large uncertainties. Regular high-speed microscopic imaging suffers from a limited depth of field. Digital inline holography (DIH) is an alternative approach that results in 3D information through numerical reconstruction. In this paper, DIH approach ...


Combustion Of Novel Thermite Mixtures For Iodine Generation, Sergio Emanuel Guerrero Jan 2016

Combustion Of Novel Thermite Mixtures For Iodine Generation, Sergio Emanuel Guerrero

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Halogen-containing reactive materials could be used for mitigating the spread of hazardous, active biological microorganisms aerosolized as a result of explosion. The present work exhibits experimental results on the combustion of mechanically alloyed aluminum-iodine (Al-I2) powder mixed with Fe2O3, CuO, MoO3, Bi2O3, and I2O5. Wet mixing was used to prepare the samples, which were then compacted into pellets and ignited with a CO2 laser. A chamber was designed and built to accommodate for combustion and collection of products, and the available laser ignition setup was modified to enable combustion experiments with rapidly burning gas-generating mixtures. High-speed video recording was used ...


Met 314 Torque Measurement, Jose Bejar Jan 2016

Met 314 Torque Measurement, Jose Bejar

All Undergraduate Projects

As part of the Mechanical Engineering Technology program, students are required to take a Thermodynamics class. In this class one of the labs they do consists of an air motor running a water pump. The professor teaching that class wanted a device that would fit within the lab rig which would calculate the torque produced by the motor. Therefore this project consists of building a device that will allow the case (body) of the air motor to fully rotate opposite to the rotation of the shaft in order to measure the torque the motor produces at certain revolutions per minute ...


Hybrid Manufacturing Processes For Fusion Welding And Friction Stir Welding Of Aerospace Grade Aluminum Alloys, Megan Alexandra Gegesky Jan 2016

Hybrid Manufacturing Processes For Fusion Welding And Friction Stir Welding Of Aerospace Grade Aluminum Alloys, Megan Alexandra Gegesky

Masters Theses

"Friction stir welding and processing can provide for joints in aerospace grade aluminum alloys that have preferable material properties as compared to fusion welding techniques. Aerospace grade aluminum alloys such as AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 are considered non-weldable by traditional fusion welding techniques. Improved mechanical properties over previously used techniques are usually preferable for aerospace applications. Therefore, by combining traditional fusion welding and friction stir processing techniques, it could be plausible to create more difficult geometries in manufactured parts instead of using traditional techniques. While this combination of fusion welding and friction stir processing is not a new technology, its introduction ...


Altered Combustion Characteristics Of Aluminum Fuels Through Low-Level Fluoropolymer Inclusions With And Without In Situ Nanoaluminum., Courtney K. Murphy, Brandon Terry, Steven F. Son Aug 2015

Altered Combustion Characteristics Of Aluminum Fuels Through Low-Level Fluoropolymer Inclusions With And Without In Situ Nanoaluminum., Courtney K. Murphy, Brandon Terry, Steven F. Son

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Aluminum inclusions have been widely used to increase the specific impulse of solid rocket propellant. However, issues arise with the addition of aluminum in the form of agglomeration, which can cause kinetic and thermal losses (i.e., two-phase flow losses) through the nozzle, which can reduce motor performance by as much as 10%. Reduction of agglomerate size may reduce the effect of two-phase flow losses. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or TeflonTM) inclusions into aluminum via mechanical activation (MA, milling) have been shown to produce a smaller coarse agglomerate size due to microexplosion of the composite particles at the propellant surface. Perflouroalkoxy ...


Development Of A Metal-Printing 3d Printer At The University Of North Dakota, Benjamin Kading, Michaela Kegley, Tiana Delzer, Jeremy Straub, Scott Kerlin Mar 2015

Development Of A Metal-Printing 3d Printer At The University Of North Dakota, Benjamin Kading, Michaela Kegley, Tiana Delzer, Jeremy Straub, Scott Kerlin

Jeremy Straub

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is being used for numerous applications: from consumer hobbies to the development of aircraft parts. However, inexpensive 3D printers have been constrained in material selection to plastic. These printer use the fused deposition modeling (FDM) method of printing, which is a relatively new technology that utilizes computer numerical control (CNC) techniques to deposit melted material at specific places. Other methods, for example, include laser sintering and stereolithography. With 3D printing, layers are stacked upon each other and via this compilation of layers, a 3D object is formed. Currently there are a variety of materials that can be ...


The Effects Of Patch Properties On The Debonding Behavior Of Patched Beam-Plates, Anette M. Karlsson Feb 2015

The Effects Of Patch Properties On The Debonding Behavior Of Patched Beam-Plates, Anette M. Karlsson

Anette M Karlsson

The debonding characteristics of patched structures are investigated in this study by means of an analytical model. In particular, the effects the lay-up sequence and edge tapering of a carbon-reinforced epoxy patch, as well as the beveling of an aluminum patch, have on the initiation, stability, and extent of the debonding are considered. The results presented show that both the degree of edge-tapering and the patch properties must be carefully selected in order to optimize the patched structure. It is also shown that when designing a patched system, it is important to model the correct boundary and load conditions to ...


Fuzzy Logic Based Model For Predicting Surface Roughness Of Machined Al-Si-Cu-Fe Die Casting Alloy Using Different Additives-Turning Jan 2015

Fuzzy Logic Based Model For Predicting Surface Roughness Of Machined Al-Si-Cu-Fe Die Casting Alloy Using Different Additives-Turning

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

This paper presents a fuzzy logic artificial intelligence technique for predicting the machining performance of Al-Si-Cu-Fe die casting alloy treated with different additives including strontium, bismuth and antimony to improve surface roughness. The Pareto-ANOVA optimization method was used to obtain the optimum parameter conditions for the machining process. Experiments were carried out using oblique dry CNC turning. The machining parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were optimized according to surface roughness values. The results indicated that a cutting speed of 250 m/min, a feed rate of 0.05 mm/rev, and a depth of cut ...


Influence Of Inner Surface Notch On Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics Of Aluminum Alloy, Innovative Research Publications Irp India, Mahantesh. Matur, V. Krishnan, P. Dinesh Dec 2014

Influence Of Inner Surface Notch On Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics Of Aluminum Alloy, Innovative Research Publications Irp India, Mahantesh. Matur, V. Krishnan, P. Dinesh

Innovative Research Publications IRP India

Effect of initial notch on the Fatigue crack growth of Aluminum 6061 specimen specified by ASTM is investigated. Growth rate obtained by experiment and numerical methods were compared. The values are in close agreement. The study shows the dependency of crack propagation on the stress intensity range of the Aluminum.


Surface Modification Of Aluminum Alloys By Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, Vahid Dehnavi Aug 2014

Surface Modification Of Aluminum Alloys By Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation, Vahid Dehnavi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is a surface treatment for the production of ceramic oxide coatings with great properties, such as high wear and corrosion resistance, on metal substrates, particularly aluminum and magnesium alloys. Formation of PEO coatings involves complex processes and mechanisms that are difficult to study. Currently, the PEO process is in a transition phase from research to commercial application, with a primary focus on the corrosion and wear protection of light alloys, and has recently generated interest as a promising surface treatment for biomedical applications.

To justify the industrial application of PEO, a more systematic and in-depth study ...


Measurement Of Stress Changes During Growth And Dissolution Of Anodic Oxide Films On Aluminum, Ömer Ö. Çapraz, Pranav Shrotriya, Kurt R. Hebert Jan 2014

Measurement Of Stress Changes During Growth And Dissolution Of Anodic Oxide Films On Aluminum, Ömer Ö. Çapraz, Pranav Shrotriya, Kurt R. Hebert

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

While stress is thought to play an important role in the development of self-organized porous films, mechanisms of stress generation during anodizing are not yet understood. In order to reveal depth distributions of stress in anodic films, phase-shifting curvature interferometry was used to monitor force transients (in-plane stress integrated through the sample thickness) during formation of anodic oxides on aluminum in phosphoric acid, aswell as subsequent open-circuit dissolution. Themeasurements were not influenced significantly by electrostatic stress, internal stress in the metal samples, thermal stress, or stress induced by open-circuit dissolution. At typical current densities, the force became more compressive during ...


Fabrication And Enhancement Of Aluminum-Based Microchannel Devices, Paul Joseph Hymel Jan 2014

Fabrication And Enhancement Of Aluminum-Based Microchannel Devices, Paul Joseph Hymel

LSU Master's Theses

Microscale molding replication and transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding were used to fabricate Al-based microchannel heat exchangers (MHEs) and micro gas chromatograph (mGC) columns. Metal-based microchannel heat exchangers often experience corrosion as a result of their operating conditions. To address this problem, an internal anodization method was developed in Al microtubes by pulsing the flow of electrolyte through a microtube when the current dropped below a set value. The anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) cross sections, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine their growth rate and morphology ...


Corrosion Of Magnesium And Aluminum In Palm Biodiesel: A Comparative Evaluation Aug 2013

Corrosion Of Magnesium And Aluminum In Palm Biodiesel: A Comparative Evaluation

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The present study aims to investigate the comparative corrosion of light-weight metals such as aluminum and magnesium in palm biodiesel. Immersion test at room temperature was carried out for each metal for 1440 h. Sample characterization techniques employed include weight loss measurement, SEM (scanning electron microscope), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TAN (total acid number) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Results showed that the corrosion rate of magnesium was much higher compared to that of aluminum. The surface morphology revealed a significant difference between the biodiesel exposed aluminum and magnesium specimens. Upon exposure to biodiesel, the magnesium surface was found to ...


Stress Enhanced Tio2 Nanowire Growth On Ti-6al-4v Particles By Thermal Oxidation Jan 2013

Stress Enhanced Tio2 Nanowire Growth On Ti-6al-4v Particles By Thermal Oxidation

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires were grown on Ti - 6wt% Al - 4wt% V (Ti64) particles by thermal oxidation. To investigate the effect of stress on nanowire growth, the particles were milled in a planetary ball mill prior to the thermal oxidation. Thermal oxidation of the Ti64 particles was carried out in a horizontal tube furnace in a controlled oxygen atmosphere in the temperature range of 700-900 °C. The oxygen concentration was varied from 20 ppm to 80 ppm in Ar atmosphere. Nanostructures were characterized by high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. TiO2 nanowires grew ...


The Wear Behavior Of Cross-Linked Uhmwpe Under Dry And Bovine Calf Serum-Lubricated Conditions Jan 2013

The Wear Behavior Of Cross-Linked Uhmwpe Under Dry And Bovine Calf Serum-Lubricated Conditions

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the wear behavior of unirradiated and irradiated ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against Ti-6Al-4V under dry and lubricated conditions at different applied loads. The UHMWPE specimens were exposed directly to nominal doses of 0, 25, 40, 50, and 100 kGy. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the worn surface of UHMWPE and Ti-6Al-4V was performed to understand the mechanism of wear involved between the contact surfaces during wear testing. From the wear test results, there were significant differences between the wear of unirradiated UHMWPE and UHMWPE irradiated at 25 ...


Phase Field Approach For Melting Of Aluminum Nanoparticles, Kamran Samani Jan 2013

Phase Field Approach For Melting Of Aluminum Nanoparticles, Kamran Samani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aluminum nanoparticles are of interest due to the variety of their applications, including additives for plastics and powder metallurgy. They can also enhance the burning rate of propellants. Metallic particles in traditional thermites are in the micron size range. When the particle diameter reduces to the nanometer range, their reactivity increases by several orders of magnitude. Thus flame rates of 0.9-1 km/s can be reached, while for micron size thermites they are on the order of centimeters or meters per second. Ignition delay time also decreases by up to three orders of magnitude.

The two main continuum methods ...


Experimental Study On The Fabrication Of Advanced Materials For Energy Applications Using High Energy Mechanical Milling, Ashvin Kumar Narayana Swamy Jan 2013

Experimental Study On The Fabrication Of Advanced Materials For Energy Applications Using High Energy Mechanical Milling, Ashvin Kumar Narayana Swamy

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The reaction of aluminum (Al) powder with water has the potential for on demand hydrogen generation. Conventional Al powders, however, react with water slowly due to a highly protective oxide layer on the particle surface. Current methods for Al activation involve harmful and expensive materials. The nano-scale Al powders also remain very expensive and have problems such as a large amount of oxide on the surface. The use of aluminum in an energy generation cycle is also hindered by the fact that, although Al is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, its recovery from ore consumes a ...


The Use Of Sodium Chloride & Aluminum As Phase Change Materials For High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Characterized By Calorimetry, Laura D. Solomon Jan 2013

The Use Of Sodium Chloride & Aluminum As Phase Change Materials For High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Characterized By Calorimetry, Laura D. Solomon

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Wear Behavior Of Cross-Linked Uhmwpe Under Dry And Bovine Calf Serum-Lubricated Conditions Dec 2012

The Wear Behavior Of Cross-Linked Uhmwpe Under Dry And Bovine Calf Serum-Lubricated Conditions

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the wear behavior of unirradiated and irradiated ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against Ti-6Al-4V under dry and lubricated conditions at different applied loads. The UHMWPE specimens were exposed directly to nominal doses of 0, 25, 40, 50, and 100 kGy. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the worn surface of UHMWPE and Ti-6Al-4V was performed to understand the mechanism of wear involved between the contact surfaces during wear testing. From the wear test results, there were significant differences between the wear of unirradiated UHMWPE and UHMWPE irradiated at 25 ...