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Biomechanical Analysis Of Open-Skull High-Rate Traumatic Brain Injury Using Finite Element Mouse Brain Model, Lihong Lu Dec 2019

Biomechanical Analysis Of Open-Skull High-Rate Traumatic Brain Injury Using Finite Element Mouse Brain Model, Lihong Lu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

To better understand traumatic brain injury (TBI), it is necessary to correlate with injuries, which are observed from in vivo laboratory experiments, to brain mechanical responses, which can so far be best predicted by finite element (FE) models. Firstly, a previously validated FE model was improved to investigate the effect of repeated impacts and lateral movements on brain responses to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of controlled cortical impact (CCI) across different labs. Then, a new FE mouse brain model with the detailed three-dimensional (3D), non-linear vasculature was developed to study how the vasculature affected brain response in CCI and ...


Energy Modelling To Evaluate The Thermal Regulation Of Aquaculture Raceways Using Geothermal Heat Exchange, Mitchell H. Kuska Dec 2019

Energy Modelling To Evaluate The Thermal Regulation Of Aquaculture Raceways Using Geothermal Heat Exchange, Mitchell H. Kuska

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Raceways are used in the aquaculture industry to farm fish species that swim against an upstream current. Raceways often draw water from a large waterbody and hence, their temperature changes due to seasonal variation, which directly affect the production yield. This study investigates a novel approach to regulate the raceway water temperature in a sustainable way by utilizing geothermal energy exchange. Energy models were developed to simulate heat transfer in a geothermal borehole heat exchange system and in the raceway system. The two models were then coupled to simulate the thermal regulation of the raceway water via borehole heat exchangers ...


Numerical And Semi-Analytical Estimation Of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient For Buildings In An Urban-Like Setting, Anwar Demsis Awol Dec 2019

Numerical And Semi-Analytical Estimation Of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient For Buildings In An Urban-Like Setting, Anwar Demsis Awol

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Urban building arrangements such as packing density, orientation and size are known to influence the microclimate surrounding each building. Studies on the impact of urban microclimatic changes on convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) from a stock of buildings, however, have been rare in surveyed literature. The present study focuses on numerical and analytical investigation of CHTC from building-like models with homogeneous set of equal and unequal planar and frontal densities. Consequently, the study discusses the CHTC response in relation to broader changes in the urban surface form. Part of the process involves the development of a simplified one-dimensional semi-analytical CHTC ...


A Wearable Mechatronic Device For Hand Tremor Monitoring And Suppression: Development And Evaluation, Yue Zhou Dec 2019

A Wearable Mechatronic Device For Hand Tremor Monitoring And Suppression: Development And Evaluation, Yue Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tremor, one of the most disabling symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), significantly affects the quality of life of the individuals who suffer from it. These people live with difficulties with fine motor tasks, such as eating and writing, and suffer from social embarrassment. Traditional medicines are often ineffective, and surgery is highly invasive and risky. The emergence of wearable technology facilitates an externally worn mechatronic tremor suppression device as a potential alternative approach for tremor management. However, no device has been developed for the suppression of finger tremor that has been validated on a human.

It has been reported ...


Airborne Topological Acoustics, Xingxing Liu Oct 2019

Airborne Topological Acoustics, Xingxing Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Advances in topological acoustics are leading to potential development for noise attenuation, ultrasonic imaging, sound manipulation, and information delivering, etc. Recently, ideas and methodologies from condensed-matter physics, such as the quantum Hall effect (QHE), the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE), and the quantum valley Hall effect (QVHE), combined with configurations of sonic crystals and metamaterials, have been investigated in manipulating acoustic transmissions in the form of one-way edge modes and defect-immune protected acoustics. However, many related studies are still in their infancy and mostly rely on bulky, noisy, overly complicated, untunable and narrow-band-effective facilities, and so it is highly desirable ...


Validation Of Rhocentralfoam For Engineering Applications Of Under-Expanded Impinging Free Jets, Peter Nielsen Oct 2019

Validation Of Rhocentralfoam For Engineering Applications Of Under-Expanded Impinging Free Jets, Peter Nielsen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A numerical validation study of under-expanded impinging jet is conducted using OpenFOAM, an open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) library. RhoCentralFoam, a density based, compressible flow solver with a two-equation shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is used on an axisymmetric model to reduce the computation cost. Major features of the flow were compared to an experimental study by Henderson et al., with a nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 4.0 and nozzle to plate spacing between 1.65-4.16. Of the features measured, the Mach diamond spacing, super-sonic core, and shear layer are all accurately predicted, while the recirculation bubble ...


A Heterogeneous Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model Of The Lung For Tumor Motion Compensation And Effective Lung Radiation Therapy Planning, Parya Jafari Sep 2019

A Heterogeneous Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model Of The Lung For Tumor Motion Compensation And Effective Lung Radiation Therapy Planning, Parya Jafari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Radiation therapy is a main component of treatment for many lung cancer patients. However, the respiratory motion can cause inaccuracies in radiation delivery that can lead to treatment complications. In addition, the radiation-induced damage to healthy tissue limits the effectiveness of radiation treatment. Motion management methods have been developed to increase the accuracy of radiation delivery, and functional avoidance treatment planning has emerged to help reduce the chances of radiation-induced toxicity. In this work, we have developed biomechanical model-based techniques for tumor motion estimation, as well as lung functional imaging. The proposed biomechanical model accurately estimates lung and tumor motion ...


The Hydrodynamics And Heat Transfer Of Impinging Jet Flow And Circular Hydraulic Jump, Yunpeng Wang Sep 2019

The Hydrodynamics And Heat Transfer Of Impinging Jet Flow And Circular Hydraulic Jump, Yunpeng Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The laminar axisymmetric flow and heat transfer of a circular impinging jet and hydraulic jump on a solid surface is analyzed theoretically using boundary-layer and thin-film approaches. Liquid jet impingement features many applications such as jet rinsing, jet cooling, liquid atomization and chemical reactors. The associated hydraulic jump dramatically affects the performance of the heat and mass transfer in such applications. In the current thesis, the effects of inertia, surface tension, surface rotation, gravity and heat transfer are comprehensively explored for impinging jet flow and the formation of hydraulic jump.

The boundary-layer heights and film thickness are found to diminish ...


An Experimental Study On The Impact Of Pressure Drop In The Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube, Mark Parker Aug 2019

An Experimental Study On The Impact Of Pressure Drop In The Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube, Mark Parker

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A vortex tube converts a single stream of compressed gas into two outlet streams; one heated, and the other cooled. This phenomenon, referred to as energy separation, is not fully understood, thereby requires further experimentation and analysis. CFD can provide insight, however, such simulations require a complete set of information of the geometric, operational, and performance parameters of particular vortex tube experiments.

An experiment is developed to provide complete information for CFD simulations. The vortex tube under consideration is established by considering reported data from past studies and selecting parameters that yield significant energy separation. An experimental apparatus is developed ...


In Vitro Biomechanical Analyses Of The Pcl And Medial Ligaments Of The Human Knee, Alireza Moslemian Aug 2019

In Vitro Biomechanical Analyses Of The Pcl And Medial Ligaments Of The Human Knee, Alireza Moslemian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Previous studies have shown that surgical treatments of PCL injuries are not successful in all cases and there is room for improvement. The effectiveness of an isolated PCL reconstruction, in the setting of what actually is a multi-ligament injury, may be inadequate, and therefore the biomechanical contribution of other ligaments in a PCL-deficient knee need to be better understood.

A new apparatus was used to analyze the effect of medial ligaments transection on the kinematics of the PCL-deficient knee during simulated clinical tests and activities of daily living. We observed that the anterior translation of the medial side of the ...


Pneumatic Hyperelastic Robotic End-Effector For Grasping Soft Curved Organic Objects, Alexandre Galley Aug 2019

Pneumatic Hyperelastic Robotic End-Effector For Grasping Soft Curved Organic Objects, Alexandre Galley

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pneumatically-driven soft robotic grippers can elastically deform to grasp delicate, curved organic objects with minimal surface damage. However, common actuators have complex geometries and are fabricated with ultra-soft hyperelastic elastomers not originally intended for scientific applications. The complexity of the actuator geometry and extreme nonlinearity of their material’s stress-strain behaviour make it difficult to predict the actuator’s deformation prior to experimentation. In this work, a compact soft pneumatic gripper made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is developed for grasping delicate organic objects, analyzed through computational modelling and experimentally validated. COMSOL Multiphysics is used to simulate the impact of geometrical parameters ...


A Novel Method For In Vivo Evaluation Of Finger Kinematics For Analysis Of Activities Of Daily Living, Ahmed M. Tanashi Jul 2019

A Novel Method For In Vivo Evaluation Of Finger Kinematics For Analysis Of Activities Of Daily Living, Ahmed M. Tanashi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examines the development of a six degrees of freedom finger coordinate system that employs electromagnetic tracking to measure finger kinematics. Secondarily, this thesis validated the in vivo finger coordinate system, and is then used to examine range of motion in the fingers in patients with hand osteoarthritis. Lastly, this thesis examines the range of motion of individuals with and without hand arthritis during various activities of daily living, performed with and with joint protection program principles. This study presents a foundation for finger kinematic evaluation and describes a methodology that will be used for larger studies to be ...


The Effect Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Stem Fit On Radiocapitellar Contact Mechanics: Is Loose Fit Better Than Rigidly Fixed?, Jakub Szmit, Graham J.W. King, James A. Johnson, G. Daniel G. Langohr Jun 2019

The Effect Of Radial Head Hemiarthroplasty Stem Fit On Radiocapitellar Contact Mechanics: Is Loose Fit Better Than Rigidly Fixed?, Jakub Szmit, Graham J.W. King, James A. Johnson, G. Daniel G. Langohr

Western Research Forum

Background/Methods: Radial head hemiarthroplasty is commonly employed to manage comminuted displaced fractures. With regards to implant fixation, current designs vary with some prostheses aiming to achieve a tight 'fixed' fit, and others utilizing a smooth stem with an over reamed 'loose' fit. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of radial head hemiarthroplasty stem fit on radiocapitellar contact using a finite element model which simulated both fixed (size-for-size) and loose (1, 2 & 3mm over reamed) stem fits.

Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that a loose stem fit would improve radiocapitellar contact mechanics, with increased contact area ...


Investigating The Effect Of Stiffness In Hemiarthroplasty Implants, Carolyn Berkmortel, Daniel Langohr, Graham King, James Johnson Jun 2019

Investigating The Effect Of Stiffness In Hemiarthroplasty Implants, Carolyn Berkmortel, Daniel Langohr, Graham King, James Johnson

Western Research Forum

Background: Hemiarthroplasty is an attractive alternative to total arthroplasty because it conserves tissue, allows for quicker recovery, and has a lower cost. However, likely due to the high stiffness of the implant, hemiarthroplasties often lead to accelerated wear of the opposing native cartilage.

Hypothesis and Methods: The purpose of this study was to investigate the maximum contact stress on the capitellum for different currently available biomaterials in radial head hemiarthroplasty and compare them to the native radial head. A finite element model was developed in ABAQUS (Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp., RI, USA). An axial load of 100N was applied to ...


Effect Of The Nonlinear Material Viscosity On The Performance Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Yuanping Li Jun 2019

Effect Of The Nonlinear Material Viscosity On The Performance Of Dielectric Elastomer Transducers, Yuanping Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As a typical type of soft electroactive materials, dielectric elastomers (DEs) are capable of producing large voltage-induced deformation, which makes them desirable materials for a variety of applications in transduction technology, including tunable oscillators, resonators, biomimetics and energy harvesters. The dynamic and energy harvesting performance of such DE-based devices is strongly affected not only by multiple failure modes such as electrical breakdown, electromechanical instability, loss-of-tension and fatigue, but also by their material viscoelasticity. Moreover, as suggested by experiments and theoretical studies, DEs possess nonlinear relaxation processes, which makes modeling of the performance of DE-based devices more challenging.

In this thesis ...


Investigating Grip Range Of Motion And Force Exerted By Individuals With And Without Hand Arthritis During Functional Tasks And While Swinging A Golf Club, Sara Frances Holland May 2019

Investigating Grip Range Of Motion And Force Exerted By Individuals With And Without Hand Arthritis During Functional Tasks And While Swinging A Golf Club, Sara Frances Holland

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hand arthritis is the leading cause of disability in individuals over the age of 50; resulting in dysfunction and pain, making activities of daily living and recreational activities such as golf difficult. Few studies have been conducted on the biomechanical response of individuals with hand arthritis when performing functional activities. This research quantified hand grip movements and strength differences seen in individuals with hand arthritis. Using a video-based motion capture system (Dartfish), a grip limitation of 17.2% (maximum flexion), and 12.7% (maximum extension) was discovered. A wireless finger force measurement system (FingerTPS), was used to show that larger ...


Graduate Keynote. Golf Grip Force Evaluation In Individuals With And Without Hand Arthritis Using A New Wearable Sensor Technology, Sara Frances Holland, Emily Lalone, Louis M. Ferreira, James P. Dickey Mar 2019

Graduate Keynote. Golf Grip Force Evaluation In Individuals With And Without Hand Arthritis Using A New Wearable Sensor Technology, Sara Frances Holland, Emily Lalone, Louis M. Ferreira, James P. Dickey

Western Research Forum

BACKGROUND

Hand osteoarthritis (H-OA) is the most common type of osteoarthritis largely affecting individuals over 45. H-OA involves pain, loss of grip strength and limiting participation in recreational activities such as golf. Currently, a number of ‘arthritic’ grips are designed using joint protection principles to ‘reduce hand forces and tight gripping’. However, no comprehensive examinations in their effectiveness have been conducted.

HYPOTHESIS

The purpose of this study is to systematically analyse the hand forces produced from various golf grips and arthritis grips at the distal-phalanges of the hand-grip interface in individuals with and without hand arthritis using new wearable sensor ...


Hard, Soft And Off-The-Shelf Foot Orthoses And Their Effect On The Angle Of The Medial Longitudinal Arch: A Biplane Fluoroscopy Study, Megan E.R. Balsdon, Colin E. Dombroski, Kristen Bushey, Thomas Jenkyn Feb 2019

Hard, Soft And Off-The-Shelf Foot Orthoses And Their Effect On The Angle Of The Medial Longitudinal Arch: A Biplane Fluoroscopy Study, Megan E.R. Balsdon, Colin E. Dombroski, Kristen Bushey, Thomas Jenkyn

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Publications

Background: Foot orthoses have proven to be effective for conservative management of various pathologies. Pathologies of the lower limb can be caused by abnormal biomechanics such as abnormal foot structure and alignment, leading to inadequate support. Objectives: To compare biomechanical effects of different foot orthoses on the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) during dynamic gait using skeletal kinematics. Study Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study design. Methods: The MLA angle was measured for 12 participants among three groups: pes planus, pes cavus and normal arch. Five conditions were compared: three orthotic devices (hard custom foot orthosis (CFO), soft CFO, and off-the-shelf Barefoot Science ...


Bouncing Dynamics Of A Class Of Mem/Nem Switching Systems, Mohamed Bognash Jan 2019

Bouncing Dynamics Of A Class Of Mem/Nem Switching Systems, Mohamed Bognash

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of the present research is to understand the bouncing dynamic behavior of NEM/MEM switches in order to improve the switch performance and reliability. It is well known that the bouncing can dramatically degrade the switch performance and life; hence, in the present study, bouncing dynamics of a cantilever-based NME/MEM switch has been studied in detail. To this end, a model of a MEM switch that incorporates electrostatic force, squeeze film air damping force as well as asperity-based contact force has been proposed for an electrostatically actuated switch. An actuation force due to piezoelectric effects is further ...