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Scaling Analysis And Experimental Investigation Of A Rotating Detonation Engine, David Thomas Billups Jan 2019

Scaling Analysis And Experimental Investigation Of A Rotating Detonation Engine, David Thomas Billups

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Pressure gain combustion (PGC) technologies, specifically rotating detonation engines (RDEs), are poised to provide the next big leap in gas turbine engine advancement, significantly increasing the thermal. RDEs make use of thermodynamic advantages of isochoric as opposed to isobaric combustion. Theorized to increase thermal efficiency by up to 7% [1], the RDE would have significant impact on reducing anthropogenic carbon emissions. In addition to efficiency gains, the RDE also provides mechanical simplicity and reduced size advantages compared to it’s traditional counterparts and PGC competition.

The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) maintains ...


Modeling And Development Of The Dynamic Environmental Simulation Chamber (Desc) For Calibration Of Air Quality Monitoring Sensors, Filiz Kazan Jan 2019

Modeling And Development Of The Dynamic Environmental Simulation Chamber (Desc) For Calibration Of Air Quality Monitoring Sensors, Filiz Kazan

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The thesis describes the development steps for the dynamic environmental simulation chamber (DESC) and carbon dioxide sensor calibration by using DESC. The sensors are Figaro, COZIR and K30 CO2 sensors


In Situ Measurement Of Fatigue Induced Crack Growth In Inconel 718 Using Direct Current Potential Drop Method, Joel C. Lindsay Jan 2019

In Situ Measurement Of Fatigue Induced Crack Growth In Inconel 718 Using Direct Current Potential Drop Method, Joel C. Lindsay

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

With recent advances in air breathable engines comes more extreme temperature environments that engine components must tolerate. During the design of these engines, it is necessary to understand how material fatigue failures occur at these new, higher operating temperatures. In providing understanding, the following fundamental study focuses on the statistical nature of crack jumps (changes in crack length over time) during fatigue in a polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy, Inconel 718 (IN718). In situ measurement of the crack length at several loading conditions were conducted using a direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurement method. Experimental data was collected at six different fatigue ...


Energy Efficiency Evaluation Of Blower Heater Non-Purge Compressed Air Dryers, Alexandra M. Davis Jan 2019

Energy Efficiency Evaluation Of Blower Heater Non-Purge Compressed Air Dryers, Alexandra M. Davis

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

There are several compressed air dryers available for industrial use including, refrigerant, desiccant, and membrane. This research focuses on twin tower regenerative closed loop desiccant dryers, specifically: blower heater non-purge (BHNP) with and without cooling water pumps, Compressed-air Heater Purge (CHP), Blower Heater Purge (BHP), and Pressure Swing Heaterless (PSH). These styles of dryers are used mainly in industries that require extremely dry air such as, food manufacturing, medical air, or sensitive technology manufacturers. The research was conducted by collecting and analyzing real time current draw data on air compressors and associated dryers at eight different facilities (13 compressor systems ...


Virtual Morphology As A Method Of Robotic Control, Conner Todd Castle Jan 2019

Virtual Morphology As A Method Of Robotic Control, Conner Todd Castle

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

This thesis presents Virtual Morphology (VM), a method that explores a different perspective on the design of robot autonomy using inspiration from morphological computing and programmed computation. Morphological computation offers physical solutions that solve complex tasks, like robotic grasping of unknown objects, with relative ease. Unfortunately, these physical solutions are difficult to adjust post-development, and are usually designed to complete only one or a few specific tasks. Programmed computational approaches are more flexible because they can be implemented and adjusted through software, but unfortunately, these approaches can become rather complex as tasks become more difficult. This thesis explores the potential ...


Design And Implementation Of An Instantaneous Fuel Mass Flow Measurement System For Use In Verification Of Locomotive Emissions, Adam Wayne James Jan 2019

Design And Implementation Of An Instantaneous Fuel Mass Flow Measurement System For Use In Verification Of Locomotive Emissions, Adam Wayne James

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Located in Altoona, PA, the Juniata Thoroughbred Emissions Research lab has provided emissions testing and research for several locomotive companies such as CSX, Electro Motive Diesel (EMD), and General Electric (GE). The emissions laboratory measures locomotive emissions through partial flow dilution (PFD) sampling for particulate matter (PM) using a Sierra Instruments BG3 and measures raw gaseous emissions using a MEXA 7100D gaseous emission analyzer. Fuel consumption is measured on a gravimetric basis and is used in verification of proportional sampling of exhaust flow. There were two research goals for this study which were (1) verify that the emissions measurement system ...


Investigation Of Various Factors Affecting Quantification And Characterization Accuracy Of Nox Measurement At Near Zero Level In A Cvs Sampling Set-Up, Samuel Abimbola Ogunfuye Jan 2019

Investigation Of Various Factors Affecting Quantification And Characterization Accuracy Of Nox Measurement At Near Zero Level In A Cvs Sampling Set-Up, Samuel Abimbola Ogunfuye

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Accurate measurement of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) concentrations at near-zero levels using the constant volume sampling (CVS) system is a critical consideration in emissions quantification for engine and vehicle research and certification purposes. Various technological efforts and research are being implemented to ensure emissions from automobile and on-road transportation sources tend towards lower concentrations. This development has resulted in NOx concentration measurements to shift towards near-zero and thus, reach the detection limits of traditional measurement approaches and methods. There are several factors that might deter achieving measurement accuracy at this level, as their effect becomes significant at low NOx concentrations ...


Evaluation Of A Marketing Strategy Based On The Concept Of Virtual Energy Audit, Goutham Kumar Reddy Challa Jan 2019

Evaluation Of A Marketing Strategy Based On The Concept Of Virtual Energy Audit, Goutham Kumar Reddy Challa

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

With the growing world population and efforts to bring better energy access to the people, energy needs of the world are expected to grow in the coming years. Given the limited availability of non-renewable resources, there has been a mounting consensus among the users and the stakeholders to utilize the available energy in the most efficient way by implementing various methods like use of advanced technologies, source reduction, behavioral changes, etc. Energy efficiency in general is considered as a win-win scenario for all the users and/or stakeholders involved as it not only lowers the base load for power generating ...


Design Of Experiment And Analysis Techniques For Fuel Consumption Data Using Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles And On-Road Testing, Sarah Ann Mills Jan 2019

Design Of Experiment And Analysis Techniques For Fuel Consumption Data Using Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles And On-Road Testing, Sarah Ann Mills

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Chassis dynamometer and on-road testing are usually employed to test vehicle operation. Testing on a chassis dynamometer reduces data variability compared to on-road testing due to the controlled environment but it does not account for other important variables that affects real-world vehicle operation. This study used on-road testing to investigate the differences between two test fuels under real-world conditions. Three heavy-duty diesel vehicles were driven on different routes for a period of three months. Each vehicle was instrumented with flow meters to gather fuel consumption data, which was then compared to the fuel rate broadcasted by the engine control unit ...


A Framework For Energy Optimization Of Small, Two-Stroke, Natural Gas Engines For Combined Heat And Power Applications, Mahdi Darzi Jan 2019

A Framework For Energy Optimization Of Small, Two-Stroke, Natural Gas Engines For Combined Heat And Power Applications, Mahdi Darzi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

This research was focused on the development of a framework for the energy optimization a natural gas engine for small combined heat and power (CHP) applications operating with low-pressure natural gas (NG) available at homes. The required targets of the ARPA-E GENSETS program for 1 kW electric power generation and previous GENSETS simulation at West Virginia University, suggested a design space for the engine which is currently dominated by simple two-stroke designs. Hence this research focused on screening, modeling, and experimentally evaluation of cost-effective technologies to achieve a system design that maximized thermal efficiency and utilization factor, while reducing emissions ...


Computational Design Of Staged Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion, Gideon Ozioma Udochukwu Jan 2019

Computational Design Of Staged Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion, Gideon Ozioma Udochukwu

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Staged pressurized oxy-coal combustion (SPOC) is nowadays a promising technology to be used for low-cost, low-emission, high-efficiency power generation. The objective of this thesis is to compliment the experiments ongoing at the Washington University, St. Louis (WUSTL) by means of numerical simulations, thereby providing better understanding of the fluid flow, turbulence, combustion characteristics, particle dynamics and heat transfer. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is injected alongside the coal, for its carriage. A small amount of methane (CH4) is also injected alongside the coal to maintain a steady flame. The simulations are performed for a 3D geometry with the following energy source distribution ...


Dynamic Discrepancy Reduced Order Modeling For Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Over Cobalt-Based Catalyst, Jose Miguel Bohorquez Jan 2019

Dynamic Discrepancy Reduced Order Modeling For Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Over Cobalt-Based Catalyst, Jose Miguel Bohorquez

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Advances in carbon capture techniques and demands in alternative fuel sources have increased over the past couple of decades. The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) provides a viable way to produce hydrocarbons from natural gas, coal, CO2, or biomass. However, current comprehensive models for FTS encompass large number of reacting species, readsorption and conversion of primary products, surface intermediates, and coverage-dependent reaction rates. To accurately predict the products obtained through the process a reduced order model has been developed. By reducing the number of parameters of an existing comprehensive model, uncertainty is introduced. The uncertainty can be quantified by using discrepancy ...


Investigation Of Heat Exchanger Effectiveness Using A Nano-Coating Technology, Allen Duffy Jan 2019

Investigation Of Heat Exchanger Effectiveness Using A Nano-Coating Technology, Allen Duffy

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Diesel engine manufacturers continue to improve engine performance through increased thermal efficiency and reduced regulated emissions. The aftercooler located between the turbocharger air outlet and intake manifold experiences a wide range of operating conditions. Improving the heat transfer characteristics in the aftercooler can lead towards improved engine performance through increased charge air density. A nano-based coating material has been proposed to enhance the heat transfer characteristics for a marine-based application on the water - side of the heat exchanger. To evaluate the efficacy of the nano-based coating, the rate of heat transfer with and without the nano-coating was quantified in a ...


Investigation And Development Of Exhaust Flow Rate Estimation Methodologies For Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Chakradhar Reddy Vardhireddy Jan 2019

Investigation And Development Of Exhaust Flow Rate Estimation Methodologies For Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Chakradhar Reddy Vardhireddy

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Exhaust gas flow rate from a vehicle tailpipe has a great influence on emission mass rate calculations, as the emission fractions of individual gases in the exhaust are calculated by using the measured exhaust flow rate. The development of high-end sensor technologies and emission pollutant measurement instruments, which can give instantaneous values of volume concentration of pollutants flowing out of the engine are gaining importance because of their ease of operation. The volume concentrations measured can then be used with the instantaneous exhaust flow rate values to obtain mass flow rates of pollutants.

With the recent promulgation of real world ...


Immunity-Based Framework For Autonomous Flight In Gps-Challenged Environment, Mohanad Al Nuaimi Jan 2019

Immunity-Based Framework For Autonomous Flight In Gps-Challenged Environment, Mohanad Al Nuaimi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

In this research, the artificial immune system (AIS) paradigm is used for the development of a conceptual framework for autonomous flight when vehicle position and velocity are not available from direct sources such as the global navigation satellite systems or external landmarks and systems. The AIS is expected to provide corrections of velocity and position estimations that are only based on the outputs of onboard inertial measurement units (IMU). The AIS comprises sets of artificial memory cells that simulate the function of memory T- and B-cells in the biological immune system of vertebrates. The innate immune system uses information about ...


Propagation And Morphology Of Premixed Flames In Obstructed Channels Under Atmospheric And Supercritical Conditions, Abdulafeez Akinola Adebiyi Jan 2019

Propagation And Morphology Of Premixed Flames In Obstructed Channels Under Atmospheric And Supercritical Conditions, Abdulafeez Akinola Adebiyi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The understanding of the morphology and propagation of premixed flames in channels is vital for the design and development of efficient propulsion systems requiring high heat release, such as pulse detonation engines, and for resolving accidental fire in industrial conduits. In this work, extensive computational simulation of premixed flames in channels (with rectangular and cylindrical cross sections) with closely packed obstacles are carried out with the goal of providing insights into flame propagation under various conditions which would be invaluable to the development and safety of energy and propulsion systems as well as for the mitigation of accidental fires in ...


Impact Of Implementing A Dedicated Outdoor Air System In Parallel With A Multi-Zone Variable-Air Volume System On Energy Consumption, Thermal Comfort, And Life Cycle Cost, Khaled Alghamdi Jan 2019

Impact Of Implementing A Dedicated Outdoor Air System In Parallel With A Multi-Zone Variable-Air Volume System On Energy Consumption, Thermal Comfort, And Life Cycle Cost, Khaled Alghamdi

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning systems (HVAC) consume more than 40% of energy in commercial buildings, according to the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey in 2012. Therefore, efforts to reduce HVAC energy consumption would be significant in coping with energy-related issues. In that context and in order to enhance the indoor air quality without compromising for energy consumption, the concept of Dedicated Outdoor Air systems (DOAS) emerged.

The literature shows that the integration of DOAS with other HVAC systems has been studied widely, yet the impact of integrating DOAS in parallel with multi-zone Variable-Air Volume systems (multi-zone VAV) for an application ...


Comparison Of Drag Area Estimation Using Natural Coast Down And Constant Speed Test Methods, Cem Baki Mr Jan 2019

Comparison Of Drag Area Estimation Using Natural Coast Down And Constant Speed Test Methods, Cem Baki Mr

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Currently in US, more than 26 percent of the total GHG emissions comes from transportation and mostly from heavy duty vehicles. Similarly, the European Council stated that 25 percent of the emissions comes from heavy duty transportation and they expect it to be further increased in the future. However, with the new coming regulations US EPA and European Council aiming to reduce the emissions by 80 percent in US and 60 percent in EU. In order to keep track and control the emissions, both authorities published new regulations and testing methods for certifying the new vehicles.

Aerodynamic testing is one ...


Evaluating The Approach Of Using Nox Control Performance Tracking For On-Board Diagnostics Of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles, Renata Castiglioni Jan 2019

Evaluating The Approach Of Using Nox Control Performance Tracking For On-Board Diagnostics Of Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles, Renata Castiglioni

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

egulatory agencies have taken several measures to ensure proper regulation of engine exhaust in response to a yearly rise in urban pollution levels. This is due in no small part to vehicular traffic and resulting air pollution from exhaust.

This study evaluates the NOx Control Performance Tracking (NCPT) Onboard Diagnostic (OBD) parameter proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as a tool to assess in-use heavy-duty vehicle performance. It also assesses the various criteria prescribed in the NCPT approach for applicability to real-world vehicle data.

In order to analyze the data, the study also investigated the effect of various ...


Experimental And Numerical Study Of The Stirling Engine Robust Foil Regenerator, Koji Yanaga Jan 2019

Experimental And Numerical Study Of The Stirling Engine Robust Foil Regenerator, Koji Yanaga

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The regenerator is located between the heat accepter and the heat rejecter of the Stirling engine. It works as a thermal energy storage component in the engine. Most of the regenerators are made of woven screen or random fiber. However, the flow going through the woven screen or random fiber is similar to the cylinders in crossflow which has flow separation. To achieve higher engine efficiency, it is required to design a regenerator which has higher convective heat transfer, lower pressure drops. Therefore, a parallel channel regenerator called a robust foil regenerator was designed and manufactured.

In this study, a ...