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Motion And Force Transmission Of A Flexible Instrument Inside A Curved Endoscope, Jitendra P. Khatait Sep 2013

Motion And Force Transmission Of A Flexible Instrument Inside A Curved Endoscope, Jitendra P. Khatait

Jitendra P Khatait

Flexible instruments are increasingly used to perform advanced and complex surgical procedures either manually or robotically. The success of flexible instruments in surgery requires high motion and force fidelity, and controllability of the tip. However, the friction and the limited stiffness of such instruments limit their motion and force transmission. The implementation of flexible instruments in surgery necessitates their characterization, the development of proper tools to understand the effect of various mechanical parameters on their overall performance, and an improvement in motion and force fidelity. Therefore, this thesis describes 2-D and 3-D flexible multibody models of a flexible surgical instrument ...


Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel Mar 2013

Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased ...


Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel Jan 2013

Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased ...


Effect Of Temperature On Tribological Properties Of Palm Biodiesel Mar 2010

Effect Of Temperature On Tribological Properties Of Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 °C, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear ...


Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Nickel-Tungsten Alloy Films Jan 2008

Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Nickel-Tungsten Alloy Films

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Electrodeposited nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloys are being investigated as an attractive alternative to electrodeposited nickel for applications involving fabrication of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). Ni-W alloys are also being considered as an environmentally friendly alternative to hard chrome plating in some cases. In applications involving sliding contacts such as in micro-gears in MEMS, mould inserts, etc., tribological properties of Ni-W alloys would be of relevance. In this work, the sliding friction and wear characteristics of Ni-W alloys with different tungsten contents were investigated and compared with that of nickel film deposited from sulphamate bath commonly used in microfabrication. For wear ...


Surface Friction Guiding For Reduced High-Frequency Lateral Vibration Of Moving Media, V. Kartik, Jonathan A. Wickert Jun 2007

Surface Friction Guiding For Reduced High-Frequency Lateral Vibration Of Moving Media, V. Kartik, Jonathan A. Wickert

Jonathan A. Wickert

The free and forced vibration of a moving medium is examined in an application where distributed friction guiding is used to control lateral position passively. Subambient pressure features formed in the guides intentionally modify the naturally occurring self-pressurized air bearing and increase the contact force between the medium and the guide's surface. These features increase friction to a level beyond that achievable based on the nominal wrap pressure. The moving medium is modeled as a beam that is transported over frictional regions and subjected to prescribed boundary disturbances arising from runout of a supply or take-up roll. For axial ...


Tribo-Surface Characteristics Of Al-B4c And Al-Sic Composites Worn Under Different Contact Pressures Sep 2006

Tribo-Surface Characteristics Of Al-B4c And Al-Sic Composites Worn Under Different Contact Pressures

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Tribo-surface characteristics of two aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) of compositions Al-13 vol%B4C and Al-13 vol%SiC sliding against a commercial phenolic brake pad have been investigated under dry conditions. The wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc type apparatus at a linear speed of 1.62 m s-1 under contact pressures ranging from 0.75 to 3.00 MPa. The coefficient of friction was recorded on line. Wear rates were calculated from mass loss measurements. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to examine the tribo-surface. It is found that wear rate of ...


Velocity Effects On The Wear, Friction And Tribochemistry Of Aluminum Mmc Sliding Against Phenolic Brake Pad Jun 2004

Velocity Effects On The Wear, Friction And Tribochemistry Of Aluminum Mmc Sliding Against Phenolic Brake Pad

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Two aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC) reinforced with 13 vol.% of SiC or B4C particles were made by stir casting followed by hot extrusion. Effects of sliding velocity on the wear, friction and tribochemistry of the worn surfaces of both composites sliding against a commercial phenolic brake pad have been investigated under dry condition. The wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc type apparatus at two linear sliding speeds: 1.62 and 4.17 m s-1 under a constant contact pressure of 0.75 MPa for a sliding distance of 5832 m. The coefficient of friction was recorded and ...


Velocity Effects On The Wear, Friction And Tribochemistry Of Aluminum Mmc Sliding Against Phenolic Brake Pad May 2004

Velocity Effects On The Wear, Friction And Tribochemistry Of Aluminum Mmc Sliding Against Phenolic Brake Pad

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Two aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC) reinforced with 13 vol.% of SiC or B4C particles were made by stir casting followed by hot extrusion. Effects of sliding velocity on the wear, friction and tribochemistry of the worn surfaces of both composites sliding against a commercial phenolic brake pad have been investigated under dry condition. The wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc type apparatus at two linear sliding speeds: 1.62 and 4.17 m s-1 under a constant contact pressure of 0.75 MPa for a sliding distance of 5832 m. The coefficient of friction was recorded and ...


Fretting Wear Of Metallic Multilayer Films Jan 2003

Fretting Wear Of Metallic Multilayer Films

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Fretting wear behaviour of electrodeposited Cu/Ni multilayer films with 10 and 5 nm thick sublayers has been investigated against a hardened steel ball as the counter body and compared with that of the constituents, Cu and Ni. The wear tests were carried out by using a ball-on-flat geometry at a translation frequency of 8 Hz and slip amplitude of 100 μm. Friction force was recorded on line during the tests. At the end of the tests, the wear scars were examined by laser surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. It has been observed that the ...


Static Friction And Surface Roughness Studies Of Surface Micromachined Electrostatic Micromotors Using An Atomic Force/Friction Force Microscope, Sriram Sundararajan, Bharat Bhushan Jan 2001

Static Friction And Surface Roughness Studies Of Surface Micromachined Electrostatic Micromotors Using An Atomic Force/Friction Force Microscope, Sriram Sundararajan, Bharat Bhushan

Sriram Sundararajan

A technique to measure the static friction forces (stiction) encountered in surface micromachined micromotors using a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM)/friction force microscope has been developed and is described. An AFM tip is pushed against a rotor arm of the micromotor so as to generate lateral deflection (torsion) of the tip, which is measured by the AFM. The maximum value of the lateral deflection obtained prior to rotor movement (rotation) is a measure of the static friction force of the micromotors. This technique was employed to study the effect of humidity and rest time on the static friction force ...


Effect Of Mechanical Factors On Tribological Properties Of Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blended Lubricant Jan 2000

Effect Of Mechanical Factors On Tribological Properties Of Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blended Lubricant

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The effects of mechanical factors viz. applied load and temperature on the tribological performance of 5% palm oil methyl ester (POME) blended lubricant were studied using a steel-cast iron pair. Wear and frictional measurements were made using a stationary steel ball and a reciprocating cast iron plate in a modified universal wear and friction testing machine. The test conditions were contact pressure, 400 MPa; mean contact velocity, 0.34 m/s; reciprocating stroke, 80 mm; loads, 100-1100 N (fixed temperature); and temperature, 40-140°C (fixed load). Wear scar surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the wear ...


Topography-Induced Contributions To Friction Forces Measured Using An Atomic Force/Friction Force Microscope, Sriram Sundararajan, Bharat Bhushan Jan 2000

Topography-Induced Contributions To Friction Forces Measured Using An Atomic Force/Friction Force Microscope, Sriram Sundararajan, Bharat Bhushan

Sriram Sundararajan

Most friction studies using an atomic force/friction force microscope, while concentrating on material-induced effects, often present users with conflicting and confusing interpretations of the topography-induced friction forces. It has been generally reported that topography-induced contributions are independent of scanning direction and can be removed by subtracting friction data from forward and backward scans. In this article, we present friction studies on samples with well-defined topography variations and find that the above-given statement is not generally true. At surface locations involving significant changes in topography, the topography-induced contributions to friction forces are found to be different between forward and backward ...