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Fatigue Of Swollen Elastomers May 2015

Fatigue Of Swollen Elastomers

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

The compatibility of the properties of elastomer with conventional diesel fuel has made it favourable in many engineering applications. However, due to global energy insecurity issues, there is an urgent need to find alternative renewable sources of energy as replacements to conventional diesel. In this respect, biodiesel appears to be a promising candidate. Hence, research into the compatibility and fatigue characteristics of elastomers exposed to biodiesel becomes essential. The present paper introduces the first attempt to investigate the effect of different solvents on the fatigue of swollen elastomers. The filled nitrile rubbers are immersed in the palm biodiesel and conventional ...


Influence Of Biodiesel Blending On Physicochemical Properties And Importance Of Mathematical Model For Predicting The Properties Of Biodiesel Blend Apr 2015

Influence Of Biodiesel Blending On Physicochemical Properties And Importance Of Mathematical Model For Predicting The Properties Of Biodiesel Blend

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

The growing demand for green world serves as one of the most significant challenges of modernization. Requirements like largest usage of energy for modern society as well as demand for friendly milieu create a deep concern in field of research. Biofuels are placed at the peak of the research arena for their underlying benefits as mentioned by multiple researches. Out of a number of vegetable oils, only a few are used commercially for biodiesel production. Due to various limitations of edible oil, non-edible oils are becoming a profitable choice. Till today, very little percentage of biodiesel is used successfully in ...


Effects Of Carbon Black And The Presence Of Static Mechanical Strain On The Swelling Of Elastomers In Solvent Mar 2015

Effects Of Carbon Black And The Presence Of Static Mechanical Strain On The Swelling Of Elastomers In Solvent

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

The effect of carbon black on the mechanical properties of elastomers is of great interest, because the filler is one of principal ingredients for the manufacturing of rubber products. While fillers can be used to enhance the properties of elastomers, including stress-free swelling resistance in solvent, it is widely known that the introduction of fillers yields significant inelastic responses of elastomers under cyclic mechanical loading, such as stress-softening, hysteresis and permanent set. When a filled elastomer is under mechanical deformation, the filler acts as a strain amplifier in the rubber matrix. Since the matrix local strain has a profound effect ...


Physicochemical Characterization And Thermal Behavior Of Biodiesel And Biodiesel–Diesel Blends Derived From Crude Moringa Peregrina Seed Oil Mar 2015

Physicochemical Characterization And Thermal Behavior Of Biodiesel And Biodiesel–Diesel Blends Derived From Crude Moringa Peregrina Seed Oil

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

Moringaceae is a monogeneric family with a single genus i.e. Moringa. This family includes 13 species. All these species are known as medicinal, nutritional and water purification agents. This study reports, for the first time, on characterization of the biodiesel derived from crude Moringa peregrina seed oil and its blends with diesel. The crude oil was converted to biodiesel by the transesterification reaction, catalyzed by potassium hydroxide. High ester content (97.79%) was obtained. M. peregrina biodiesel exhibited high oxidative stability (24.48 h). Moreover, the major fuel properties of M. peregrina biodiesel conformed to the ASTM D6751 standards ...


Evaluation Of Combustion, Performance, And Emissions Of Optimum Palm-Coconut Blend In Turbocharged And Non-Turbocharged Conditions Of A Diesel Engine Jan 2015

Evaluation Of Combustion, Performance, And Emissions Of Optimum Palm-Coconut Blend In Turbocharged And Non-Turbocharged Conditions Of A Diesel Engine

Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya

Fossil fuel depletion, global warming with rapid changes in climate, and increases in oil prices have motivated scientists to search for alternative fuel. Biodiesel can be an effective solution despite some limitations, such as poor fuel properties and engine performance. From this perspective, experiments were carried out to improve fuel properties and engine performance by using a binary blend of palm and coconut biodiesel at an optimized ratio. MATLAB optimization tool was used to determine this blend ratio. A new biodiesel was developed and represented by PC (optimum blend of palm and coconut biodiesel). Engine performance and emission were tested ...


Corrosion Of Magnesium And Aluminum In Palm Biodiesel: A Comparative Evaluation Aug 2013

Corrosion Of Magnesium And Aluminum In Palm Biodiesel: A Comparative Evaluation

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The present study aims to investigate the comparative corrosion of light-weight metals such as aluminum and magnesium in palm biodiesel. Immersion test at room temperature was carried out for each metal for 1440 h. Sample characterization techniques employed include weight loss measurement, SEM (scanning electron microscope), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TAN (total acid number) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Results showed that the corrosion rate of magnesium was much higher compared to that of aluminum. The surface morphology revealed a significant difference between the biodiesel exposed aluminum and magnesium specimens. Upon exposure to biodiesel, the magnesium surface was found to ...


Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel Mar 2013

Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased ...


Corrosion Mechanism Of Copper In Palm Biodiesel Feb 2013

Corrosion Mechanism Of Copper In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel. However, it causes enhanced corrosion of automotive materials, especially of copper based components. In the present study, corrosion mechanism of copper was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compositional change of biodiesel due to the exposure of copper was also investigated. Corrosion patina on copper is found to be composed of Cu2O, CuO, Cu(OH)2 and CuCO3. Dissolved O2, H2O, CO2 and RCOO- radical in biodiesel seem to be the leading factors in enhancing the corrosiveness of biodiesel. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel Jan 2013

Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased ...


Storage Stability Of Biofuel, Mahendra Varman Munusamy M. Varman Nov 2012

Storage Stability Of Biofuel, Mahendra Varman Munusamy M. Varman

Mahendra Varman Munusamy (M. Varman)

Biofuel is one of the prime candidates to take over the role played by fossil fuel as the main source of energy in the future. Numerous studies have been done on the potential of biofuel to produce similar power output generated by the current petrol and diesel which are depleting without any drawbacks. The objective of this particular study is to investigate 4 of the more established vegetable oil in the energy industry namely jatropha, palm, coconut and canola oil in terms of storage stability of biofuel at room temperature and 80ºC. The biofuels were tested in terms of density ...


Degradation Of Automotive Materials In Palm Biodiesel Apr 2012

Degradation Of Automotive Materials In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties ...


Development Of A Compression Test Device For Investigating Interaction Between Diffusion Of Biodiesel And Large Deformation In Rubber Dec 2011

Development Of A Compression Test Device For Investigating Interaction Between Diffusion Of Biodiesel And Large Deformation In Rubber

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Motivated by environmental and economic factors, biodiesel has been introduced to partially replace the diminishing stock of petroleum-based fuel. However, the use of biodiesel such as palm biodiesel is placing additional demands on automotive components, e.g. rubber components, due to a compatibility issue in the fuel system. In engineering applications where hostile environments are involved, the long-term mechanical response of rubber components is affected by interactions existed between diffusion of liquids into the material and fluctuating multiaxial loading. Hence, it is crucial to investigate the durability of rubber components in this aggressive environment. A number of studies on static ...


Effect Of Different Corrosion Inhibitors On The Corrosion Of Cast Iron In Palm Biodiesel Nov 2011

Effect Of Different Corrosion Inhibitors On The Corrosion Of Cast Iron In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel is currently in regular use as an alternative fuel over conventional petroleum diesel. However, corrosion of automotive materials is one of the concerns related to biodiesel compatibility issues. In addition, auto-oxidation of biodiesel can also enhance the corrosiveness of biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate inhibition effect of ethylenediamine (EDA), n-butylamine (nBA), tert-butylamine (TBA) against corrosion of cast iron. Static immersion tests in biodiesel in the presence (100 ppm) and absence of different corrosion inhibitors were carried out at room temperature for 1200 hours. At the end of the test, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements ...


Effect Of Different Corrosion Inhibitors On The Corrosion Of Cast Iron In Palm Biodiesel Nov 2011

Effect Of Different Corrosion Inhibitors On The Corrosion Of Cast Iron In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel is currently in regular use as an alternative fuel over conventional petroleum diesel. However, corrosion of automotive materials is one of the concerns related to biodiesel compatibility issues. In addition, auto-oxidation of biodiesel can also enhance the corrosiveness of biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate inhibition effect of ethylenediamine (EDA), n-butylamine (nBA), tert-butylamine (TBA) against corrosion of cast iron. Static immersion tests in biodiesel in the presence (100 ppm) and absence of different corrosion inhibitors were carried out at room temperature for 1200 hours. At the end of the test, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements ...


Effect Of Temperature On The Corrosion Behavior Of Mild Steel Upon Exposure To Palm Biodiesel Apr 2011

Effect Of Temperature On The Corrosion Behavior Of Mild Steel Upon Exposure To Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Recently biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is getting more significance to replace diesel fuel completely or partially. However, corrosion of automotive materials in biodiesel is a major concern as this can reduce engine life. This study aims to investigate the corrosion behavior of mild steel at three different temperatures such as room temperature, 50 and 80 °C. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B50 (50% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out for 1200 h. At the end of the tests, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes of the exposed metal surface. Fuels were analyzed ...


Compatibility Of Automotive Materials In Biodiesel: A Review Mar 2011

Compatibility Of Automotive Materials In Biodiesel: A Review

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Use of biodiesel in automobile can significantly reduce our dependence of fossil fuel and help reduce environmental pollution. However, there are concerns over the compatibility of currently used automotive materials in biodiesel. A few automobile manufacturers extended their warranty only to lower blends of biodiesel (e.g. B5). Higher blends (e.g. B50 or B100) are still not covered by warranty. In automobile fuel system, metallic materials like ferrous alloy and non-ferrous alloys, and elastomers come in contact with fuel. Biodiesel, having different chemical characteristics from diesel, can interact with materials in a different way. It can cause corrosive and ...


Degradation Of Physical Properties Of Different Elastomers Upon Exposure To Palm Biodiesel Mar 2011

Degradation Of Physical Properties Of Different Elastomers Upon Exposure To Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, is gradually receiving more popularity for use in internal combustion engines. However questions continue to arise with regard to its compatibility with elastomeric materials. The present work aims to investigate the comparative degradation of physical properties for different elastomers [e.g. ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), silicone rubber (SR), polychloroprene (CR), polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) and nitrile rubber (NBR)] upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Static immersion tests in B0(diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50 and B100(biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 °C) for 1000 h. Different physical properties like ...


Biodiesel Feasibility Study: An Evaluation Of Material Compatibility; Performance; Emission And Engine Durability Jan 2011

Biodiesel Feasibility Study: An Evaluation Of Material Compatibility; Performance; Emission And Engine Durability

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel, derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, is composed of saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters. In spite of having some application problems, recently it is being considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels in internal combustion engine. From scientific literatures, this paper has collected and analyzed the data on both advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel over conventional diesel. Since the aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiesel feasibility in automobiles, the first section is dedicated to materials compatibility in biodiesel as compared to that in diesel. The highest consensus ...


Comparative Corrosive Characteristics Of Petroleum Diesel And Palm Biodiesel For Automotive Materials Oct 2010

Comparative Corrosive Characteristics Of Petroleum Diesel And Palm Biodiesel For Automotive Materials

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Corrosive characteristics of biodiesel are important for long term durability of engine parts. The present study aims to compare the corrosion behavior of aluminum, copper and stainless steel in both petroleum diesel and palm biodiesel. Immersion tests in biodiesel (B100) and diesel (B0) were carried out at 80 °C for 1200 h. At the end of the test, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes on the exposed metal surface. Surface morphology was examined by optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS). Fuels were analyzed by using TAN analyzer, FTIR, GCMS ...


Compatibility Of Elastomers In Palm Biodiesel Oct 2010

Compatibility Of Elastomers In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 °C) and at 50 °C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test ...


Corrosion Characteristics Of Copper And Leaded Bronze In Palm Biodiesel Mar 2010

Corrosion Characteristics Of Copper And Leaded Bronze In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel has become more attractive as alternative fuel for automobiles because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable sources. However, corrosion of metals in biodiesel is one of the concerns related to biodiesel compatibility issues. This study aims to characterize the corrosion behavior of commercial pure copper and leaded bronze commonly encountered in the automotive fuel system in diesel engine. Static immersion tests in B0, B50 and B100 fuels were carried out at room temperature for 2640 h. Similar immersion tests in B0, B100 and B100 (oxidized) fuels were also conducted at 60 °C ...


Effect Of Temperature On Tribological Properties Of Palm Biodiesel Mar 2010

Effect Of Temperature On Tribological Properties Of Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 °C, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear ...