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High-Resolution, Real-Time Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang Dec 2006

High-Resolution, Real-Time Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang

Song Zhang

We describe a high-resolution, real-time 3-D shape measurement system based on a digital fringe projection and phase-shifting technique. It utilizes a single-chip digital light processing projector to project computer-generated fringe patterns onto the object, and a high-speed CCD camera synchronized with the projector to acquire the fringe images at a frame rate of 120frames∕s. A color CCD camera is also used to capture images for texture mapping. Based on a three-step phase-shifting technique, each frame of the 3-D shape is reconstructed using three consecutive fringe images. Therefore the 3-D data acquisition speed of the system is 40frames∕s. With ...


Modeling Of The Size Effects On The Behavior Of Metals In Microscale Deformation Processes, Gap-Yong Kim, Jun Ni, Muammer Koc Dec 2006

Modeling Of The Size Effects On The Behavior Of Metals In Microscale Deformation Processes, Gap-Yong Kim, Jun Ni, Muammer Koc

Gap-Yong Kim

For the accurate analysis and design of microforming process, proper modeling of material behavior at the micro/mesoscale is necessary by considering the size effects. Two size effects are known to exist in metallic materials. One is the “grain size” effect, and the other is the “feature/specimen size” effect. This study investigated the feature/specimen size effect and introduced a scaling model which combined both feature/specimen and grain size effects. Predicted size effects were compared with three separate experiments obtained from previous research: a simple compression with a round specimen, a simple tension with a round specimen, and ...


Towards A New Taxation System For Motor Vehicles, Theodoros Zachariadis Nov 2006

Towards A New Taxation System For Motor Vehicles, Theodoros Zachariadis

Theodoros Zachariadis

No abstract provided.


Modeling Of The Semi-Solid Material Behavior And Analysis Of Micro-/Mesoscale Feature Forming, Gap-Yong Kim, Muammer Koc, Rhet Mayor, Jun Ni Oct 2006

Modeling Of The Semi-Solid Material Behavior And Analysis Of Micro-/Mesoscale Feature Forming, Gap-Yong Kim, Muammer Koc, Rhet Mayor, Jun Ni

Gap-Yong Kim

One of the major challenges in simulation of semi-solid forming is characterizing the complex behavior of a material that consists of both solid and liquid phases. In this study, a material model for an A356 alloy in a semi-solid state has been developed for high solid fractions (>0.6) and implemented into a finite element simulation tool to investigate the micro-/mesoscale feature formation during the forming process. Compared to previous stress models, which are limited to expressing the stress dependency on only the strain rate and the temperature (or the solid fraction), the proposed stress model adds the capability ...


An Experimental Investigation On Semi-Solid Forming Of Micro/Meso-Scale Features, Gap-Yong Kim, Jun Ni, Rhett Mayor, Heesool Kim Oct 2006

An Experimental Investigation On Semi-Solid Forming Of Micro/Meso-Scale Features, Gap-Yong Kim, Jun Ni, Rhett Mayor, Heesool Kim

Gap-Yong Kim

The potentials of semi-solid forming technology have generated much interest regarding its application in micromanufacturing. This study investigates the feasibility of using semi-solid forming technology to produce parts with micro/meso features. An experimental setup has been developed to study the effects of die/punch temperature, initial solid fraction, punch speed, and workpiece shape on the semi-solid forming process. A part has been produced for a microreactor application and has been analyzed with an optical measurement system for feature formation. The results indicated complex interaction among the process parameters and the material flow, which affected the final pin formation. The ...


Phase Field Theory Of Surface- And Size-Induced Microstructures, Valery I. Levitas, D.W. Lee, D. L. Preston Oct 2006

Phase Field Theory Of Surface- And Size-Induced Microstructures, Valery I. Levitas, D.W. Lee, D. L. Preston

Valery I. Levitas

New surface- and size-induced microstructures are found as analytic solutions to a phase field theory of first-order phase transformations. A recently developed exact stability criterion, based on most destabilizing fluctuations, is used to analyze the stability and physical interpretation of each microstructure. Conditions for barrierless surface nucleation, i.e. relationship between surface energy, driving force for the transformation and sample size, are found. If they are met, some of these microstructures are destroyed resulting in the barrierless transformation to alternative phases.


Tribo-Surface Characteristics Of Al-B4c And Al-Sic Composites Worn Under Different Contact Pressures Sep 2006

Tribo-Surface Characteristics Of Al-B4c And Al-Sic Composites Worn Under Different Contact Pressures

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Tribo-surface characteristics of two aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) of compositions Al-13 vol%B4C and Al-13 vol%SiC sliding against a commercial phenolic brake pad have been investigated under dry conditions. The wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc type apparatus at a linear speed of 1.62 m s-1 under contact pressures ranging from 0.75 to 3.00 MPa. The coefficient of friction was recorded on line. Wear rates were calculated from mass loss measurements. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to examine the tribo-surface. It is found that wear rate of ...


Tribo-Surface Characteristics Of Al-B4c And Al-Sic Composites Worn Under Different Contact Pressures, Haseeb Asma Sep 2006

Tribo-Surface Characteristics Of Al-B4c And Al-Sic Composites Worn Under Different Contact Pressures, Haseeb Asma

Haseeb ASMA

Tribo-surface characteristics of two aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) of compositions Al-13 vol%B4C and Al-13 vol%SiC sliding against a commercial phenolic brake pad have been investigated under dry conditions. The wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc type apparatus at a linear speed of 1.62 ms(-1) under contact pressures ranging from 0.75 to 3.00 MPa. The coefficient of friction was recorded on line. Wear rates were calculated from mass loss measurements. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to examine the tribo-surface. It is found that wear rate of ...


Modeling Of The Effects Of Athermal Flow Strength And Activation Energy For Dislocation Glide An The Nanoindentation Creep Of Nickel Thin Film At Room Temperature, Haseeb Asma Sep 2006

Modeling Of The Effects Of Athermal Flow Strength And Activation Energy For Dislocation Glide An The Nanoindentation Creep Of Nickel Thin Film At Room Temperature, Haseeb Asma

Haseeb ASMA

Nanoindentation creep behaviour of nickel at room temperature has been modeled based on the obstacle-controlled dislocation glide mechanism. Using the model, the effects of two important materials parameters viz. the activation free energy required by dislocation to overcome an obstacle without any aid from external stress, Delta F and the athermal flow strength, tau(0), which is the flow strength of solids at 0 K are systematically studied. It has been found that Delta F plays a dominant role in room temperature creep properties of nickel. The role of Delta F is particularly dominant in determining the time dependent deformation ...


Novel Method For Structured Light System Calibration, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang Aug 2006

Novel Method For Structured Light System Calibration, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang

Song Zhang

System calibration, which usually involves complicated and time-consuming procedures, is crucial for any 3-D shape measurement system. In this work, a novel systematic method is proposed for accurate and quick calibration of a 3-D shape measurement system we developed based on a structured light technique. The key concept is to enable the projector to “capture” images like a camera, thus making the calibration of a projector the same as that of a camera. With this new concept, the calibration of structured light systems becomes essentially the same as the calibration of traditional stereovision systems, which is well established. The calibration ...


1 - طراحی مناسب نما و پوسته خارجی ساختمان، روشی موثر برای جلوگيری از رخداد ميعان در سيستمهای سرمايشی تابشی سقفی, Alireza Zolfaghari, Mehdi Maerefat, Amir Omidvar Aug 2006

1 - طراحی مناسب نما و پوسته خارجی ساختمان، روشی موثر برای جلوگيری از رخداد ميعان در سيستمهای سرمايشی تابشی سقفی, Alireza Zolfaghari, Mehdi Maerefat, Amir Omidvar

Dr Alireza Zolfaghari

No abstract provided.


Generic Nonsinusoidal Phase Error Correction For 3d Shape Measurement Using A Digital Video Projector, Song Zhang, Shing-Tung Yau Aug 2006

Generic Nonsinusoidal Phase Error Correction For 3d Shape Measurement Using A Digital Video Projector, Song Zhang, Shing-Tung Yau

Song Zhang

Structured light system using a digital video projector is increasingly used for a 3-D shape measurement because of its digital nature. However, the nonlinear gamma of the projector causes the projected fringe patterns to be non-sinusoidal, which results in phase error therefore shape measurement error. Previous work showed that, by using a small look-up-table (LUT), this type of phase error can be reduced significantly for a three-step phase-shifting algorithm. In this research, we prove that this type of phase error compensation method is not limited to a three-step phase-shifting algorithm. It is generic for any phase-shifting algorithm. The phase error ...


High-Resolution Real-Time 3d Absolute Coordinates Measurement Using A Fast Three-Step Phase-Shifting Algorithm, Song Zhang, Dale Royer, Shing-Tung Yau Aug 2006

High-Resolution Real-Time 3d Absolute Coordinates Measurement Using A Fast Three-Step Phase-Shifting Algorithm, Song Zhang, Dale Royer, Shing-Tung Yau

Song Zhang

High-resolution, real-time 3-D absolute coordinate measurement is highly important in many fields. This paper presents such a system that measures 3-D absolute geometric shapes and positions at 30 frames per second (fps), with an image resolution of 532 × 500. The system is based on a digital fringe projection and fast three-step phase-shifting method. It utilizes a digital-light-processing (DLP) projector to project color encoded computer generated phase-shifted fringe patterns in grayscale, a high-speed CCD camera synchronized with the projector to capture fringe images at 90 fps. Based on the three-step phase-shifting algorithm, any successive three fringe images can be used to ...


Ginzburg-Landau Theory Of Microstructures: Stability, Transient Dynamics, And Functionally Graded Nanophases, Valery I. Levitas, D. L. Preston, Dong Wook Lee Jul 2006

Ginzburg-Landau Theory Of Microstructures: Stability, Transient Dynamics, And Functionally Graded Nanophases, Valery I. Levitas, D. L. Preston, Dong Wook Lee

Valery I. Levitas

The stability, transient dynamics, and physical interpretation of microstructures obtained from a Ginzburg-Landau theory of first-order phase transformations are studied. The Jacobi condition for stability fails numerically, thus an alternative exact stability criterion, based on critical (most destabilizing) fluctuations, is developed. The degree-of-stability parameter is introduced to quantify the physical stability of long-lived unstable microstructures. For nanofilms, the existence of functionally graded nanophases is demonstrated. Numerical simulations indicate that graded nanophases can be produced by dissolving material from both surfaces of a nanofilm. Stability under finite fluctuations and post-bifurcation microstructure evolution are investigated numerically.


A Development Framework For Hands-On Laboratory Modules In Microelectromechanical Systems (Mems), John Lee, Stacy H. Gleixner, Tai-Ran Hsu, David W. Parent Jun 2006

A Development Framework For Hands-On Laboratory Modules In Microelectromechanical Systems (Mems), John Lee, Stacy H. Gleixner, Tai-Ran Hsu, David W. Parent

David W. Parent

This paper presents work-in-progress in terms of a framework that we have structured to support effective joint development among faculty from different engineering backgrounds, spanning mechanical engineering (ME), electrical engineering (EE), and materials engineering (MatE). The framework is organized in short instructional modules designed to span not only major device types and different fabrication technologies, but also different levels of resource requirements. An example of using functional prerequisites--rather than course prerequisites—is presented for one module, wherein each functional prerequisite must be satisfied by at least one member of each student team that will undertake the module. Roles of the ...


A Development Framework For Hands-On Laboratory Modules In Microelectromechanical Systems (Mems), John Lee, Stacy H. Gleixner, Tai-Ran Hsu, David W. Parent Jun 2006

A Development Framework For Hands-On Laboratory Modules In Microelectromechanical Systems (Mems), John Lee, Stacy H. Gleixner, Tai-Ran Hsu, David W. Parent

Sang-Joon John Lee

This paper presents work-in-progress in terms of a framework that we have structured to support effective joint development among faculty from different engineering backgrounds, spanning mechanical engineering (ME), electrical engineering (EE), and materials engineering (MatE). The framework is organized in short instructional modules designed to span not only major device types and different fabrication technologies, but also different levels of resource requirements. An example of using functional prerequisites--rather than course prerequisites—is presented for one module, wherein each functional prerequisite must be satisfied by at least one member of each student team that will undertake the module. Roles of the ...


Chemical And Structural Nature Of Tribo-Surface Of Aluminium-Sic Composites At Nanometre And Micrometre Length Scales Jun 2006

Chemical And Structural Nature Of Tribo-Surface Of Aluminium-Sic Composites At Nanometre And Micrometre Length Scales

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The worn surface of Al-SiC metal matrix composites (MMC) sliding against phenolic brake pad at a linear sliding speed of 1.62 m s-1 under contact pressures of 0.75-3.00 MPa in a pin-on-disc apparatus was investigated. XPS was used to extract information from the top few nanometres of the worn surface, while scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) provided information from within a few micrometres. Results reveal that the surface of Al-SiC undergoes significant chemical and physical changes during wear. The tribo-surface on Al-SiC is converted into a mixture that contains the constituents of Al-SiC ...


Velocity Imaging For The Liquid–Gas Interface In The Near Field Of An Atomizing Spray: Proof Of Concept, David L. Sedarsky, Megan E. Paciaroni, Mark A. Linne, James R. Gord, Terrence R. Meyer Mar 2006

Velocity Imaging For The Liquid–Gas Interface In The Near Field Of An Atomizing Spray: Proof Of Concept, David L. Sedarsky, Megan E. Paciaroni, Mark A. Linne, James R. Gord, Terrence R. Meyer

Terrence R Meyer

We describe adaptation of ballistic imaging for the liquid core of an atomizing spray. To describe unambiguously the forces that act to break apart the liquid core in a spray, one must directly measure the force vectors themselves. It would be invaluable, therefore, to obtain velocity and acceleration data at the liquid-gas interface. We employ double-image ballistic imaging to extract velocity information through the application of image analysis algorithms. This method is shown to be effective for liquid phase droplet features within the resolution limit of the imaging system. In light of these results, it is clear that a three- ...


Economic And Energy Aspects Of Motor Vehicle Taxation, Theodoros Zachariadis, Nadia Nicolaidou Mar 2006

Economic And Energy Aspects Of Motor Vehicle Taxation, Theodoros Zachariadis, Nadia Nicolaidou

Theodoros Zachariadis

No abstract provided.


Corrugation And Buckling Defects In Wound Rolls, Jonathan A. Wickert, P.M. Lin Feb 2006

Corrugation And Buckling Defects In Wound Rolls, Jonathan A. Wickert, P.M. Lin

Jonathan A. Wickert

Sheet metal, paper, and polymer webs are often stored and processed as large rolls comprising thousands of layers. Depending on the elastic properties of the web material, the roll's dimensions, the type of core, and the winding tension, the stresses that develop within the roll can be sufficiently high to cause local or gross buckling defects to form. For instance, the cylindrical core onto which the web is wound can collapse, a failure mode that is termed "v-buckling." In other cases, while the core might remain intact, a group of layers interior to the roll can wrinkle into a ...


Trapezoidal Phase-Shifting Method For Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement, Peisen S. Huang, Song Zhang, Fu-Pen Chiang Jan 2006

Trapezoidal Phase-Shifting Method For Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement, Peisen S. Huang, Song Zhang, Fu-Pen Chiang

Song Zhang

We propose a novel structured light method, namely a trapezoidal phase-shifting method, for 3-D shape measurement. This method uses three patterns coded with phase-shifted, trapezoidal-shaped gray levels. The 3-D information of the object is extracted by direct calculation of an intensity ratio. Compared to traditional intensity-ratio-based methods, the vertical or depth resolution is six times better. Also, this new method is significantly less sensitive to the defocusing effect of the captured images, which makes large-depth 3-D shape measurement possible. If compared to sinusoidal phase-shifting methods, the resolution is similar, but the data processing speed is at least 4.5 times ...


Modeling Of The Effects Of Athermal Flow Strength And Activation Energy For Dislocation Glide On The Nanoindentation Creep Of Nickel Thin Film At Room Temperature Jan 2006

Modeling Of The Effects Of Athermal Flow Strength And Activation Energy For Dislocation Glide On The Nanoindentation Creep Of Nickel Thin Film At Room Temperature

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Nanoindentation creep behaviour of nickel at room temperature has been modeled based on the obstacle-controlled dislocation glide mechanism. Using the model, the effects of two important materials parameters viz. the activation free energy required by dislocation to overcome an obstacle without any aid from external stress, ΔF and the athermal flow strength, τ0, which is the flow strength of solids at 0 K are systematically studied. It has been found that ΔF plays a dominant role in room temperature creep properties of nickel. The role of ΔF is particularly dominant in determining the time dependent deformation. On the other hand ...


A Technical Note On The Production Of Zirconia And Zircon Brick From Locally Available Zircon In Bangladesh Jan 2006

A Technical Note On The Production Of Zirconia And Zircon Brick From Locally Available Zircon In Bangladesh

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

In this study, the potentiality of Bangladesh zircon as a raw material for zirconia and zircon brick production was examined. Decomposition of zircon (ZrSiO4) into zirconia (ZrO2) was attempted by using caustic soda (NaOH) as the decomposition agent. 5-10 μm size zircon, 5-30 wt.% NaOH, and decomposition temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1500°C were investigated. X-ray diffraction method using Mo Kα radiation was used in order to find out the extent of decomposition of zircon into zirconia. Zircon bricks of 0.06 mm× 0.06 mm× 0.025 mm shaped were made under a pressure of 15 MPa. Carboxi ...


Fast Three-Step Phase-Shifting Algorithm, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang Jan 2006

Fast Three-Step Phase-Shifting Algorithm, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang

Song Zhang

We propose a new three-step phase-shifting algorithm, which is much faster than the traditional three-step algorithm. We achieve the speed advantage by using a simple intensity ratio function to replace the arctangent function in the traditional algorithm. The phase error caused by this new algorithm is compensated for by use of a lookup table. Our experimental results show that both the new algorithm and the traditional algorithm generate similar results, but the new algorithm is 3.4 times faster. By implementing this new algorithm in a high-resolution, real-time three-dimensional shape measurement system, we were able to achieve a measurement speed ...


High-Resolution, Real-Time 3d Absolute Coordinate Measurement Based On A Phase-Shifting Method, Song Zhang, Shing-Tung Yau Jan 2006

High-Resolution, Real-Time 3d Absolute Coordinate Measurement Based On A Phase-Shifting Method, Song Zhang, Shing-Tung Yau

Song Zhang

We describe a high-resolution, real-time 3D absolute coordinate measurement system based on a phase-shifting method. It acquires 3D shape at 30 frames per second (fps), with 266K points per frame. A tiny marker is encoded in the projected fringe pattern, and detected by software from the texture image and the gamma map. Absolute 3D coordinates are obtained from the detected marker position and the calibrated system parameters. To demonstrate the performance of the system, we measure a hand moving over a depth distance of approximately 700 mm, and human faces with expressions. Applications of such a system include manufacturing, inspection ...


Kinetics Of Strain-Induced Structural Changes Under High Pressure, Valery I. Levitas, Oleg M. Zarechnyy Jan 2006

Kinetics Of Strain-Induced Structural Changes Under High Pressure, Valery I. Levitas, Oleg M. Zarechnyy

Valery I. Levitas

A mechanism-based microscale kinetic theory for strain-induced structural changes (SCs) (that includes phase transformations (PTs) and chemical reactions (CRs)) is developed. Time is not an independent parameter in this theory; instead, plastic strain is a time-like parameter. Kinetics depends essentially on the ratio of the yield strengths of phases. Stationary and nonstationary solutions of the kinetic equations are analyzed for various cases, including SCs between two phases in an inert matrix and between three phases in silicon and germanium. A number of experimental phenomena are explained, and material parameters controlling the kinetics of strain-induced SCs are determined. This includes the ...


Strain-Induced Disorder, Phase Transformations, And Transformation-Induced Plasticity In Hexagonal Boron Nitride Under Compression And Shear In A Rotational Diamond Anvil Cell: In Situ X-Ray Diffraction Study And Modeling, Valery I. Levitas, Yanzhang Ma, Javad Hashemi, Mark Holtz, Necip Guven Jan 2006

Strain-Induced Disorder, Phase Transformations, And Transformation-Induced Plasticity In Hexagonal Boron Nitride Under Compression And Shear In A Rotational Diamond Anvil Cell: In Situ X-Ray Diffraction Study And Modeling, Valery I. Levitas, Yanzhang Ma, Javad Hashemi, Mark Holtz, Necip Guven

Valery I. Levitas

Plastic shear significantly reduces the phase transformation (PT) pressure when compared to hydrostatic conditions. Here, a paradoxical result was obtained: PT of graphitelike hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) to superhard wurtzitic boron nitride under pressure and shear started at about the same pressure(∼10GPa) as under hydrostatic conditions. In situ x-ray diffraction measurement and modeling of the turbostratic stacking fault concentration (degree of disorder) and PT in hBN were performed. Under hydrostaticpressure, changes in the disorder were negligible. Under a complex compression and shear loading program, a strain-induced disorder was observed and quantitatively characterized. It is found that the strain-induced disorder ...


Nucleation Mechanism For Reconstructive Solid-Solid Phase Transitions Via Melt Mediated Nanocluster Transformation, Valery I. Levitas, Laura B. Smilowitz, Bryan F. Henson, Blaine W. Asay Jan 2006

Nucleation Mechanism For Reconstructive Solid-Solid Phase Transitions Via Melt Mediated Nanocluster Transformation, Valery I. Levitas, Laura B. Smilowitz, Bryan F. Henson, Blaine W. Asay

Valery I. Levitas

A general nucleation mechanism is proposed and justified thermodynamically and kinetically. The authors apply it to the β-δphase transformation (PT) in the HMX crystal. It explains the observation of a reconstructive PT very close (0.6K) to the phase equilibrium temperature, despite the large volume change and interface energy. Nanosize clusters of β phase dissolve in a liquid and transform into δ phase clusters. The liquid completely removes the elasticenergy generated by a large volume change. Cluster to cluster PT also drastically reduces the change in interfacial energy. Suggested kinetics for the β-δ PT is in good agreement with experiments..


Gpu-Assisted High-Resolution, Real-Time 3-D Shape Measurement, Song Zhang, Dale Royer, Shing-Tung Yau Jan 2006

Gpu-Assisted High-Resolution, Real-Time 3-D Shape Measurement, Song Zhang, Dale Royer, Shing-Tung Yau

Song Zhang

This paper describes a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)-assisted real-time three-dimensional shape measurement system. Our experiments demonstrated that the absolute coordinates calculation and rendering speed of a GPU is more than four times faster than that of a dual CPU workstation with the same graphics card. By implementing the GPU into our system, we realized simultaneous absolute coordinate acquisition, reconstruction and display at 30 frames per second with a resolution of approximately 266K points per frame. Moreover, a 2+1 phase-shifting algorithm was employed to alleviate the measurement error caused by motion. Applications of the system include medical imaging, manufacturing ...


Interfacial And Volumetric Kinetics Of The Β→Δ Phase Transition In The Energetic Nitramine Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine Based On The Virtual Melting Mechanism, Valery I. Levitas, Laura B. Smilowitz, Bryan F. Henson, Blaine W. Asay Jan 2006

Interfacial And Volumetric Kinetics Of The Β→Δ Phase Transition In The Energetic Nitramine Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine Based On The Virtual Melting Mechanism, Valery I. Levitas, Laura B. Smilowitz, Bryan F. Henson, Blaine W. Asay

Valery I. Levitas

In the recent papers, 1,2 we presented a thermodynamic and kinetic model of the β→δ phase transformation (PT) in the organic energetic crystal octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). It was based on the hypothesis that the kinetics of the β→δ PT is governed by the thermodynamics of melting of the δ phase. In particular, the activation energy for growth was found to be equal to the heat of fusion Δhδ→m . Nucleation was modeled empirically by the reversible first-order kinetics. The proposed kinetics described the experimental data quite well, however, a number of questions ...