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Characterisation Of Porous Materials Viscoelastic Properties Involving The Vibroacoustical Behaviour Of Coated Panels, Olivier Doutres, Nicolas Dauchez Dec 2005

Characterisation Of Porous Materials Viscoelastic Properties Involving The Vibroacoustical Behaviour Of Coated Panels, Olivier Doutres, Nicolas Dauchez

Olivier Doutres Ph.D.

Porous materials are widely used as passive acoustic absorbers. For optimal design, it is often necessary to know the viscoelastic properties of these materials in the frequency range relevant to their application. The viscoelastic properties are obtained by fitting an analytical model to acoustical radiation experimental measurements carried out on a circular coated plate clamped in a rigid baffle. Compared with quasistatic method, the viscoelastic properties are here achieved at high frequency corresponding to the first resonance in the thickness of the porous layer and coupling between porous materials and external fluid is taken into account. The analytical model, developped ...


Broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Spectroscopy Of Nitrogen Using A Picosecond Modeless Dye Laser, Sukesh Roy, Terrence R. Meyer, James R. Gord Nov 2005

Broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Spectroscopy Of Nitrogen Using A Picosecond Modeless Dye Laser, Sukesh Roy, Terrence R. Meyer, James R. Gord

Terrence R Meyer

Broadband picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy of nitrogen is demonstrated using 145-ps pump and probe beams and a 115-ps Stokes beam with a spectral bandwidth of 5 nm. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of broadband CARS using subnanosecond lasers. The short temporal envelope of the laser pulses and the broadband spectral nature of the Stokes beam will enable nonresonant-background-free, single-shot, or time-dependent spectroscopy in high-pressure or hydrocarbon-rich environments. Successful correlation of room-temperature broadband picosecond N2 CARS with a theoretical spectrum is presented.


Measurements Of Oh Mole Fraction And Temperature Up To 20 Khz By Using A Diode-Laser-Based Uv Absorption Sensor, Terrence Meyer, Sukesh Roy, Thomas Anderson, Joseph Miller, Vlswanath Katta, Robert Lucht, James Gord Nov 2005

Measurements Of Oh Mole Fraction And Temperature Up To 20 Khz By Using A Diode-Laser-Based Uv Absorption Sensor, Terrence Meyer, Sukesh Roy, Thomas Anderson, Joseph Miller, Vlswanath Katta, Robert Lucht, James Gord

Terrence R Meyer

Diode-laser-based sum-frequency generation of ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 313.5 nm was utilized for high-speed absorption measurements of OH mole fraction and temperature at rates up to 20 kHz. Sensor performance was characterized over a wide range of operating conditions in a 25.4 mm path-length, steady, C2H4-air diffusion flame through comparisons with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), and a two-dimensional numerical simulation with detailed chemical kinetics. Experimental uncertainties of 5% and 11% were achieved for measured temperatures and OH mole fractions, respectively, with standard deviations of <3% at 20 kHz and an OH detection limit of <1 part per million in a l m path length. After validation in a steady flame, high-speed diode-laser-based measurements of OH mole fraction and temperature were demonstrated for the first time in the unsteady exhaust of a liquid-fueled, swirl-stabilized combustor. Typical agreement of 5% was achieved with CARS temperature measurements at various fuel/air ratios, and sensor precision was sufficient to capture oscillations of temperature and OH mole fraction for potential use with multiparameter control strategies in combustors of practical interest.


Ballistic Imaging Of The Liquid Core For A Steady Jet In Crossflow, Mark A. Linne, Megan Paciaroni, James R. Gord, Terrence R. Meyer Oct 2005

Ballistic Imaging Of The Liquid Core For A Steady Jet In Crossflow, Mark A. Linne, Megan Paciaroni, James R. Gord, Terrence R. Meyer

Terrence R Meyer

A time-gated ballistic imaging instrument is used to obtain high-spatial-resolution, single-shot images of the liquid core in a water spray issuing into a gaseous crossflow. We describe further development of the diagnostic technique to improve spatial resolution and present images and statistics for various jets under crossflow experimental conditions (different Weber numbers). Series of these images reveal a near-nozzle flow field undergoing breakup and subsequent droplet formation by stripping. One can also detect signatures of spatially periodic behavior in the liquid core and formation of small voids during breakup.


10 Khz Detection Of Co2 At 4.5 Um By Using Tunable Diode-Laser-Based Difference-Frequency Generation, Terrence R. Meyer, Sukesh Roy, Thomas N. Anderson, Robert P. Lucht, Rodolfo Barron-Jimenez, James R. Gord Oct 2005

10 Khz Detection Of Co2 At 4.5 Um By Using Tunable Diode-Laser-Based Difference-Frequency Generation, Terrence R. Meyer, Sukesh Roy, Thomas N. Anderson, Robert P. Lucht, Rodolfo Barron-Jimenez, James R. Gord

Terrence R Meyer

A compact, high-speed tunable, diode-laser-based mid-infrared (MIR) laser source has been developed for absorption spectroscopy of CO2 at rates up to 10 kHz. Radiation at 4.5 um with a mode-hop-free tuning range of 80 GHz is generated by difference-frequency mixing the 860 nm output of a distributed-feedback diode laser with the 1064 nm output of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. MIR absorption spectroscopy of CO2 with a detection limit of 44 ppm m at 10 kHz is demonstrated in a C2H4-air laminar diffusion flame and in the exhaust of a liquid-fueled model ...


A Fast Three-Step Phase-Shifting Algorithm, Peisen S. Huang, Song Zhang Oct 2005

A Fast Three-Step Phase-Shifting Algorithm, Peisen S. Huang, Song Zhang

Song Zhang

We propose a new three-step phase-shifting algorithm, which is much faster than the traditional three-step algorithm. We achieve the speed advantage by using a simple intensity ratio function to replace the arctangent function in the traditional algorithm. The phase error caused by this new algorithm is compensated for by use of a look-up-table (LUT). Our experimental results show that both the new algorithm and the traditional algorithm generate similar results, but the new algorithm is 3.4 times faster. By implementing this new algorithm in a high-resolution, real-time 3D shape measurement system, we were able to achieve a measurement speed ...


3-D Optical Measurement Using Phase Shifting Based Methods, Peisen S. Huang, Song Zhang Oct 2005

3-D Optical Measurement Using Phase Shifting Based Methods, Peisen S. Huang, Song Zhang

Song Zhang

We review some of our most recent works on 3-D shape measurement using the digital fringe projection and phase-shifting method. First, we introduce the measurement principle and phase-shifting algorithms. Then we discuss an effective method for phase error compensation and a novel idea for system calibration. Finally, we describe a 3-D shape measurement system for high-resolution, real-time 3-D shape acquisition, reconstruction and display.


Phase Error Compensation For A 3-D Shape Measurement System Based On The Phase-Shifting Method, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang Sep 2005

Phase Error Compensation For A 3-D Shape Measurement System Based On The Phase-Shifting Method, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang

Song Zhang

This paper describes a novel phase error compensation method for reducing the measurement error caused by non-sinusoidal waveforms in the phase-shifting method. For 3D shape measurement systems using commercial video projectors, the non-sinusoidal nature of the projected fringe patterns as a result of the nonlinear gamma curve of the projectors causes significant phase measurement error and therefore shape measurement error. The proposed phase error compensation method is based on our finding that the phase error due to the non-sinusoidal waveform of the fringe patterns depends only on the nonlinearity of the projector's gamma curve. Therefore, if the projector's ...


Crystal-Amorphous And Crystal-Crystal Phase Transformations Via Virtual Melting, Valery I. Levitas Aug 2005

Crystal-Amorphous And Crystal-Crystal Phase Transformations Via Virtual Melting, Valery I. Levitas

Valery I. Levitas

A new mechanism of crystal (c)–amorphous (a) and c-c phase transformations (PTs) and internal stress relaxation via virtual melting (VM) induced by internal stresses was justified thermodynamically and kinetically. VM removes interface friction, reduces kinetic barrier, increases atomic mobility, and can reduce thermodynamic melting temperature. We combine VM and nonequilibrium PT diagrams to develop new scenarios of c-a and c-c PTs. Results are applied for a new interpretation of c-c and c-a PT mechanisms in ice Ih and are also applicable for other materials.


In-Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Study Of The Local Structure Of Supercooled Liquid Si, Robert Hyers, A. I. Goldman, K. F. Kelton, D. S. Robinson, J. R. Rogers, T. J. Rathz, A. K. Gangopadhyay, B. Sieve, G. W. Lee, T. H. Kim Aug 2005

In-Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Study Of The Local Structure Of Supercooled Liquid Si, Robert Hyers, A. I. Goldman, K. F. Kelton, D. S. Robinson, J. R. Rogers, T. J. Rathz, A. K. Gangopadhyay, B. Sieve, G. W. Lee, T. H. Kim

Robert Hyers

Employing the technique of electrostatic levitation, coupled with high-energy x-ray diffraction and rapid data acquisition methods, we have obtained high quality structural data more deeply into the supercooled regime of liquid silicon than has been possible before. No change in coordination number is observed in this temperature region, calling into question previous experimental claims of structural evidence for the existence of a liquid-liquid phase transition.


Inverse Design Of And Experimental Measurements In A Double-Passage Transonic Turbine Cascade Model, G. M. Laskowski, A. Vicharelli, G. Medic, C. J. Elkins, J. K. Eaton, Paul A. Durbin Jul 2005

Inverse Design Of And Experimental Measurements In A Double-Passage Transonic Turbine Cascade Model, G. M. Laskowski, A. Vicharelli, G. Medic, C. J. Elkins, J. K. Eaton, Paul A. Durbin

Paul A. Durbin

A new transonic turbine cascade model that accurately produces infinite cascade flow conditions with minimal compressor requirements is presented. An inverse design procedure using the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and k-ε turbulence model based on the method of steepest descent was applied to a geometry consisting of a single turbine blade in a passage. For a fixed blade geometry, the passage walls were designed such that the surface isentropic Mach number (SIMN) distribution on the blade in the passage matched the SIMN distribution on the blade in an infinite cascade, while maintaining attached flow along both passage walls. An experimental rig ...


Diode-Laser-Based Ultraviolet-Absorption Sensor For High-Speed Detection Of The Hydroxyl Radical, Thomas N. Anderson, Robert P. Lucht, Terrence R. Meyer, Sukesh Roy, James R. Gord May 2005

Diode-Laser-Based Ultraviolet-Absorption Sensor For High-Speed Detection Of The Hydroxyl Radical, Thomas N. Anderson, Robert P. Lucht, Terrence R. Meyer, Sukesh Roy, James R. Gord

Terrence R Meyer

A new diode-laser-based UV-absorption sensor for high-speed detection of the hydroxyl radical (OH) is described. The sensor is based on sum-frequency generation of UV radiation at 313.5 nm by mixing the output of a 763-nm distributed-feedback diode laser with that of a 532-nm high-power, diode-pumped, frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser in a B-barium borate crystal.


Modelling Of The Acoustic Radiation Of A Structure Covered By A Porous Layer, Olivier Doutres, Nicolas Dauchez Apr 2005

Modelling Of The Acoustic Radiation Of A Structure Covered By A Porous Layer, Olivier Doutres, Nicolas Dauchez

Olivier Doutres Ph.D.

In many applications, porous materials such as polymers foams are attached to a structure subjected to vibration. This allows to diminish vibration by increasing structural damping or to reduce noise level in cavities by sound absorption. The radiation efficiency of the coupled system is studied. An analytical model has been carried out, separating the acoustical and vibratory behaviors: - The vibratory analysis is based on a dynamic study of an equivalent plate of the coupled system. In this case the porous layer is considered as a viscoelastic layer. - In the acoustical analysis, a surface impedance is applied on this equivalent plate ...


Unsteady Effects On Trailing Edge Cooling, G. Medic, Paul A. Durbin Apr 2005

Unsteady Effects On Trailing Edge Cooling, G. Medic, Paul A. Durbin

Paul A. Durbin

It is shown how natural and forced unsteadiness play a major role in turbine blade trailing edge cooling flows. Reynolds averaged simulations are presented for a surface jet in coflow, resembling the geometry of the pressure side breakout on a turbine blade. Steady computations show very effective cooling; however when natural-or even moreso, forced-unsteadiness is allowed, the adiabatic effectiveness decreases substantially. Streamwise vortices in the mean flow are found to be the cause of the increased heat transfer.


Optimizing Vibration Isolation Of Flex Circuits In Hard Disk Drives, M. R. Brake, Jonathan A. Wickert Apr 2005

Optimizing Vibration Isolation Of Flex Circuits In Hard Disk Drives, M. R. Brake, Jonathan A. Wickert

Jonathan A. Wickert

A "flex circuit" is a laminate of polyimide substrate, adhesive, and copper conductors that is used to connect the stationary electronic components in a computer hard disk drive to the rotating arm that positions read/write heads above the disks. The flex circuit's transverse and longitudinal vibrations couple with the arm, and those motions, although seemingly small, degrade performance during seek operations from one data track to another. The flex circuit and arm mechanism is defined by a number of geometric parameters, and some latitude is available at the design stage for choosing dimensions and angles so as to ...


Simultaneous Planar Laser-Induced Incandescence, Oh Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence, And Droplet Mie Scattering In Swirl-Stabilized Spray Flames, Terrence Meyer, Sukesh Roy, Vincent Belovich, Edwin Corporan, James Gord Jan 2005

Simultaneous Planar Laser-Induced Incandescence, Oh Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence, And Droplet Mie Scattering In Swirl-Stabilized Spray Flames, Terrence Meyer, Sukesh Roy, Vincent Belovich, Edwin Corporan, James Gord

Terrence R Meyer

Simultaneous planar laser-induced incandescence, hydroxyl radical planar laser-induced fluorescence, and droplet Mie scattering are used to study the instantaneous flame structure and soot formation process in an atmospheric pressure, swirl-stabilized, liquid-fueled, model gas-turbine combustor. Optimal excitation and detection schemes to maximize single-shot signals and avoid interferences from soot-laden flame emission are discussed. The data indicate that rich pockets of premixed fuel and air along the interface between the spray flame and the recirculation zone serve as primary sites for soot inception. Intermittent large-scale structures and local equivalence ratio are also found to play an important role in soot formation.


Failure Analysis Of Superheater Tube Supports Of The Primary Reformer In A Fertilizer Factory Jan 2005

Failure Analysis Of Superheater Tube Supports Of The Primary Reformer In A Fertilizer Factory

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

A failure analysis of superheater tube supports of the primary reformer in a local fertilizer factor is presented. A number of tube supports failed at approximately half of their designed service life. Following the failure, the factory was visited, and relevant information and samples were collected. The samples were investigated in the laboratory by chemical analysis, macro- and microhardness measurements, macro-and micrometallographic examinations, and X-ray diffractometry. The analysis showed the supports were fabricated from HH-type heat-resisting alloy and that the failure mode was high-temperature creep. The microstructure of the alloy showed the presence of massive intergranular as well as intragranular ...


Design And Development Of Orifice-Type Aerostatic Thrust Bearing, Jitendra P. Khatait Jan 2005

Design And Development Of Orifice-Type Aerostatic Thrust Bearing, Jitendra P. Khatait

Jitendra P Khatait

Air bearings are extensively used in precision machines and equipment in recent years. Unlike conventional bearings, there is no physical contact between the sliding surfaces. The moving surface can glide smoothly on the other surface, minimising the control effort to achieve high accuracy and precision. Analytical study was carried out avoiding complexities in the formulation. The governing parameters were kept at a minimum. This helped in easy understanding of the dynamics and performance behavior of the air bearings. A simple design methodology was also developed to assist in the design or the selection process of the bearing. Finally, a three-dimensional ...


Solid-Solid Phase Transformation Via Internal Stress-Induced Virtual Melting: Additional Confirmations, Valery I. Levitas, Laura B. Smilowitz, Bryan F. Henson, Blaine W. Asay Jan 2005

Solid-Solid Phase Transformation Via Internal Stress-Induced Virtual Melting: Additional Confirmations, Valery I. Levitas, Laura B. Smilowitz, Bryan F. Henson, Blaine W. Asay

Valery I. Levitas

Recently, we predicted a mechanism of solid-solid phase transformation (PT) via virtual melting at 121K below the melting temperature. We report additional experimental and theoretical results for PTs among three polymorphs of the energetic material HMX, α, β, and δ that support this mechanism. In particular: (a) the predicted velocity of interface propagation for β→δ PT and overall kinetics of δ→β PT are in agreement with experiment; (b) the energy of internal stresses is sufficient to reduce the melting temperature from 520to400K for δ→β PT; (c) the nanocracking that appears during solidification does not change the PT ...


A Lagrangian Stochastic Model For Dispersion In Stratified Turbulence, S. K. Das, Paul A. Durbin Jan 2005

A Lagrangian Stochastic Model For Dispersion In Stratified Turbulence, S. K. Das, Paul A. Durbin

Paul A. Durbin

In this paper we discuss the development of a Lagrangian stochastic model (LSM) for turbulent dispersion of a scalar (species). Given any tensorally linear second-moment closure (SMC) turbulence model we show how to derive a mathematically equivalent set of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), i.e., the second-moment equations constructed from these SDEs are exactly the same (within a realizability constraint) as the given SMC. This set of equations forms the LSM. Both turbulence anisotropy and buoyancy effects are incorporated by this method. In order to achieve the correct critical Richardson number and to obtain the simplest Lagrangian formulation, a revised ...


Transformation-Induced Plasticity And Cascading Structural Changes In Hexagonal Boron Nitride Under High Pressure And Shear, Valery I. Levitas, Yanzhang Ma, Javad Hashemi Jan 2005

Transformation-Induced Plasticity And Cascading Structural Changes In Hexagonal Boron Nitride Under High Pressure And Shear, Valery I. Levitas, Yanzhang Ma, Javad Hashemi

Valery I. Levitas

In situx-ray diffraction study and modeling of the degree of disorder, s, and phase transformation (PT) in hexagonal hBN were performed. It was proven that changes in s are strain-induced and that s can be used to quantify plastic strain. During the strain-induced hBN→wurtzitic wBN PT, the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) was exposed and quantified. TRIP exceeds conventional plasticity by a factor of 20. Cascading structural changes were revealed. Strain-induced disorder explains why PT under hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic conditions started at the same pressure∼10GPa. For the same disorder, plastic shear reduces PT pressure by a factor of 3–4.


Advances In High Resolution Imaging From Underwater Vehicles, Hanumant Singh, Christopher Roman, Oscar Pizarro, Ryan Eustice Dec 2004

Advances In High Resolution Imaging From Underwater Vehicles, Hanumant Singh, Christopher Roman, Oscar Pizarro, Ryan Eustice

Christopher N. Roman

Large area mapping at high resolution underwater continues to be constrained by the mismatch between available navigation as compared to sensor accuracy. In this paper we present advances that exploit consistency and redundancy within local sensor measurements to build high resolution optical and acoustic maps that are a consistent representation of the environment.

We present our work in the context of real world data acquired using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) working in diverse applications including shallow water coral reef surveys with the Seabed AUV, a forensic survey of the RMS Titanic in the North Atlantic ...