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Corrosion Of Magnesium And Aluminum In Palm Biodiesel: A Comparative Evaluation Aug 2013

Corrosion Of Magnesium And Aluminum In Palm Biodiesel: A Comparative Evaluation

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The present study aims to investigate the comparative corrosion of light-weight metals such as aluminum and magnesium in palm biodiesel. Immersion test at room temperature was carried out for each metal for 1440 h. Sample characterization techniques employed include weight loss measurement, SEM (scanning electron microscope), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TAN (total acid number) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Results showed that the corrosion rate of magnesium was much higher compared to that of aluminum. The surface morphology revealed a significant difference between the biodiesel exposed aluminum and magnesium specimens. Upon exposure to biodiesel, the magnesium surface was found to ...


Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel Mar 2013

Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased ...


Corrosion Mechanism Of Copper In Palm Biodiesel Feb 2013

Corrosion Mechanism Of Copper In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel. However, it causes enhanced corrosion of automotive materials, especially of copper based components. In the present study, corrosion mechanism of copper was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compositional change of biodiesel due to the exposure of copper was also investigated. Corrosion patina on copper is found to be composed of Cu2O, CuO, Cu(OH)2 and CuCO3. Dissolved O2, H2O, CO2 and RCOO- radical in biodiesel seem to be the leading factors in enhancing the corrosiveness of biodiesel. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Influence Of Ni Nanoparticle On The Morphology And Growth Of Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds Between Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Lead-Free Solder And Copper Substrate Feb 2013

Influence Of Ni Nanoparticle On The Morphology And Growth Of Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds Between Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Lead-Free Solder And Copper Substrate

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

This paper reports on the effects of adding Ni nanoparticles to a Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder. The nanocomposite was prepared by manual blending of SAC solder paste with various percentages of Ni particles. Results showed that the addition of Ni nanoparticles did not bring any significant change in the onset melting temperature of the solder. An increase in the weight percentage of nanoparticles in the solder caused an increase of the wetting angle and a decrease of spreading rate. Moreover, the addition of Ni nanoparticles changed the interfacial intermetallic compound morphology from a scalloped structure into a planar type structure ...


Effects Of Reflow On The Interfacial Characteristics Between Zn Nanoparticles Containing Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder And Copper Substrate Jan 2013

Effects Of Reflow On The Interfacial Characteristics Between Zn Nanoparticles Containing Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder And Copper Substrate

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn) nanoparticles on the interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) between Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC) solder and Cu substrate during multiple reflow. Design/methodology/approach - The nanocomposite solders were prepared by manually mixing of SAC solder paste with varying amounts of Zn nanoparticles. The solder pastes were reflowed on a hotplate at 250 C for 45 s for up to six times. The actual Zn content after reflow was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The wetting behavior of the solders was characterized by analyzing the contact ...


Effects Of Hydroquinone And Gelatin On The Electrodeposition Of Sn-Bi Low Temperature Pb-Free Solder Jan 2013

Effects Of Hydroquinone And Gelatin On The Electrodeposition Of Sn-Bi Low Temperature Pb-Free Solder

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The effects of an antioxidant, hydroquinone (HQ) and a grain refining additive, gelatin, on the electroplating characteristics of Sn-Bi alloys were investigated. Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) based plating baths with varying contents of additives were prepared and the electrochemical behavior of each bath was investigated. The combination of HQ and gelatin successfully reduces the deposition potential gap between the elements hence facilitates the co-deposition of Sn-Bi in this plating bath. Compact, adherent deposits could be obtained through the synergistic effects of these two additives. The electroplated Sn-Bi deposits showed a decrease in Bi content with increasing current density. Near eutectic ...


Effects Of Reflow On The Interfacial Characteristics Between Zn Nanoparticles Containing Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder And Copper Substrate Jan 2013

Effects Of Reflow On The Interfacial Characteristics Between Zn Nanoparticles Containing Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder And Copper Substrate

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn) nanoparticles on the interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) between Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC) solder and Cu substrate during multiple reflow. Design/methodology/approach - The nanocomposite solders were prepared by manually mixing of SAC solder paste with varying amounts of Zn nanoparticles. The solder pastes were reflowed on a hotplate at 250 C for 45 s for up to six times. The actual Zn content after reflow was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The wetting behavior of the solders was characterized by analyzing the contact ...


Effects Of Reflow On The Interfacial Characteristics Between Zn Nanoparticles Containing Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder And Copper Substrate Jan 2013

Effects Of Reflow On The Interfacial Characteristics Between Zn Nanoparticles Containing Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder And Copper Substrate

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn) nanoparticles on the interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) between Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu (SAC) solder and Cu substrate during multiple reflow. Design/methodology/approach - The nanocomposite solders were prepared by manually mixing of SAC solder paste with varying amounts of Zn nanoparticles. The solder pastes were reflowed on a hotplate at 250 C for 45 s for up to six times. The actual Zn content after reflow was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The wetting behavior of the solders was characterized by analyzing the contact ...


Electrodeposition Of Lead-Free Solder Alloys Jan 2013

Electrodeposition Of Lead-Free Solder Alloys

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding on the electrodeposition of various lead (Pb)-free solder alloys, so that new studies can be carried out to solve processing issues. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews the available reports on the electrodeposition of tin (Sn)-based solder systems and identifies the challenges in this area. Findings - Compositional control remains a major challenge in this area, where the achievement of desired composition for binary and ternary alloys is subjected to uncertainties. The use of chelating agents in the bath and optimization of parameters can assist the achievement of ...


Failure Analysis Of Superheater Tube Supports Of The Primary Reformer In A Fertilizer Factory Jan 2013

Failure Analysis Of Superheater Tube Supports Of The Primary Reformer In A Fertilizer Factory

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Eutectic Sn-Bi alloy is gaining considerable attention in the electronic packaging industry because of its favorable properties such as low melting temperature, good wettability, and good mechanical properties. Miniaturization of electronic devices requires small solder bumps, a few tens of micrometers in diameter. Electrodeposition is a reliable technique for the deposition of small volume of solder. This work focuses on the formation of eutectic Sn-Bi solder by reflowing a metal stack containing sequentially electrodeposited Sn and Bi layers. The effects of layering sequence on the composition and microstructure of the resulting alloy is investigated. Irrespective of the layering sequence, a ...


Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel Jan 2013

Investigation Of Friction And Wear Characteristics Of Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased ...


Stress Enhanced Tio2 Nanowire Growth On Ti-6al-4v Particles By Thermal Oxidation Jan 2013

Stress Enhanced Tio2 Nanowire Growth On Ti-6al-4v Particles By Thermal Oxidation

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires were grown on Ti - 6wt% Al - 4wt% V (Ti64) particles by thermal oxidation. To investigate the effect of stress on nanowire growth, the particles were milled in a planetary ball mill prior to the thermal oxidation. Thermal oxidation of the Ti64 particles was carried out in a horizontal tube furnace in a controlled oxygen atmosphere in the temperature range of 700-900 °C. The oxygen concentration was varied from 20 ppm to 80 ppm in Ar atmosphere. Nanostructures were characterized by high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. TiO2 nanowires grew ...


Synthesis And Growth Kinetics Of Spindly Cuo Nanocrystals Via Pulsed Wire Explosion In Liquid Medium Jan 2013

Synthesis And Growth Kinetics Of Spindly Cuo Nanocrystals Via Pulsed Wire Explosion In Liquid Medium

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

One-dimensional CuO nanocrystals with spindly structure were successfully synthesized using pulsed wire explosion technique in deionized water. By modulating the exploding medium temperature spherical Cu nanoparticles and one-dimensional CuO nanocrystals can be selectively synthesized. At low temperature (1 C) the particle growth is governed by Ostwald ripening resulting in formation of equidimensional crystals (spherical). As the exploding temperature increases (60 C), oriented aggregation in a preferential direction resulted in unique spindly nanostructure. A possible crystal growth mechanism for these nanostructures with various morphologies at different exploding temperature is proposed. Particle growth by Ostwald ripening or orientated aggregation is highly dependent ...


Synthesis And Growth Kinetics Of Spindly Cuo Nanocrystals Via Pulsed Wire Explosion In Liquid Medium Jan 2013

Synthesis And Growth Kinetics Of Spindly Cuo Nanocrystals Via Pulsed Wire Explosion In Liquid Medium

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

One-dimensional CuO nanocrystals with spindly structure were successfully synthesized using pulsed wire explosion technique in deionized water. By modulating the exploding medium temperature spherical Cu nanoparticles and one-dimensional CuO nanocrystals can be selectively synthesized. At low temperature (1 C) the particle growth is governed by Ostwald ripening resulting in formation of equidimensional crystals (spherical). As the exploding temperature increases (60 C), oriented aggregation in a preferential direction resulted in unique spindly nanostructure. A possible crystal growth mechanism for these nanostructures with various morphologies at different exploding temperature is proposed. Particle growth by Ostwald ripening or orientated aggregation is highly dependent ...


The Wear Behavior Of Cross-Linked Uhmwpe Under Dry And Bovine Calf Serum-Lubricated Conditions Jan 2013

The Wear Behavior Of Cross-Linked Uhmwpe Under Dry And Bovine Calf Serum-Lubricated Conditions

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the wear behavior of unirradiated and irradiated ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against Ti-6Al-4V under dry and lubricated conditions at different applied loads. The UHMWPE specimens were exposed directly to nominal doses of 0, 25, 40, 50, and 100 kGy. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the worn surface of UHMWPE and Ti-6Al-4V was performed to understand the mechanism of wear involved between the contact surfaces during wear testing. From the wear test results, there were significant differences between the wear of unirradiated UHMWPE and UHMWPE irradiated at 25 ...


The Wear Behavior Of Cross-Linked Uhmwpe Under Dry And Bovine Calf Serum-Lubricated Conditions Dec 2012

The Wear Behavior Of Cross-Linked Uhmwpe Under Dry And Bovine Calf Serum-Lubricated Conditions

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the wear behavior of unirradiated and irradiated ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against Ti-6Al-4V under dry and lubricated conditions at different applied loads. The UHMWPE specimens were exposed directly to nominal doses of 0, 25, 40, 50, and 100 kGy. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the worn surface of UHMWPE and Ti-6Al-4V was performed to understand the mechanism of wear involved between the contact surfaces during wear testing. From the wear test results, there were significant differences between the wear of unirradiated UHMWPE and UHMWPE irradiated at 25 ...


Nanoindentation And Micro-Mechanical Fracture Toughness Of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Ni-W Alloy Films Apr 2012

Nanoindentation And Micro-Mechanical Fracture Toughness Of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Ni-W Alloy Films

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloys have great potential in the fabrication of components for microelectromechanical systems. Here the fracture toughness of Ni-12.7 at.%W alloy micro-cantilever beams was investigated. Micro-cantilevers were fabricated by UV lithography and electrodeposition and notched by focused ion beam machining. Load was applied using a nanoindenter and fracture toughness was calculated from the fracture load. Fracture toughness of the Ni-12.7 at.%W was in the range of 1.49-5.14 MPa √m. This is higher than the fracture toughness of Si (another important microelectromechanical systems material), but considerably lower than that of electrodeposited nickel and other ...


Nanoindentation And Micro-Mechanical Fracture Toughness Of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Ni-W Alloy Films Apr 2012

Nanoindentation And Micro-Mechanical Fracture Toughness Of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Ni-W Alloy Films

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloys have great potential in the fabrication of components for microelectromechanical systems. Here the fracture toughness of Ni-12.7 at.%W alloy micro-cantilever beams was investigated. Micro-cantilevers were fabricated by UV lithography and electrodeposition and notched by focused ion beam machining. Load was applied using a nanoindenter and fracture toughness was calculated from the fracture load. Fracture toughness of the Ni-12.7 at.%W was in the range of 1.49-5.14 MPa √m. This is higher than the fracture toughness of Si (another important microelectromechanical systems material), but considerably lower than that of electrodeposited nickel and other ...


Degradation Of Automotive Materials In Palm Biodiesel Apr 2012

Degradation Of Automotive Materials In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties ...


Preparation And Low-Temperature Sintering Of Cu Nanoparticles For High-Power Devices Apr 2012

Preparation And Low-Temperature Sintering Of Cu Nanoparticles For High-Power Devices

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

One of the fundamental requirements for high-temperature electronic packaging is reliable silicon attach with low and stable electrical resistance. This paper presents a study conducted on Cu nanoparticles as an alternative lead-free interconnect material for high-temperature applications. Cu nanoparticles were prepared using pulsed wire evaporation technique in water medium. Pure Cu nanoparticles without any organic mixture were used in this paper. An economical approach to extract the nanoparticles from water was established. In situ Cu nanoparticles oxide reduction was successfully done using forming gas $({\rm N}-{2}{\hbox{-}}5\%{\rm H}-{2})$. Cross-section analysis on bonded interface shows onset of ...


Stability Of Molybdenum Nanoparticles In Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder During Multiple Reflow And Their Influence On Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds Feb 2012

Stability Of Molybdenum Nanoparticles In Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder During Multiple Reflow And Their Influence On Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

This work investigates the effects of molybdenum nanoparticles on the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound between Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder and copper substrate during multiple reflow. Molybdenum nanoparticles were mixed with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder paste by manual mixing. Solder samples were reflowed on a copper substrate in a 250 °C reflow oven up to six times. The molybdenum content of the bulk solder was determined by inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. It is found that upon the addition of molybdenum nanoparticles to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder, the interfacial intermetallic compound thickness and scallop diameter decreases under all reflow conditions ...


Die Attach Properties Of Zn-Al-Mg-Ga Based High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder On Cu Lead-Frame Jan 2012

Die Attach Properties Of Zn-Al-Mg-Ga Based High-Temperature Lead-Free Solder On Cu Lead-Frame

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Addition Of Copper Particles Of Different Size To Sn-3.5ag Solder Dec 2011

Effects Of Addition Of Copper Particles Of Different Size To Sn-3.5ag Solder

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

No abstract provided.


Gas Sensors Based On One Dimensional Nanostructured Metal-Oxides: A Review Dec 2011

Gas Sensors Based On One Dimensional Nanostructured Metal-Oxides: A Review

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes ...


Development Of A Compression Test Device For Investigating Interaction Between Diffusion Of Biodiesel And Large Deformation In Rubber Dec 2011

Development Of A Compression Test Device For Investigating Interaction Between Diffusion Of Biodiesel And Large Deformation In Rubber

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Motivated by environmental and economic factors, biodiesel has been introduced to partially replace the diminishing stock of petroleum-based fuel. However, the use of biodiesel such as palm biodiesel is placing additional demands on automotive components, e.g. rubber components, due to a compatibility issue in the fuel system. In engineering applications where hostile environments are involved, the long-term mechanical response of rubber components is affected by interactions existed between diffusion of liquids into the material and fluctuating multiaxial loading. Hence, it is crucial to investigate the durability of rubber components in this aggressive environment. A number of studies on static ...


Effect Of Different Corrosion Inhibitors On The Corrosion Of Cast Iron In Palm Biodiesel Nov 2011

Effect Of Different Corrosion Inhibitors On The Corrosion Of Cast Iron In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel is currently in regular use as an alternative fuel over conventional petroleum diesel. However, corrosion of automotive materials is one of the concerns related to biodiesel compatibility issues. In addition, auto-oxidation of biodiesel can also enhance the corrosiveness of biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate inhibition effect of ethylenediamine (EDA), n-butylamine (nBA), tert-butylamine (TBA) against corrosion of cast iron. Static immersion tests in biodiesel in the presence (100 ppm) and absence of different corrosion inhibitors were carried out at room temperature for 1200 hours. At the end of the test, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements ...


Effect Of Different Corrosion Inhibitors On The Corrosion Of Cast Iron In Palm Biodiesel Nov 2011

Effect Of Different Corrosion Inhibitors On The Corrosion Of Cast Iron In Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Biodiesel is currently in regular use as an alternative fuel over conventional petroleum diesel. However, corrosion of automotive materials is one of the concerns related to biodiesel compatibility issues. In addition, auto-oxidation of biodiesel can also enhance the corrosiveness of biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate inhibition effect of ethylenediamine (EDA), n-butylamine (nBA), tert-butylamine (TBA) against corrosion of cast iron. Static immersion tests in biodiesel in the presence (100 ppm) and absence of different corrosion inhibitors were carried out at room temperature for 1200 hours. At the end of the test, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements ...


Effects Of Co Nanoparticle Addition To Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder On Interfacial Structure After Reflow And Ageing May 2011

Effects Of Co Nanoparticle Addition To Sn-3.8ag-0.7cu Solder On Interfacial Structure After Reflow And Ageing

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Effects of Co nanoparticle additions to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu on the structure of solder/copper interface have been studied after reflow and high temperature ageing (150 °C, up to 1008 h). Results show that the Co nanoparticles substantially suppress the growth of Cu3Sn but enhance Cu 6Sn5 growth. Cobalt nanoparticles reduce interdiffusion coefficient in Cu3Sn. It is suggested that the Co nanoparticles undergo surface dissolution during reflow and exert their influence, at least partially, through alloying effect. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Effect Of Temperature On The Corrosion Behavior Of Mild Steel Upon Exposure To Palm Biodiesel Apr 2011

Effect Of Temperature On The Corrosion Behavior Of Mild Steel Upon Exposure To Palm Biodiesel

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Recently biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is getting more significance to replace diesel fuel completely or partially. However, corrosion of automotive materials in biodiesel is a major concern as this can reduce engine life. This study aims to investigate the corrosion behavior of mild steel at three different temperatures such as room temperature, 50 and 80 °C. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B50 (50% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out for 1200 h. At the end of the tests, corrosion characteristic was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes of the exposed metal surface. Fuels were analyzed ...


Compatibility Of Automotive Materials In Biodiesel: A Review Mar 2011

Compatibility Of Automotive Materials In Biodiesel: A Review

A.S. Md Abdul Haseeb

Use of biodiesel in automobile can significantly reduce our dependence of fossil fuel and help reduce environmental pollution. However, there are concerns over the compatibility of currently used automotive materials in biodiesel. A few automobile manufacturers extended their warranty only to lower blends of biodiesel (e.g. B5). Higher blends (e.g. B50 or B100) are still not covered by warranty. In automobile fuel system, metallic materials like ferrous alloy and non-ferrous alloys, and elastomers come in contact with fuel. Biodiesel, having different chemical characteristics from diesel, can interact with materials in a different way. It can cause corrosive and ...