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Constitutional Law

Constitution

Michigan Journal of International Law

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Piracy And Due Process, Andrew Kent Oct 2018

Piracy And Due Process, Andrew Kent

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article explores in depth the law of nations, English domestic law, and English government practice from the late medieval period through the eighteenth century, and the U.S. constitutional law and government practice during the Founding and antebellum periods. I conclude that Chapman’s claims about due process and piracy suppression are incorrect. Both Parliament and the U.S. Congress; both the Crown and its counselors and U.S Presidents and their advisers; both the Royal Navy and the U.S. Navy; and commentators both English and American believed that (1) pirates on the high seas could lawfully be ...


Irrational War And Constitutional Design: A Reply To Professors Nzelibe And Yoo, Paul F. Diehl, Tom Ginsburg Jan 2006

Irrational War And Constitutional Design: A Reply To Professors Nzelibe And Yoo, Paul F. Diehl, Tom Ginsburg

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Reply proceeds as follows. Part I outlines the argument of the Nzelibe and Yoo paper. Part II considers their principal-agent analysis in the context of the American political system. Part III elaborates on the "democratic peace" literature, demonstrating that it does not support the conclusions that they draw. Part IV addresses the argument that we are in a new strategic situation, such that old rules ought not apply. Part V concludes.


Worth Doing Well- The Improvable European Union Constitution, Stephen C. Sieberson Jan 2005

Worth Doing Well- The Improvable European Union Constitution, Stephen C. Sieberson

Michigan Journal of International Law

As background for this critique of the Constitution, Part II of this Article provides a brief overview of the existing EU Treaties, their shortcomings, and the political processes that culminated in the creation of the new Constitution. Of particular interest are certain goals articulated for the new document, such as the desire to replace the complex Treaties with a simpler, more approachable instrument. Part III is a summary of the Constitution's textual content, details that are necessary to illuminate the analysis that follows. Part IV offers a critical review of the awkward manner in which the Constitution is organized ...


Article 9 Of The Constitution Of Japan And The Use Of Procedural And Substantive Heuristics For Consensus, Mark A. Chinen Jan 2005

Article 9 Of The Constitution Of Japan And The Use Of Procedural And Substantive Heuristics For Consensus, Mark A. Chinen

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article’s purpose is to examine the revision debates through the lens of recent scholarship on constitutional decisionmaking to see what lessons might be drawn about constitutionalism in Japan and elsewhere. In Part I, the author discusses Article 9's text and interpretation and focus on three controversies: first, Japan's ability to use force to defend itself and the related issue of the constitutionality of the Japan Self Defense Force (SDF); second, Japan's ability to engage in collective self-defense, which impacts the state's security relationship with the United States under the U.S.-Japan Mutual Security ...


Customary International Law And Human Rights Treaties Are Law Of The United States, Jordan J. Paust Jan 1999

Customary International Law And Human Rights Treaties Are Law Of The United States, Jordan J. Paust

Michigan Journal of International Law

The Founders clearly expected that the customary law of nations was binding, was supreme law, created (among others) private rights and duties, and would be applicable in United States federal courts. For example, at the time of the formation of the Constitution John Jay had written: "Under the national government… the laws of nations, will always be expounded in one sense… [and there is] wisdom… in committing such questions to the jurisdiction and judgment of courts appointed by and responsible only to one national government...” In 1792, the supremacy of the customary law of nations within the United States was ...


Law And Religion In Israel And Iran: How The Integration Of Secular And Spiritual Laws Affects Human Rights And The Potential For Violence, S. I. Strong Jan 1997

Law And Religion In Israel And Iran: How The Integration Of Secular And Spiritual Laws Affects Human Rights And The Potential For Violence, S. I. Strong

Michigan Journal of International Law

Part I of this article provides a brief sketch of the principles of the two majority religions at issue in this discussion and an overview of the history of both Israel and Iran. It explains why each nation has chosen to structure itself as it has and why the imposition of U.S.-style secularism would be an inappropriate method of dealing with the religio-legal conflict in the two societies. Part II compares the fundamental or constitutional laws of the two nations by analyzing the provisions, policies, and practices most influenced by religion. After identifying and analyzing the laws themselves ...


The Meaning Of "Advice And Consent": The Senate's Constitutional Role In Treatymaking, Howard R. Sklamberg Jan 1997

The Meaning Of "Advice And Consent": The Senate's Constitutional Role In Treatymaking, Howard R. Sklamberg

Michigan Journal of International Law

This article analyzes the role that the Constitution assigns to the Senate in treatymaking and the implications of this role on the relationship between the President and the Senate. Part I examines the meaning of "advice and consent" in the Treaty Clause. It discusses the origins of the phrase "advice and consent," the history of the drafting of the Treaty Clause, and the implications of the Framers' decision to include the Treaty Clause in Article II of the Constitution.


Publish And Perish: Congress's Effort To Snip Snepp (Before And Afsa), Michael J. Glennon Jan 1989

Publish And Perish: Congress's Effort To Snip Snepp (Before And Afsa), Michael J. Glennon

Michigan Journal of International Law

Over three million present and former federal employees, of the Executive as well as the Congress, are parties to so-called "pre-publication review agreements," which require that they submit any writings on topics related to their employment for Executive review prior to publication. In Section 630 of the Omnibus Continuing Resolution for Fiscal Year 1988, Congress attempted to restrict the use of funds to implement or enforce certain of those agreements. On May 27, 1988, however, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, in American Foreign Service Association v. Garfinkel ("AFSA "), struck that section down, on the theory ...


Models For A Gorbachev Constitution Of The U.S.S.R., John N. Hazard Jan 1989

Models For A Gorbachev Constitution Of The U.S.S.R., John N. Hazard

Michigan Journal of International Law

Western Sovietologists were startled when Secretary General Mikhail S. Gorbachev set his craftsmen to work in the Summer of 1988 to prepare a revised structure for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ("U.S.S.R."). While some hint of what was to come had been given by publications prior to the 19th Communist Party Conference, and while some of these appeared in the theses to be debated at the Conference, Westerners expected little more than a call from the tribune for change in attitudes. Basic State structures established by Leonid Brezhnev in his 1977 Constitution had not previously been ...


Treaties In A Constitutional Democracy, Louis Henkin Jan 1989

Treaties In A Constitutional Democracy, Louis Henkin

Michigan Journal of International Law

This essay is an adaptation of one of the Cooley Lectures delivered at the University of Michigan Law School, Nov. 14-16, 1988, on the theme "Constitutionalism, Democracy and Foreign Affairs," due to be published by Columbia University Press in 1990.