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Constitutional Law

Constitution

Akron Law Review

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Fundamental Unenumerated Rights Under The Ninth Amendment And The Privileges Or Immunities Clause, Adam Lamparello Nov 2015

Fundamental Unenumerated Rights Under The Ninth Amendment And The Privileges Or Immunities Clause, Adam Lamparello

Akron Law Review

The failure to link the Ninth Amendment and Privileges or Immunities Clause for the purpose of creating unenumerated fundamental rights has been a persistent but rarely discussed aspect of the Court’s jurisprudence. That should change. There need not be an ongoing tension between the Court’s counter-majoritarian role and the authority of states to govern through the democratic process. If the Constitution’s text gives the Court a solid foundation upon which to recognize new rights and thereby create a more just society, then the exercise of that power is fundamentally democratic. The Ninth Amendment and Privileges or Immunities ...


Liberty At The Borders Of Private Law, Donald J. Smythe Nov 2015

Liberty At The Borders Of Private Law, Donald J. Smythe

Akron Law Review

Liberty is both dependent upon and limited by the State. The State protects individuals from the coercion of others, but paradoxically, it must exercise coercion itself in doing so. Unfortunately, the reliance on the State to deter coercion raises the possibility that the State’s powers of coercion might be abused. There is, not surprisingly, therefore, a wide range of literature on the relationship between law and liberty, but most of it focuses on the relationship between public law and liberty. This Article focuses on the relationship between private law and liberty. Private laws are enforced by courts. Since the ...


The Interdependence Of Our Freedoms, Warren E. Burger Aug 2015

The Interdependence Of Our Freedoms, Warren E. Burger

Akron Law Review

IF I WERE TO GIVE A TITLE to what I want to say tonight, in this Bicentennial program, I think I would call it "The Interdependence of our Freedoms" and, in a sense, that is simply a more formal way of saying what the leaders of our revolution told each other, and the people, 200 years ago: we must hang together, or we will hang separately


The Hohfeldian Approach To Constitutional Cases, H. Newcomb Morse Aug 2015

The Hohfeldian Approach To Constitutional Cases, H. Newcomb Morse

Akron Law Review

INFERRED, OR AT THE MOST rebuttably presumed, is a slight acquaintanceship on the part of the reader with the work on jural opposites and jural correlatives by Professor W. Newcomb Hohfeld. The Founding Fathers, as though anticipating the coming of the Messianic logician, used all of the four Hohfeldian gravamen terms-rights, privileges, powers and immunities-in the Constitution of the United States,' and for this reason the author perceives a nexus between Hohfeldian logic and constitutional construction. The appropriate initial touchstone for contemporary use of this theory could appear to be the 1968 case of Flast v. Cohen, considering Mr. Justice ...


The Declaration As Ur-Constitution: The Bizarre Jurisprudential Philosophy Of Professor Harry V. Jaffa, Patrick M. O'Neil Jul 2015

The Declaration As Ur-Constitution: The Bizarre Jurisprudential Philosophy Of Professor Harry V. Jaffa, Patrick M. O'Neil

Akron Law Review

In his most recent work, Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution: A Disputed Question, Professor Harry V. Jaffa finally has put together in one place the core of his constitutional hermeneutic with all the attendant elements of his jurisprudential philosophy. Stated in oversimplified terms, perhaps, Dr. Jaffa sees the Declaration of Independence as the source of the principles embodied in the Constitution of the United States and finds the Declaration, furthermore, to be an indispensable aid to the correct interpretation of that later document. In order to comprehend the error of Jaffa's claims, one must first consider ...


The Constitutional Right To Suicide, The Quality Of Life, And The "Slippery-Slope": An Explicit Reply To Lingering Concerns, G. Steven Neeley Jul 2015

The Constitutional Right To Suicide, The Quality Of Life, And The "Slippery-Slope": An Explicit Reply To Lingering Concerns, G. Steven Neeley

Akron Law Review

[M]any courts and scholars appear to be motivated by yet another and more implicit concern with the so-called "quality of life" argument. [...] This ofttimes subtle design ultimately proves to be nothing more than a variation of the "slippery-slope" argument. This paper will contend that such arguments are logically fallacious and, at best, sway only by emotional appeal. As such, this style of argument should be afforded little forensic weight as it serves only to further confuse the debate over the constitutionality of selfdirected death.


Why A Fundamental Right To A Quality Education Is Not Enough, James Wilson Jul 2015

Why A Fundamental Right To A Quality Education Is Not Enough, James Wilson

Akron Law Review

This article relies upon the political and economic analysis of such great thinkers as Aristotle and Rousseau to understand and normatively evaluate constitutional caselaw in general and education cases in particular. The article’s title contains its conclusion: a judicially created right to a quality education is a laudable, but possibly counterproductive and definitely insufficient condition, for creating a humane constitutional system. The rest of society needs to do far more to protect the average citizen and worker from the ever-ravenous ruling class. All the edification in the world will not mean much if there are only a few decent ...


Citizenship Education And The Free Exercise Of Religion, Tyll Van Geel Jul 2015

Citizenship Education And The Free Exercise Of Religion, Tyll Van Geel

Akron Law Review

Part One of this article provides a broad-brush overview of constitutional doctrine as it bears on citizenship education in the public schools. The remaining parts of the article focus on a Free Exercise challenge to the introduction of a Callaneseque program of citizenship education in a public school. Part Two thus explicates Callan’s theory. Part Three outlines my approach to the Free Exercise Clause. Part Four applies that approach to a challenge brought against a Callanesque program of citizenship education. Part Five takes up other possible rights-based limits on the education power and offers a suggestion regarding how citizenship ...


The Passing Of The Cardozo Generations, Stephen E. Gottlieb Jul 2015

The Passing Of The Cardozo Generations, Stephen E. Gottlieb

Akron Law Review

I want to make the following three points:

First, constitutional discourse has changed from the consequentialism of the generations of lawyers and judges who followed the model of Benjamin N. Cardozo to the formalism now ascendant in bench and bar.

Second, this change in constitutional rhetoric and argument has widened the disjunctions in argument. Polling data make clear that people have their own views of the Constitution. Knowledge about contrary official interpretations gives them vocabulary, but is relatively unlikely to change minds. Moral arguments and appeals to self-interest are more effective with the public.

Third, one consequence is that both ...


Thinking About The Constitution At The Cusp, Mark Tushnet Jul 2015

Thinking About The Constitution At The Cusp, Mark Tushnet

Akron Law Review

Marshall’s understanding that schools have an implicit curriculum might be a better guide to thinking about what we should teach about the Constitution in this century than any substantive points I might make. One controversial example may illustrate Marshall’s understanding: just as he asked what lesson would be taught by delaying desegregation, so we might ask, “What lesson will be taught about the nature of our constitutional community if we adopt a large-scale system of vouchers that parents can use to assist them in sending their children to non-public schools?” Such a system would demonstrate B and would ...


Teaching Slavery In American Constitutional Law, Paul Finkelman Jul 2015

Teaching Slavery In American Constitutional Law, Paul Finkelman

Akron Law Review

From 1787 until the Civil War, slavery was probably the single most important economic institution in the United States. On the eve of the Civil War, slave property was worth at least two billion dollars. In the aggregate, the value of all the slaves in the United States exceeded the total value of all the nations railroads or all its factories. Slavery led to two major political compromises of the antebellum period, as well as to the most politically divisive Supreme Court decision in our history. Vast amounts of political and legal energy went into dealing with the institution. It ...


Teaching Free Speech From An Incomplete Fossil Record, Michael Kent Curtis Jul 2015

Teaching Free Speech From An Incomplete Fossil Record, Michael Kent Curtis

Akron Law Review

The second part of this symposium has been devoted to how we teach the Constitution. It has emphasized what gets left out. The reader will see a pattern. Paul Finkelman is a leading scholar on the law of slavery and the Constitution. Paul thinks – and I believe he is correct – that the immense influence of slavery on American constitutional law is too often neglected in our constitutional law courses. James Wilson has studied how political philosophers – Aristotle, Rousseau, James Harrington, and others – have understood the distribution of wealth as a central factor affecting how the constitution of a nation actually ...


Education And The Constitution: Shaping Each Other & The Next Century, Elizabeth Reilly Jul 2015

Education And The Constitution: Shaping Each Other & The Next Century, Elizabeth Reilly

Akron Law Review

In evaluating patients’ potential legal remedies, this Comment explores 1) the emergence of managed care organizations in the United States; 2) the creation of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) and how it impacts patients’ claims against their MCOs; 3) the question of “quantity” versus “quality” in evaluating whether ERISA preemption exists; 4) three theories (direct liability, breach of fiduciary duty, and vicarious liability) used to hold MCOs liable for injuries resulting from malpractice or the wrongful denial of benefits; 5) state legislative attempts to circumvent ERISA’s inequitable preemption of claims; and 6) why, given ERISA ...


Unintended Consequences Of The Fourteenth Amendment And What They Tell Us About Its Interpretation, Richard L. Aynes Jul 2015

Unintended Consequences Of The Fourteenth Amendment And What They Tell Us About Its Interpretation, Richard L. Aynes

Akron Law Review

Much of the literature, understandably, seeks to find out what the framers of the amendment or the ratifiers of the amendment “intended.”...This article treats that issue as well, but begins with a different question: Does the amendment have consequences which were unintended by the framers? Over one and a quarter centuries ago, Justice Joseph Bradley answered that question in the affirmative: “It is possible that those who framed the article were not themselves aware of the far ranging character of its terms.” I suggest those unintended consequences include the effect of the Citizenship Clause on the force of the ...


An Analysis Of The Legality Of Television Cameras Broadcasting Juror Deliberations In A Criminal Case, Daniel H. Erskine Esq. Jul 2015

An Analysis Of The Legality Of Television Cameras Broadcasting Juror Deliberations In A Criminal Case, Daniel H. Erskine Esq.

Akron Law Review

This work sets out the constitutional, statutory, and common law applicable to television’s intrusion into the jury room. The first section addresses federal constitutional considerations focusing on Article III Section 2, the Sixth Amendment, and the First Amendment. The second section analyzes certain federal rules and particular statutes applicable to televising federal judicial proceedings, as well as the rationale behind their enactment. Finally, the third section discusses comparative approaches addressing television’s intrusion into the courtroom, particularly focusing on recent jurisprudence from the European Court of Human Rights and the Scottish Court of Session.


The Constitutional Jurisprudence Of Sandra Day O'Conor: A Refusal To "Foreclose The Unanticipated", Wilson Ray Huhn Jul 2015

The Constitutional Jurisprudence Of Sandra Day O'Conor: A Refusal To "Foreclose The Unanticipated", Wilson Ray Huhn

Akron Law Review

Part I of this essay covers an early period on the Court when Justice O’Connor seemed principally concerned with questions of jurisdiction and appellate process, during which she was frequently inclined to dispose of cases on technical or procedural grounds. Part II discusses Justice O’Connor’s attention to detail and consideration of factual context and her tendency to adjust the traditional standards of review in light of the circumstances of the case. Part III outlines Justice O’Connor’s respect for precedent and commitment to the principle of stare decisis particularly as it relates to her refusal to ...


Obama, The Fourteenth Amendment, And The Drug War, Martin D. Carcieri Jul 2015

Obama, The Fourteenth Amendment, And The Drug War, Martin D. Carcieri

Akron Law Review

This article is written to help clarify the full range of understanding Obama would bring to a second term.

Specifically, I defend two related, contested theses. My core thesis, to which this article is primarily devoted, is a jurisprudential claim: contrary to state and lower federal court rulings, marijuana prohibition is subject to strict judicial scrutiny under leading relevant U.S. Supreme Court jurisprudence. I support this thesis primarily by showing that under the Fourteenth Amendment, bodily autonomy—i.e., the control over the borders and contents of one’s body burdened by laws like marijuana prohibition—is a fundamental ...


Thomas Jefferson And The Establishment Clause, Mark J. Chadsey Jul 2015

Thomas Jefferson And The Establishment Clause, Mark J. Chadsey

Akron Law Review

The purpose of this paper is to ask whether the historical record actually supports either of these assumptions. A note about my mode of analysis is necessary at this juncture. When inquiring about Jefferson’s influence on the Establishment Clause, it is important to focus on the entire process by which it was adopted rather than its mere introduction by Madison in the House of Representatives. Its adoption, after all, required the assent of two-thirds of both chambers of Congress, three-fourths of the state legislatures, and the support of a majority of the American public. Without the requisite support of ...


Fourteenth Amendment Citizenship And The Reconstruction-Era Black Public Sphere, James Fox Jul 2015

Fourteenth Amendment Citizenship And The Reconstruction-Era Black Public Sphere, James Fox

Akron Law Review

Sections two and three of the Fourteenth Amendment, being more political than legal enactments, have had essentially no judicial or legal development. Yet even the first sentence of section one and the ensuing Privileges or Immunities Clause have had relatively little play in the courts. With the single exception of the 1999 case of Saenz v. Roe, 6 the citizenship language of the Fourteenth Amendment has practically no legal significance.

Still, these approaches to equal or constitutional citizenship represent a starting point, not a conclusion. Taking up the invitations of these scholars, my project is to delve more deeply into ...


Why "Privileges Or Immunities"? An Explanation Of The Framers' Intent, William J. Rich Jun 2015

Why "Privileges Or Immunities"? An Explanation Of The Framers' Intent, William J. Rich

Akron Law Review

In the Slaughter-House Cases, Justice Field accused the majority of turning the Fourteenth Amendment’s Privileges or Immunities Clause into a “vain and idle enactment which accomplished nothing,” and Justice Swayne argued that the majority “turn[ed] . . . what was meant for bread into a stone.” Most contemporary commentators appear to agree... Did the framers of the Fourteenth Amendment make a colossal mistake? Or were Justices Field and Swayne correct when they blamed Justice Miller’s majority opinion in Slaughter-House for leading the nation astray? Answers to these questions, in the pages that follow, are “no” to the first, and a ...


The Union As It Wasn't And The Constitution As It Isn't: Section Five And Altering The Balance Of Powers, Elizabeth Reilly Jun 2015

The Union As It Wasn't And The Constitution As It Isn't: Section Five And Altering The Balance Of Powers, Elizabeth Reilly

Akron Law Review

This article argues that in reconstituting that Union, the 39th Congress and the Fourteenth Amendment not only altered the fundamental structural principles of the relationship between the states and the national government and the responsibility of government to protect individual liberties. It argues that the original structural alignment of national powers and the boundaries of their respective spheres were also, of necessity and by understanding, recast as well.


The Legacy Of Slaughterhouse, Bradwell, And Cruikshank In Constitutional Interpretation, Wilson R. Huhn Jun 2015

The Legacy Of Slaughterhouse, Bradwell, And Cruikshank In Constitutional Interpretation, Wilson R. Huhn

Akron Law Review

The conclusions that the Court drew about the meaning of the 14th Amendment shortly after its adoption were contrary to the intent of the framers of that Amendment and a betrayal of the sacrifices which had been made by the people of that period. In each case, the Court perverted the meaning of the Constitution in ways that reverberate down to the present day...In these cases the Court ruled upon several critical aspects of 14th Amendment jurisprudence, including (1) Whether the 14th Amendment prohibits the States from interfering with our fundamental rights; (2) How the equality of different groups ...


The 39th Congress (1865-1867) And The 14th Amendment: Some Preliminary Perspectives, Richard L. Aynes Jun 2015

The 39th Congress (1865-1867) And The 14th Amendment: Some Preliminary Perspectives, Richard L. Aynes

Akron Law Review

This article is a preliminary effort to tell the story of the people who brought the nation the 14th Amendment, the 39th Congress...I want to suggest that when someone creates the Hall of Fame of the Congresses we need to include the 39th Congress.


Infinite Hope - Introduction To The Symposium: The 140th Anniversary Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Elizabeth Reilly Jun 2015

Infinite Hope - Introduction To The Symposium: The 140th Anniversary Of The Fourteenth Amendment, Elizabeth Reilly

Akron Law Review

This symposium celebrates the 140th anniversary of ratification. The anniversary provides us with a fruitful occasion to reflect upon the meaning of the Amendment to its Framers in Congress and as it was initially interpreted by the United States Supreme Court and the public, and to examine the lasting impacts of both conceptions...Therefore, our participants explicitly discuss applying their understanding of history to the modern implications of the Fourteenth Amendment and current law. Understanding the Amendment, especially because of its early reception by the Court, requires looking at law, history, political science, and sociology, among other disciplines, to try ...


Still Too Close To Call? Rethinking Stampp's "The Concept Of A Perpetual Union", Daniel W. Hamilton Jun 2015

Still Too Close To Call? Rethinking Stampp's "The Concept Of A Perpetual Union", Daniel W. Hamilton

Akron Law Review

In a classic article in the Journal of American History, which was based on his presidential address to the Organization of American Historians in 1978, the great Civil War historian Kenneth Stampp made the claim that the arguments in favor of the constitutionality of secession made by the Southern states were as strong, if not stronger than the constitutional arguments made, then and now, in opposition to secession. Stampp is to my mind the greatest Civil War historian of the 20th century and his views on secession remain required reading and are cited routinely today. This is not to say ...