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Take It To The Limit: The Illegal Regulation Prohibiting The Take Of Any Threatened Species Under The Endangered Species Act, Jonathan Wood Aug 2015

Take It To The Limit: The Illegal Regulation Prohibiting The Take Of Any Threatened Species Under The Endangered Species Act, Jonathan Wood

Jonathan Wood

The Endangered Species Act forbids the “take” – any activity that adversely affects – any member of an endangered species, but only endangered species. The statute also provides for the listing of threatened species, i.e. species that may become endangered, but protects them only by requiring agencies to consider the impacts of their projects on them. Shortly after the statute was adopted, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service reversed Congress’ policy choice by adopting a regulation that forbids the take of any threatened species. The regulation is not authorized by the Endangered Species Act, but ...


Beyond The Written Constitution: A Short Analysis Of Warren Court, Thiago Luis Sombra Jul 2015

Beyond The Written Constitution: A Short Analysis Of Warren Court, Thiago Luis Sombra

Thiago Luís Santos Sombra

This essay propose an analysis about how Warren Court became one of the most particular in American History by confronting Jim Crow law, especially by applying the Bill of Rights. In this essay, we propose an analysis of how complex the unwritten Constitution is. Cases like Brown vs. Board of Education will be analyzed from a different point of view to understand the methods of the Court.


Beyond The Written Constitution: A Short Analysis Of Warren Court, Thiago Luis Santos Sombra Jul 2015

Beyond The Written Constitution: A Short Analysis Of Warren Court, Thiago Luis Santos Sombra

Thiago Luís Santos Sombra

This essay propose an analysis about how Warren Court became one of the most particular in American History by confronting Jim Crow law, especially by applying the Bill of Rights. In this essay, we propose an analysis of how complex the unwritten Constitution is. Cases like Brown vs. Board of Education will be analyzed from a different point of view to understand the methods of the Court.


A Call For An Overhaul Of The U.S. Federal Court System, Huhnkie Lee Jul 2015

A Call For An Overhaul Of The U.S. Federal Court System, Huhnkie Lee

Huhnkie Lee

No abstract provided.


The Treaty Of Waitangi In New Zealand's Law And Constitution In 2015, Matthew S. R. Palmer Qc Feb 2015

The Treaty Of Waitangi In New Zealand's Law And Constitution In 2015, Matthew S. R. Palmer Qc

The Hon Justice Matthew Palmer

This lecture addresses issues concerning the place of the Treaty of Waitangi, including: implications of the Waitangi Tribunal's conclusions on sovereignty; the rationale behind historical Treaty settlements; and the future role of the Waitangi Tribunal.


Bad Math: How Non-Union Employees Are Unconstitutionally Compelled To Subsidize Political Speech, Shirley V. Svorny, Melanie S. Williams Jan 2015

Bad Math: How Non-Union Employees Are Unconstitutionally Compelled To Subsidize Political Speech, Shirley V. Svorny, Melanie S. Williams

Melanie S. Williams

Employees’ right to organize and be represented by unions is in tension with the right of other employees not to join organizations as a condition of employment. Current law permits unions to assess agency fees from represented non-members, reflecting the cost of representational activities (for example, contract negotiation). Unions may not, however, assess non-members for the cost of political activities, since this would infringe on the constitutional rights of such employees by requiring them to subsidize political speech. The method of calculating agency fees, however, has been almost uniformly mishandled, resulting in overcharging non-union members. In this paper, we examine ...


Supreme Court Alchemy: Turning Law And Politics Into Mayonnaise, Stephen Feldman Jan 2014

Supreme Court Alchemy: Turning Law And Politics Into Mayonnaise, Stephen Feldman

Stephen M. Feldman

How do law and politics intertwine in Supreme Court adjudication? Traditionally, in law schools and political science departments, scholars refused to mix law and politics. Law professors insisted that legal texts and doctrines controlled Supreme Court decision making, while political scientists maintained that political ideologies dictated the justices' votes. In the late twentieth century, some scholars in both disciplines sought to combine law and politics but still conceived of the two as distinct. They attempted to stir law and politics together, but ended with an oil-and-water type of mix; law and politics settled apart. The best approach, as presented in ...


Whose Metadata Is It Anyways? Why Riley V. California Illustrates That The National Security Administration's Bulk Data Collection Is A Fourth Amendment Problem, Jesse S. Weinstein Jan 2014

Whose Metadata Is It Anyways? Why Riley V. California Illustrates That The National Security Administration's Bulk Data Collection Is A Fourth Amendment Problem, Jesse S. Weinstein

Jesse S Weinstein

No abstract provided.


Las Normas Preconstituyentes Como Medio De “Idealidad: Los Casos Paradigmáticos De Los Procesos Constituyentes Peruanos De 1979 Y De 1993, Javier André Murillo Chávez Jan 2014

Las Normas Preconstituyentes Como Medio De “Idealidad: Los Casos Paradigmáticos De Los Procesos Constituyentes Peruanos De 1979 Y De 1993, Javier André Murillo Chávez

Javier André Murillo Chávez

No abstract provided.


Constitutional Islamization And Human Rights: The Surprising Origin And Spread Of Islamic Supremacy In Constitutions, Tom Ginsburg Jan 2014

Constitutional Islamization And Human Rights: The Surprising Origin And Spread Of Islamic Supremacy In Constitutions, Tom Ginsburg

Tom Ginsburg

No abstract provided.


The Kaffatan Constitution, Liaquat Ali Khan Nov 2013

The Kaffatan Constitution, Liaquat Ali Khan

Ali Khan

This Kaffatan Constitution is transformative energy guarding the peoples of the world, animals, and all life species that exist or may come to exist in the future. It transforms communities across the world, whether these communities are nation-states, provinces, cities, town, neighborhoods, or virtual communities, and turn them into Free States and Perfect Communities. Free State is Perfect Community and Perfect Community is Free State. The two are synonymous. Perfect Community is the radiance of Supreme Truth. Perfect Community evolves out of ordinary communities if, when, and while it seeks guidance from Supreme Truth. You are Perfect Community. You evolve ...


A Horse! My Constitution For A Horse! Wm. Shakespeare And Alex. Pope Serve The Delegate Laureates, Peter Aschenbrenner Nov 2013

A Horse! My Constitution For A Horse! Wm. Shakespeare And Alex. Pope Serve The Delegate Laureates, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

‘We the people’ is justly celebrated, and was upon its first reading, by those assembled in Philadelphia. OCL, having studied the orthography and punctuography of the instrument, along with its semantic provenance, now turns to the meter of it all.


Table Annexed To Article: Hamilton And Madison Deploy ‘Constitution’ In The Federalist Papers: Semantic Values Surveyed, Peter Aschenbrenner Oct 2013

Table Annexed To Article: Hamilton And Madison Deploy ‘Constitution’ In The Federalist Papers: Semantic Values Surveyed, Peter Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The eighty-five Federal Papers (authors James Madison and Alexander Hamilton; John Jay contributed five) are justifiably famous as elaborations of constitutional structure and text, sans citation to the convention, understandably, since secrecy imposed by Standing Order on May 28th was continued indefinitely (at the pleasure/non-action of Congress) on September 17th. Counts on semantic value/s of ‘constitution’ and ‘constitutional’ are surveyed.


Mirror, Mirror On The Wall, Who Are You To Say Who Is Fairest Of Them All?, Ashley R. Brown Jul 2013

Mirror, Mirror On The Wall, Who Are You To Say Who Is Fairest Of Them All?, Ashley R. Brown

Ashley R Brown

No abstract provided.


What Place Does The Treaty Have In New Zealand's Constitutional Arrangements?, Matthew S.R. Palmer Jan 2013

What Place Does The Treaty Have In New Zealand's Constitutional Arrangements?, Matthew S.R. Palmer

The Hon Justice Matthew Palmer

In this address Matthew Palmer makes suggestions about how the Treaty of Waitangi should be reflected in New Zealand's constitutional arrangements.


Constitutional Amendment To End Homelessness, Ruben B. Botello Jd Jan 2013

Constitutional Amendment To End Homelessness, Ruben B. Botello Jd

Ruben B Botello JD

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT TO END HOMELESSNESS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

By Ruben Botello, JD

Founder, American Homeless Society

"We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America." (U.S. Constitution, http://constitutionus.com/)

The above-quoted Preamble to our U.S. Constitution ordains and establishes a binding legal document of, by and for the founders of our ...


Founding-Era Conventions And The Meaning Of The Constitution’S “Convention For Proposing Amendments”, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2013

Founding-Era Conventions And The Meaning Of The Constitution’S “Convention For Proposing Amendments”, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

Under Article V of the U.S. Constitution, two thirds of state legislatures may require Congress to call a “Convention for proposing Amendments.” Because this procedure has never been used, commentators frequently debate the composition of the convention and the rules governing the application and convention process. However, the debate has proceeded almost entirely without knowledge of the many multi-colony and multi-state conventions held during the eighteenth century, of which the Constitutional Convention was only one. These conventions were governed by universally-accepted convention practices and protocols. This Article surveys those conventions and shows how their practices and protocols shaped the ...


Article 142: Incomplete Justice?, Harshad Pathak Jan 2013

Article 142: Incomplete Justice?, Harshad Pathak

Harshad Pathak

No abstract provided.


The Founders’ Hermeneutic: The Real Original Understanding Of Original Intent, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2012

The Founders’ Hermeneutic: The Real Original Understanding Of Original Intent, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

This Article addresses whether the American Founders expected evidence of their own subjective views to guide future interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. The Article considers a range of evidence largely overlooked or misunderstood in earlier studies, such as contemporaneous rules of legal interpretation, judicial use of legislative history, early American public debate, and pronouncements by state ratifying conventions. Based on this evidence, the Article concludes that the Founders were “original-understanding originalists.” This means that they anticipated that constitutional interpretation would be guided by the subjective understanding of the ratifiers when such understanding was coherent and recoverable and, otherwise, by ...


A Republic, Not A Democracy? Initiative, Referendum, And The Constitution's Guarantee Clause, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2012

A Republic, Not A Democracy? Initiative, Referendum, And The Constitution's Guarantee Clause, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

This article debunks the myth, first arising in the 1840s, that the Founders sharply distinguished between a "republic" and a "democracy." It explains that by a "republic," most of the Founders meant a government controlled by the citizenry, following the rule of law, and without a king. Accordingly, state provisions for initiative and referendum are fully consistent with the Constitution's requirement that each state have a republican form of government; in fact, most of the governments the Founders called "republics" had featured analogous forms of direct democracy.


Paper Money And The Original Understanding Of The Coinage Clause, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2012

Paper Money And The Original Understanding Of The Coinage Clause, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

Over a century ago, the Supreme Court decided the Legal Tender Cases, holding that Congress could authorize legal tender paper money in addition to metallic coin. In recent years, some commentators have argued that this holding was incorrect as a matter of original understanding or original meaning, but that any other holding would be absolutely inconsistent with modern needs. They further argue that the impracticality of functioning without paper money demonstrates that originalism is not a workable method of constitutional interpretation. Those who rely on the Legal Tender Cases to discredit originalism are, however, in error. This Article shows that ...


Clinton, Campaigns, And Corporate Expenditures: The Supreme Court's Recent Decision In Citizen's United And Its Impact On Corporate Political Influence, Glen M. Vogel Jan 2012

Clinton, Campaigns, And Corporate Expenditures: The Supreme Court's Recent Decision In Citizen's United And Its Impact On Corporate Political Influence, Glen M. Vogel

Glen M Vogel

The public’s ability to discuss and debate the character and fitness of presidential candidates is at the core of the First Amendment’s prohibition that “Congress shall make no law… abridging the Freedom of Speech.” Despite the existence of this fundamental right, articulated so eloquently in our founding document, in November of 2002, Congress made political speech a felony for one class of speakers – corporations and unions. Under the McCain-Feingold Campaign Finance Reform Law, corporations and unions were prohibited from spending their own funds in support of or against a candidate for political office. Violators of this ban faced ...


Constructing The Other: U.S. Muslims, Proposed Anti-Sharia Law, And The Constitutional Consequences Of Volatile Intercultural Rhetoric, Carlo A. Pedrioli Jan 2012

Constructing The Other: U.S. Muslims, Proposed Anti-Sharia Law, And The Constitutional Consequences Of Volatile Intercultural Rhetoric, Carlo A. Pedrioli

Carlo A. Pedrioli

Recently, legislators have proposed, discussed, and passed various laws that aimed to limit the use of foreign law, international law, and Sharia (a branch of Islamic law) in state court systems. Because it became law, one proposed state constitutional amendment that rhetorically linked Sharia to foreign and international law is of particular note. In the 2010 midterm elections, Oklahoma passed State Question 755 (SQ 755), a constitutional amendment that aimed to place restrictions on the use of foreign law, international law, and Sharia in Oklahoma courts.

Laws like Oklahoma’s State Question 755 are problematic for a variety of reasons ...


Standing On Holy Ground: How Rethinking Justiciability Might Bring Peace To The Establishment Clause, John M. Bickers Jan 2011

Standing On Holy Ground: How Rethinking Justiciability Might Bring Peace To The Establishment Clause, John M. Bickers

John M. Bickers

The Establishment Clause is home to both procedural and substantive disorder. Particularly in evaluating religious speech by the government, the Supreme Court applies any of a number of distinct tests, with varying degrees of strictness. At the same time, the Court has articulated a series of requirements necessary for a plaintiff to have standing to challenge government action, only to ignore them in government religious speech cases. The resulting lack of clarity leaves lower courts to their own devices in endeavoring to calm increasingly intense struggles. This article sets out a theory that altering one of these problems can correct ...


From Immutable To Existential: Protecting Who We Are And Who We Want To Be With The 'Equalerty' Of The Substantive Due Process Clause, Aaron J. Shuler Mar 2010

From Immutable To Existential: Protecting Who We Are And Who We Want To Be With The 'Equalerty' Of The Substantive Due Process Clause, Aaron J. Shuler

Aaron J Shuler

Abstract Scholars have written about the duality of the substantive due process and equal protection doctrines and described how they have worked in tandem, although many academics have focused on, or outright called for, a preference for the use of the equal protection clause. Another contingent of the academic community, however, has discussed the favored use of substantive due process in the last fifty years in providing equal treatment for all groups by ferreting out discrimination against marginalized minorities. Scholars have also separately alluded to substantive due process’ ability to protect the most existential of liberties. This works seeks to ...


The Original Scope Of The Congressional Power To Regulate Elections, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2010

The Original Scope Of The Congressional Power To Regulate Elections, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

Courts testing the constitutionality of federal campaign finance laws usually focus on First Amendment issues. More fundamental, however, is the question of whether campaign finance laws are within Congress’s enumerated power to regulate the “Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections.” This Article is an objective examination into the intended scope of this congressional power, using numerous sources overlooked by other legal writers. The Article concludes that the intended scope of the power was wide enough to authorize most modern congressional election statutes, but not wide enough to support modern federal campaign finance laws.


Color-Blind: Procedure's Quiet But Crucial Role In Achieving Racial Justice, Benjamin V. Madison Iii Jan 2010

Color-Blind: Procedure's Quiet But Crucial Role In Achieving Racial Justice, Benjamin V. Madison Iii

Benjamin V Madison, III

This article explores the role of procedural institutions, both in the Constitution and in other laws related to the judicial system, that promote impartial justice. The article explores the twin principles of human fallibility and the equality of all human beings as the fundamental bases of the judicial system. The role of procedure in enabling federal courts to enforce the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education is a featured part of the article.


The Original Meaning Of The Constitution's “Executive Vesting Clause”—Evidence From Eighteenth Century Drafting Practice, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2009

The Original Meaning Of The Constitution's “Executive Vesting Clause”—Evidence From Eighteenth Century Drafting Practice, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

Advocates of presidential power from the days of George Washington at least to the time of George W. Bush have claimed that the Constitution’s so-called “Executive Vesting Clause,” the first sentence of Article II, not only designates the President as chief executive, but also confers broad authority. Some commentators support that view, while others maintain that the President’s powers are limited to those enumerated elsewhere in the Constitution. This study addresses the previously-overlooked question of which interpretation is more consistent with contemporaneous drafting customs. It concludes that treating the “Executive Vesting Clause” as a mere designation is consistent ...


The Original Meaning Of The Privileges And Immunities Clause, Robert G. Natelson Jan 2009

The Original Meaning Of The Privileges And Immunities Clause, Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

This article explains the meaning of the U.S. Constitution's Privileges and Immunities Clause of Article IV, as the Founders understood it. It explains that the terms "privileges" and "immunities" had well-understood content in 18th century law---as benefits created by government. The Clause protects states from discriminating against visitors as to the benefits of citizenship (such as access to the courts), but does not address "natural rights" such as freedom of speech and religion.


Reclaiming Minnesota's Territorial Birthright: Why The Northwest Ordinance Restricts The State's Power Of Eminent Domain To Public Exigencies, Nicholas C. Dranias Jan 2009

Reclaiming Minnesota's Territorial Birthright: Why The Northwest Ordinance Restricts The State's Power Of Eminent Domain To Public Exigencies, Nicholas C. Dranias

Nicholas C Dranias

This short paper explains why the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and the Minnesota state constitution should be read together “as one piece,” and how this reading warrants limiting the use of Minnesota’s power of eminent domain to circumstances of “public exigency.”