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Constitutional Law

2013

First Amendment

Institution
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Internet Control Or Internet Censorship? Comparing The Control Models Of China, Singapore, And The United States To Guide Taiwan’S Choice, Jeffrey Li May 2013

Internet Control Or Internet Censorship? Comparing The Control Models Of China, Singapore, And The United States To Guide Taiwan’S Choice, Jeffrey Li

Jeffrey Li

Internet censorship generally refers to unjustified online speech scrutiny and control by the government or government-approved measures for Internet control. The danger of Internet censorship is the chilling effect and the substantial harm on free speech, a cornerstone of democracy, in cyberspace. This paper compares China’s blocking and filtering system, the class license system of Singapore, and the government-private partnership model of the United States to identify the features, and pros and cons of each model on the international human rights. By finding lessons from each of the model, this paper suggests Taiwan should remain its current meager internet ...


2002 U.S. Supreme Court Term Includes Zoning Referendum Case, Patricia E. Salkin May 2013

2002 U.S. Supreme Court Term Includes Zoning Referendum Case, Patricia E. Salkin

Patricia E. Salkin

No abstract provided.


The Application Of Anti-Discrimination Laws To Religious Institutions: The Irresistible Force Meets The Immovable Object, Oliver S. Thomas Apr 2013

The Application Of Anti-Discrimination Laws To Religious Institutions: The Irresistible Force Meets The Immovable Object, Oliver S. Thomas

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Public Access To Physician And Attorney Disciplinary Proceedings, Michael Spake Apr 2013

Public Access To Physician And Attorney Disciplinary Proceedings, Michael Spake

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Citizen Teacher: Damned If You Do, Damned If You Don't, Susan P. Stuart Apr 2013

Citizen Teacher: Damned If You Do, Damned If You Don't, Susan P. Stuart

Susan P. Stuart

The recent Supreme Court case of Garcetti v. Ceballos is becoming one of the most-used cases in its mere two-year history. It denies to public employees the protection of the First Amendment when speaking in their official duties. In reviewing the cases both leading up to and then relying oh Garcetti, one is struck by the inherent conflict that nowpermeates some school board-employee relationships. Whereas preceding cases attempted to reach a balance between the school board and its employees' speech rights, bad management practices now seem to trump the First Amendment. Such practices have school boards discharging teachers and administrators ...


The Shield Of Rights, The Sword Of Disorder: Robert H. Jackson And Civil Liberties, George B. Crawford Apr 2013

The Shield Of Rights, The Sword Of Disorder: Robert H. Jackson And Civil Liberties, George B. Crawford

George B. Crawford

No abstract provided.


Breaking Terror's Bank Without Breaking The Law: A Comment On The Usa Patriot Act And The United States Financial War On Terrorism , Carrie L. Folendorf Apr 2013

Breaking Terror's Bank Without Breaking The Law: A Comment On The Usa Patriot Act And The United States Financial War On Terrorism , Carrie L. Folendorf

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This comment will discuss the effect of abandoning our Constitution in times of crisis by discussing how Executive Order 13,224 and the USA PATRIOT Act infringe upon our fundamental First Amendment freedoms of association, and how they violate the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment by withholding notice and the opportunity to be heard. Part II will outline legislation which demonstrates how the United States has historically dealt with freezing the assets of designated terrorists, and will include a discussion of the provisions in the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA) and the USA PATRIOT ...


Agencies And The Arts: The Dilemma Of Subsidizing Expression, Jennifer Weatherup Apr 2013

Agencies And The Arts: The Dilemma Of Subsidizing Expression, Jennifer Weatherup

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Muzzling And Caging Administrative Law Judges: The Social Security Administration Attempts To Control Its Most "Notorious" Employees, Allen E. Shoenberger Apr 2013

Muzzling And Caging Administrative Law Judges: The Social Security Administration Attempts To Control Its Most "Notorious" Employees, Allen E. Shoenberger

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Executive Action And The First Amendment's First Word, Daniel J. Hemel Apr 2013

Executive Action And The First Amendment's First Word, Daniel J. Hemel

Pepperdine Law Review

In recent years, textualist scholars have advanced the argument that the First Amendment only applies to legislative action, and thus that executive authority is unencumbered by the First Amendment’s prohibitions. According to this argument, the words “Congress shall make no law” cannot be construed to limit the powers of the executive branch. Upon first glance, it might seem that a textualist reading of the First Amendment’s first word would give the executive branch carte blanche in the regulation of religion, expression, and association. Yet as this Article seeks to show, a textualist reading of the First Amendment’s ...


Redressing The Balance: An Examination Of The Scope First Amendment Protections, Prosecutorial Discretion, And Probable Cause In The Wake Of Hartman V. Moore, Anjoli Terhune Apr 2013

Redressing The Balance: An Examination Of The Scope First Amendment Protections, Prosecutorial Discretion, And Probable Cause In The Wake Of Hartman V. Moore, Anjoli Terhune

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


American Communism And Cold War Censorship: The Creation Of A New American Citizen, Matthew P. Valdespino Apr 2013

American Communism And Cold War Censorship: The Creation Of A New American Citizen, Matthew P. Valdespino

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In this paper, I will examine the relationship between political censorship and Democratic Identity in the United States. Specifically, I will focus on anti-Communist measures aimed at members of the Communist Party of the United States during the Red Scare in the 1950’s. This work will help illuminate on the relationship between political censorship and democratic identity, both on the part of the censors and the censored. Furthermore, by analyzing the Supreme Court’s response to these measures, this work will help demonstrate the link between the Court’s modern jurisprudence on political speech and the decisions of this ...


U.S. Asylum Law As A Path To Religious Persecution, Jack C. Dolance Ii Mar 2013

U.S. Asylum Law As A Path To Religious Persecution, Jack C. Dolance Ii

Jack C Dolance II

U.S. asylum law protects against persecution “on account of . . . religion.” But must the law protect a non-believer seeking religious asylum in the United States? Many may instinctively answer “no,” for a non-believer is by most definitions not “religious.” Such a response misses the mark however — at least in the context of U.S. asylum law, which is subject to the First Amendment. The protection of religious liberty enshrined in the First Amendment embodies freedom from persecution on account of one’s “religion” — in whatever form that religion may take. In the asylum context, then, “religion” must be defined broadly ...


Tactics, Strategies & Battles—Oh My!: Perseverance Of The Perpetual Problem Regarding Preaching To Public School Pupils & Why It Persists, Casey S. Mckay Mar 2013

Tactics, Strategies & Battles—Oh My!: Perseverance Of The Perpetual Problem Regarding Preaching To Public School Pupils & Why It Persists, Casey S. Mckay

Casey Scott McKay

After reviewing the history of the religious war on Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, my article, “Tactics, Strategies & Battles—Oh My!: Perseverance of the Perpetual Problem Regarding Preaching to Public School Pupils & Why it Persists,“ examines why such a seemingly well-settled issue survives and, to some extent, succeeds.

First, by exploiting common misconceptions among the American public, lawmakers are able to take advantage of ignorance driven by strong emotions. Next, religious special interests groups, with seemingly unlimited funds, thrust propaganda supported by worldwide media reinforcement on an already vulnerable American public. Thus, irresponsible state legislators, caught between a rock and ...


For-Profit Corporations, Free Exercise, And The Hhs Mandate, Scott W. Gaylord Mar 2013

For-Profit Corporations, Free Exercise, And The Hhs Mandate, Scott W. Gaylord

Scott W. Gaylord

Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, most employers must provide their employees with health insurance that covers all FDA approved contraceptive methods and sterilization procedures (the “HHS mandate”). Across the country, individuals, religious schools, and corporations have sued to enjoin the mandate, arguing, among other things, that it violates the free exercise clause of the First Amendment and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (“RFRA”). Federal district courts have reached conflicting decisions in the fifteen cases decided to date, leaving the Third, Fourth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Tenth, and D.C. Circuits to sort out the complex relationship between the ...


Dancing Around Equality: Public Schools And Prejudice At The Prom, Jeffrey S. Thomas Mar 2013

Dancing Around Equality: Public Schools And Prejudice At The Prom, Jeffrey S. Thomas

Jeffrey S. Thomas

No abstract provided.


Terrorism And Associations, Ashutosh A. Bhagwat Feb 2013

Terrorism And Associations, Ashutosh A. Bhagwat

Ashutosh Bhagwat

The domestic manifestation of the War on Terror has produced the most difficult and sustained set of controversies regarding the limits on First Amendment protections for political speech and association since the anti-Communist crusades of the Red Scare and McCarthy eras. An examination of the types of domestic terrorism prosecutions that have become common since the September 11 attacks reveals continuing and unresolved conflicts between national security needs and traditional protections for speech and (especially) associational freedoms. Yet the courts have barely begun to acknowledge, much less address, these serious issues. In the Supreme Court’s only sustained engagement with ...


Religions As Sovereigns: Why Religion Is "Special", Elizabeth A. Clark Feb 2013

Religions As Sovereigns: Why Religion Is "Special", Elizabeth A. Clark

Elizabeth A. Clark

Commentators increasingly challenge religion’s privileged legal status, arguing that it is not “special” or distinct from other associations or philosophical or conscientious claims. I propose that religion is “special” because it functions metaphorically as a legal sovereign, asserting supreme authority over a realm of human life. Under a religion-as-sovereign theory, religious freedom can be understood as at least partial deference to a religious sovereign in a system of shared or overlapping sovereignty. This Article suggests that federalism, which also involves shared sovereignty, can provide a useful heuristic device for examining religious freedom. Specifically, the Article examines a range of ...


Consolidated Edison Company Of New York V. Public Service Commission: Freedom Of Speech Extended To Monopolies - Is There No Escape For The Consumer?, Lynn K. Warren Feb 2013

Consolidated Edison Company Of New York V. Public Service Commission: Freedom Of Speech Extended To Monopolies - Is There No Escape For The Consumer?, Lynn K. Warren

Pepperdine Law Review

The author's focus is upon an opinion of the United States Supreme Court which silently extended first amendment freedoms to a corporate monopoly. The majority attempts a balancing of the monopoly utility's freedom of speech against the state's protection of the privacy interests of the ratepayers and finds the privacy interest not to be so compelling as to justify any restriction on freedom of speech. The author suggests that the privacy interest is so substantial as to be compelling and further agrees with the dissent, that because of the special position of the Consolidated Edison Company as ...


A Barometer Of Freedom Of The Press: The Opinions Of Mr. Justice White , Michael J. Armstrong Feb 2013

A Barometer Of Freedom Of The Press: The Opinions Of Mr. Justice White , Michael J. Armstrong

Pepperdine Law Review

Since the Zurcher v. Stanford Daily decision which was authored by Justice Byron F. White, the news media has become increasingly concerned with its' first amendment protections from governmental searches. Since Justice White has been the voice of the United States Supreme Court on this very issue, the author submits that an examination of Justice White's media related opinions can serve as a "barometer" for the constitutional protections of the news media. The author examines the use of Justice White to the Supreme Court, his staunch adherence to stare decisis, and the historical foundation of the first amendment as ...


Heffron V. International Society For Krishna Consciousness Inc.: A Restrictive Constitutional View Of The Proselytizing Rights Of Religious Organizations , Michael M. Greenburg Feb 2013

Heffron V. International Society For Krishna Consciousness Inc.: A Restrictive Constitutional View Of The Proselytizing Rights Of Religious Organizations , Michael M. Greenburg

Pepperdine Law Review

The persistent efforts of religious organizations to reach their public have consistently been met with governmental limitation due to the often conflicting interests of public order, and free speech and expression. Heffron v. International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. represents the Court's latest redefinition of the extent of permissible limitations upon the activities of these groups. The author examines the decision in light of the traditional criteria for permissible time, place, and manner restrictions upon free speech and evaluates the Court's implementation of these restrictions with respect to the activities of the Krishna group. The impact of the ...


Chandler V. Florida: Cameras, Courts, And The Constitution, Allen F. Camp Feb 2013

Chandler V. Florida: Cameras, Courts, And The Constitution, Allen F. Camp

Pepperdine Law Review

The rising importance of television journalism in the 1960's has resulted in the Supreme Court deciding whether a criminal defendant's due process rights are violated by camera coverage of the courtroom proceeding. The decision of Chandler v. Florida clearly provides the answer; for unless a defendant proves prejudice with specificity, the Constitution does not ban televised criminal trials. The author examines the issues with a revealing historical perspective. He then traces the Court's factual and legal analysis and concludes that the decision will serve to offer the states guidance in deciding whether to implement a program allowing ...


A New Standard Of Review In Free Exercise Cases: Thomas V. Review Board Of The Indiana Employment & Security Division, Lynn Mccutchen Gardner Feb 2013

A New Standard Of Review In Free Exercise Cases: Thomas V. Review Board Of The Indiana Employment & Security Division, Lynn Mccutchen Gardner

Pepperdine Law Review

In Thomas v. Review Board of the Indiana Employment Security Division, the United States Supreme Court was called upon to clarify the appropriate level of review to be applied in cases which examine the first amendment right to free exercise of religion. The Court ruled that the "compelling state interest" test is the proper standard to be used. The Court also accorded first amendment protection to beliefs which are not shared by other members of a religious group and which are instead the unique interpretation of an individual member and not acceptable, logical, consistent or comprehensible to others.


Banning Books In Public Schools: Board Of Education V. Pico, Kelly Bowers Feb 2013

Banning Books In Public Schools: Board Of Education V. Pico, Kelly Bowers

Pepperdine Law Review

In Island Trees Union Free School District v. Pico five members of the Supreme Court, in three separate opinions, held that the first amendment places some constraints on a school board's power to remove books from its school libraries. Although the opinions were couched in terms of preventing censorship, the effect of this decision was to create a right guaranteeing students access to books approved by the federal judiciary.


The Constitutional Issues Surrounding The Science-Religion Conflict In Public Schools: The Anti-Evolution Controversy, Michael M. Greenburg Feb 2013

The Constitutional Issues Surrounding The Science-Religion Conflict In Public Schools: The Anti-Evolution Controversy, Michael M. Greenburg

Pepperdine Law Review

Since the infamous Scopes trial the matter of the constitutional validity of the "anti-evolution" laws has plagued both legal scholars and school administrators. The courts have generally invalidated legislation which bans outright the teaching of evolution in public schools, but with the advent of the "balanced treatment" acts, a revival of this litigation has begun. The author examines the constitutional analysis utilized by the courts in dealing with the "anti-evolution" and "balanced treatment" acts and provides an historical perspective of the first amendment to question the Court's response to the issue.


Religion And First Amendment Prosecutions: An Analysis Of Justice Black's Constitutional Interpretation, Constance Mauney Feb 2013

Religion And First Amendment Prosecutions: An Analysis Of Justice Black's Constitutional Interpretation, Constance Mauney

Pepperdine Law Review

Justice Hugo L. Black served on the United States Supreme Court over a period of thirty-four years, encompassing Supreme Court terms from 1937 to 1971. During this period, the subject of the constitutional limitations of the freedom of religion was increasingly subjected to intense social pressures. Justice Black figured prominently in the development of constitutional law as the Supreme Court attempted to give meaning to the establishment and free exercise clause of the first amendment. He wrote the majority opinions which dealt with the establishment clause in the Everson, McCulloin, Engel and Torcaso cases. Yet, on later occasions, Justice Black ...


The First Amendment Right To Bare All: How Should Courts Apply The Secondary Effects Doctrine To Strip Bars And Other Sexually Oriented Businesses?, Andrew L. Arons Feb 2013

The First Amendment Right To Bare All: How Should Courts Apply The Secondary Effects Doctrine To Strip Bars And Other Sexually Oriented Businesses?, Andrew L. Arons

Andrew L Arons

The U.S. Supreme Court has developed a deferential First Amendment Doctrine that can be used to uphold laws that target speakers on the basis of the content of their speech. This so-called “secondary effects” doctrine relies on a fictional premise: state and local laws that target certain forms of speech are actually aimed at the adverse secondary effects of the speech. The doctrine supposedly applies to any form of speech that produces secondary effects. It also theoretically permits targeted speakers to challenge the constitutionality of such laws by disproving the existence of secondary effects. Nevertheless, lower courts have impliedly ...


Voting Rights And Freedom Of Speech Decisions From The October 2007 Term, Burt Neuborne Feb 2013

Voting Rights And Freedom Of Speech Decisions From The October 2007 Term, Burt Neuborne

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Marsh V. Chambers: The Supreme Court Takes A New Look At The Establishment Clause, Diane L. Walker Feb 2013

Marsh V. Chambers: The Supreme Court Takes A New Look At The Establishment Clause, Diane L. Walker

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Some Observations On The Establishment Clause, William French Smith Feb 2013

Some Observations On The Establishment Clause, William French Smith

Pepperdine Law Review

As evidenced by current interpretations of the establishment clause, lower federal court decisions indicate an increased tendency of hostility toward religion. In this article, Attorney General William French Smith surveys the history of the establishment clause and Supreme Court decisions regarding religious issues. Attorney General Smith then notes the recent success of the Reagan Administration's efforts, through amicus curiae briefs, to advocate an interpretation of the establishment clause which permits the states to take an attitude of benevolent neutrality toward religion. The article then concludes that such a position is both historically and judicially sound.