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Academic Freedom And Professorial Speech In The Post-Garcetti World, Oren R. Griffin Nov 2013

Academic Freedom And Professorial Speech In The Post-Garcetti World, Oren R. Griffin

Seattle University Law Review

Academic freedom, a coveted feature of higher education, is the concept that faculty should be free to perform their essential functions as professors and scholars without the threat of retaliation or undue administrative influence. The central mission of an academic institution, teach-ing and research, is well served by academic freedom that allows the faculty to conduct its work in the absence of censorship or coercion. In support of this proposition, courts have long held that academic freedom is a special concern of the First Amendment, granting professors and faculty members cherished protections regarding academic speech. In Garcetti v. Ceballos, the ...


Mania: The Lives, Literature, And Law Of The Beats, Ronald K.L. Collins, David M. Skover Nov 2013

Mania: The Lives, Literature, And Law Of The Beats, Ronald K.L. Collins, David M. Skover

Seattle University Law Review

The Beats introduced the counter-culture to twentieth century America. They were the first to break away from Eisenhower conformity, from the era of the Man in the Grey Flannel Suit. With them came an infusion of rebel spirit—a spirit that hearkened back to Walt Whitman—in their lives, literature, and law. Their literature spawned a remarkable chapter in American obscenity law. The prosecution of Allen Ginsberg’s epic poem, Howl, was the last of its kind in this nation; and the prosecution of William Burroughs’s Naked Lunch is one of the last times that a novel was charged ...


Speech As A Weapon: Planned Parenthood V. American Coalition Of Life Activists And The Need For A Reasonable Listener Standard, Alex J. Berkman Oct 2013

Speech As A Weapon: Planned Parenthood V. American Coalition Of Life Activists And The Need For A Reasonable Listener Standard, Alex J. Berkman

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Sins Of Hosanna-Tabor, Leslie Griffin Jul 2013

The Sins Of Hosanna-Tabor, Leslie Griffin

Indiana Law Journal

The Supreme Court has lost sight of individual religious freedom. In Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC, the Court for the first time recognized the ministerial exception, a court-created doctrine that holds that the First Amendment requires the dismissal of many employment discrimination cases against religious employers. The Court ruled unanimously that Cheryl Perich, an elementary school teacher who was fired after she tried to return to school from disability leave, could not pursue an antidiscrimination lawsuit against her employer.

This Article criticizes Hosanna-Tabor as a profound misinterpretation of the First Amendment. The Court mistakenly protected religious institutions’ religious ...


When The Classroom Is Not In The Schoolhouse: Applying Tinker To Student Speech At Online Schools, Brett T. Macintyre May 2013

When The Classroom Is Not In The Schoolhouse: Applying Tinker To Student Speech At Online Schools, Brett T. Macintyre

Seattle University Law Review

Despite the overwhelming increase in students’ Internet use and the growing popularity of online public schools, the United States Supreme Court has never addressed how, or if, schools can discipline students for disruptive online speech without violating the students’ First Amendment rights. What the Supreme Court has addressed is how school administrators can constitutionally discipline students within traditional schools. In a landmark decision, Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, the Supreme Court announced the now famous principle that students do not “shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate.” Still, the Court ...


Section 501(C)(4) Advocacy Organizations: Political Candidate-Related And Other Partisan Activities In Furtherance Of The Social Welfare, Terence Dougherty May 2013

Section 501(C)(4) Advocacy Organizations: Political Candidate-Related And Other Partisan Activities In Furtherance Of The Social Welfare, Terence Dougherty

Seattle University Law Review

In the wake of the 2012 presidential election, tax and political law lawyers are left with a number of unanswered questions concerning the political activities of tax-exempt organizations. Despite the importance of these questions, there are striking gaps in the authority of federal tax law governing the conduct of political candidate and other partisan-related activities by tax-exempt organizations. Assuming activities in furtherance of partisan interests are activities that support private interests, I consider what this authority may tell us about the permissibility of Section 501(c)(4) organizations engaging in partisan political activities and having as a constitutive purpose a ...


The Application Of Anti-Discrimination Laws To Religious Institutions: The Irresistible Force Meets The Immovable Object, Oliver S. Thomas Apr 2013

The Application Of Anti-Discrimination Laws To Religious Institutions: The Irresistible Force Meets The Immovable Object, Oliver S. Thomas

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Public Access To Physician And Attorney Disciplinary Proceedings, Michael Spake Apr 2013

Public Access To Physician And Attorney Disciplinary Proceedings, Michael Spake

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Breaking Terror's Bank Without Breaking The Law: A Comment On The Usa Patriot Act And The United States Financial War On Terrorism , Carrie L. Folendorf Apr 2013

Breaking Terror's Bank Without Breaking The Law: A Comment On The Usa Patriot Act And The United States Financial War On Terrorism , Carrie L. Folendorf

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This comment will discuss the effect of abandoning our Constitution in times of crisis by discussing how Executive Order 13,224 and the USA PATRIOT Act infringe upon our fundamental First Amendment freedoms of association, and how they violate the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment by withholding notice and the opportunity to be heard. Part II will outline legislation which demonstrates how the United States has historically dealt with freezing the assets of designated terrorists, and will include a discussion of the provisions in the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA) and the USA PATRIOT ...


Agencies And The Arts: The Dilemma Of Subsidizing Expression, Jennifer Weatherup Apr 2013

Agencies And The Arts: The Dilemma Of Subsidizing Expression, Jennifer Weatherup

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Muzzling And Caging Administrative Law Judges: The Social Security Administration Attempts To Control Its Most "Notorious" Employees, Allen E. Shoenberger Apr 2013

Muzzling And Caging Administrative Law Judges: The Social Security Administration Attempts To Control Its Most "Notorious" Employees, Allen E. Shoenberger

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Executive Action And The First Amendment's First Word, Daniel J. Hemel Apr 2013

Executive Action And The First Amendment's First Word, Daniel J. Hemel

Pepperdine Law Review

In recent years, textualist scholars have advanced the argument that the First Amendment only applies to legislative action, and thus that executive authority is unencumbered by the First Amendment’s prohibitions. According to this argument, the words “Congress shall make no law” cannot be construed to limit the powers of the executive branch. Upon first glance, it might seem that a textualist reading of the First Amendment’s first word would give the executive branch carte blanche in the regulation of religion, expression, and association. Yet as this Article seeks to show, a textualist reading of the First Amendment’s ...


Redressing The Balance: An Examination Of The Scope First Amendment Protections, Prosecutorial Discretion, And Probable Cause In The Wake Of Hartman V. Moore, Anjoli Terhune Apr 2013

Redressing The Balance: An Examination Of The Scope First Amendment Protections, Prosecutorial Discretion, And Probable Cause In The Wake Of Hartman V. Moore, Anjoli Terhune

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Consolidated Edison Company Of New York V. Public Service Commission: Freedom Of Speech Extended To Monopolies - Is There No Escape For The Consumer?, Lynn K. Warren Feb 2013

Consolidated Edison Company Of New York V. Public Service Commission: Freedom Of Speech Extended To Monopolies - Is There No Escape For The Consumer?, Lynn K. Warren

Pepperdine Law Review

The author's focus is upon an opinion of the United States Supreme Court which silently extended first amendment freedoms to a corporate monopoly. The majority attempts a balancing of the monopoly utility's freedom of speech against the state's protection of the privacy interests of the ratepayers and finds the privacy interest not to be so compelling as to justify any restriction on freedom of speech. The author suggests that the privacy interest is so substantial as to be compelling and further agrees with the dissent, that because of the special position of the Consolidated Edison Company as ...


A Barometer Of Freedom Of The Press: The Opinions Of Mr. Justice White , Michael J. Armstrong Feb 2013

A Barometer Of Freedom Of The Press: The Opinions Of Mr. Justice White , Michael J. Armstrong

Pepperdine Law Review

Since the Zurcher v. Stanford Daily decision which was authored by Justice Byron F. White, the news media has become increasingly concerned with its' first amendment protections from governmental searches. Since Justice White has been the voice of the United States Supreme Court on this very issue, the author submits that an examination of Justice White's media related opinions can serve as a "barometer" for the constitutional protections of the news media. The author examines the use of Justice White to the Supreme Court, his staunch adherence to stare decisis, and the historical foundation of the first amendment as ...


Heffron V. International Society For Krishna Consciousness Inc.: A Restrictive Constitutional View Of The Proselytizing Rights Of Religious Organizations , Michael M. Greenburg Feb 2013

Heffron V. International Society For Krishna Consciousness Inc.: A Restrictive Constitutional View Of The Proselytizing Rights Of Religious Organizations , Michael M. Greenburg

Pepperdine Law Review

The persistent efforts of religious organizations to reach their public have consistently been met with governmental limitation due to the often conflicting interests of public order, and free speech and expression. Heffron v. International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. represents the Court's latest redefinition of the extent of permissible limitations upon the activities of these groups. The author examines the decision in light of the traditional criteria for permissible time, place, and manner restrictions upon free speech and evaluates the Court's implementation of these restrictions with respect to the activities of the Krishna group. The impact of the ...


Chandler V. Florida: Cameras, Courts, And The Constitution, Allen F. Camp Feb 2013

Chandler V. Florida: Cameras, Courts, And The Constitution, Allen F. Camp

Pepperdine Law Review

The rising importance of television journalism in the 1960's has resulted in the Supreme Court deciding whether a criminal defendant's due process rights are violated by camera coverage of the courtroom proceeding. The decision of Chandler v. Florida clearly provides the answer; for unless a defendant proves prejudice with specificity, the Constitution does not ban televised criminal trials. The author examines the issues with a revealing historical perspective. He then traces the Court's factual and legal analysis and concludes that the decision will serve to offer the states guidance in deciding whether to implement a program allowing ...


A New Standard Of Review In Free Exercise Cases: Thomas V. Review Board Of The Indiana Employment & Security Division, Lynn Mccutchen Gardner Feb 2013

A New Standard Of Review In Free Exercise Cases: Thomas V. Review Board Of The Indiana Employment & Security Division, Lynn Mccutchen Gardner

Pepperdine Law Review

In Thomas v. Review Board of the Indiana Employment Security Division, the United States Supreme Court was called upon to clarify the appropriate level of review to be applied in cases which examine the first amendment right to free exercise of religion. The Court ruled that the "compelling state interest" test is the proper standard to be used. The Court also accorded first amendment protection to beliefs which are not shared by other members of a religious group and which are instead the unique interpretation of an individual member and not acceptable, logical, consistent or comprehensible to others.


Banning Books In Public Schools: Board Of Education V. Pico, Kelly Bowers Feb 2013

Banning Books In Public Schools: Board Of Education V. Pico, Kelly Bowers

Pepperdine Law Review

In Island Trees Union Free School District v. Pico five members of the Supreme Court, in three separate opinions, held that the first amendment places some constraints on a school board's power to remove books from its school libraries. Although the opinions were couched in terms of preventing censorship, the effect of this decision was to create a right guaranteeing students access to books approved by the federal judiciary.


The Constitutional Issues Surrounding The Science-Religion Conflict In Public Schools: The Anti-Evolution Controversy, Michael M. Greenburg Feb 2013

The Constitutional Issues Surrounding The Science-Religion Conflict In Public Schools: The Anti-Evolution Controversy, Michael M. Greenburg

Pepperdine Law Review

Since the infamous Scopes trial the matter of the constitutional validity of the "anti-evolution" laws has plagued both legal scholars and school administrators. The courts have generally invalidated legislation which bans outright the teaching of evolution in public schools, but with the advent of the "balanced treatment" acts, a revival of this litigation has begun. The author examines the constitutional analysis utilized by the courts in dealing with the "anti-evolution" and "balanced treatment" acts and provides an historical perspective of the first amendment to question the Court's response to the issue.


Religion And First Amendment Prosecutions: An Analysis Of Justice Black's Constitutional Interpretation, Constance Mauney Feb 2013

Religion And First Amendment Prosecutions: An Analysis Of Justice Black's Constitutional Interpretation, Constance Mauney

Pepperdine Law Review

Justice Hugo L. Black served on the United States Supreme Court over a period of thirty-four years, encompassing Supreme Court terms from 1937 to 1971. During this period, the subject of the constitutional limitations of the freedom of religion was increasingly subjected to intense social pressures. Justice Black figured prominently in the development of constitutional law as the Supreme Court attempted to give meaning to the establishment and free exercise clause of the first amendment. He wrote the majority opinions which dealt with the establishment clause in the Everson, McCulloin, Engel and Torcaso cases. Yet, on later occasions, Justice Black ...


Voting Rights And Freedom Of Speech Decisions From The October 2007 Term, Burt Neuborne Feb 2013

Voting Rights And Freedom Of Speech Decisions From The October 2007 Term, Burt Neuborne

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Marsh V. Chambers: The Supreme Court Takes A New Look At The Establishment Clause, Diane L. Walker Feb 2013

Marsh V. Chambers: The Supreme Court Takes A New Look At The Establishment Clause, Diane L. Walker

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Some Observations On The Establishment Clause, William French Smith Feb 2013

Some Observations On The Establishment Clause, William French Smith

Pepperdine Law Review

As evidenced by current interpretations of the establishment clause, lower federal court decisions indicate an increased tendency of hostility toward religion. In this article, Attorney General William French Smith surveys the history of the establishment clause and Supreme Court decisions regarding religious issues. Attorney General Smith then notes the recent success of the Reagan Administration's efforts, through amicus curiae briefs, to advocate an interpretation of the establishment clause which permits the states to take an attitude of benevolent neutrality toward religion. The article then concludes that such a position is both historically and judicially sound.


Public Policy Against Religion: Doubting Thomas , Richard H. Seeburger Jan 2013

Public Policy Against Religion: Doubting Thomas , Richard H. Seeburger

Pepperdine Law Review

In free exercise cases, the Supreme Court has adopted a least restrictive alternative test in an attempt to maximize protection for religiously motivated practices. Because the least restrictive alternative test only considers the importance of the governmental interest and the availability of alternative means to accomplish those interests, thereby ignoring the importance of the burdened religious activity to the individual and the degree of burden on religious activity, all religious interests are treated equally when asserted against a governmental interest. Under such an inflexible and brittle test, the Supreme Court has recently denied religious claims which had previously been recognized ...


Negligent Infliction Of Emotional Distress: New Tort Problem For The Mass Media, Robert E. Drechsel Jan 2013

Negligent Infliction Of Emotional Distress: New Tort Problem For The Mass Media, Robert E. Drechsel

Pepperdine Law Review

Negligent infliction of emotional distress is becoming an increasingly popular cause of action to be utilized against media defendants. This article begins by tracing the development of the tort and explaining its central elements through cases involving mass media defendants. It studies the relationship between negligent infliction and the torts of libel, invasion of privacy, and intentional infliction of emotional distress. After considering the appropriate balance between expression and emotional tranquility, it is concluded that negligent infliction actions present an ominous threat to the free flow of expression. Sound policy considerations, flowing in part from the first amendment, dictate that ...


Judicial Review Of The Zoning Of Adult Entertainment: A Search For The Purposeful Suppression Of Protected Speech, Alfred C. Yen Jan 2013

Judicial Review Of The Zoning Of Adult Entertainment: A Search For The Purposeful Suppression Of Protected Speech, Alfred C. Yen

Pepperdine Law Review

The conflict surrounding the zoning of adult entertainment is not novel. The antagonism stems from a community's right to provide for its social welfare and the adult entertainment provider's right to freedom of speech and expression. This article examines the evolution of the federal courts' analysis in this area. The author concludes by stating that the current method of review is not the most efficient. In its place, he proposes a new method that makes analysis simpler for both laypersons and the courts.


Justice O'Connor And The First Amendment 1981-84, Edward V. Heck, Paula C. Arledge Jan 2013

Justice O'Connor And The First Amendment 1981-84, Edward V. Heck, Paula C. Arledge

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of A First Amendment Challenge To Rent-A-Judge Proceedings , Perry L. Glantz Jan 2013

Analysis Of A First Amendment Challenge To Rent-A-Judge Proceedings , Perry L. Glantz

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Copyright And The First Amendment: Freedom Or Monopoly Of Expression?, Henry S. Hoberman Jan 2013

Copyright And The First Amendment: Freedom Or Monopoly Of Expression?, Henry S. Hoberman

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.