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West Lynn Creamery And The Constitutionality Of State Tax Incentives, Walter Hellerstein Oct 1994

West Lynn Creamery And The Constitutionality Of State Tax Incentives, Walter Hellerstein

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One of the more perplexing questions that has surfaced from time to time in the state tax field is how a constitutionally benign tax incentive program designed to attract industry to a state is to be distinguished from an unconstitutionally discriminatory taxing scheme that “forecloses tax-neutral decisions” and “provides a direct commercial advantage to local business.” On one hand, the U.S. Supreme Court has expressed the view that its decisions do “not prevent the States from structuring their tax systems to encourage the growth and development of intrastate commerce and industry.” On the other hand, the Court has frequently ...


Restricting The Right Of Correspondence In The Prison Context: Thornburgh V. Abbott And Its Progeny, Samuel J. Levine Jan 1994

Restricting The Right Of Correspondence In The Prison Context: Thornburgh V. Abbott And Its Progeny, Samuel J. Levine

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In Thornburgh v. Abbott, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of regulations that allowed prison officials to reject certain publications sent by publishers to prisoners. Finding the regulations reasonably related to legitimate penological interests, the Court for the first time applied a reasonableness standard to restrictions that directly affected the First Amendment rights of nonprisoners. Part I of this Note briefly reviews the instrumental Supreme Court decisions addressing First Amendment rights in the prison context. This Part traces the development of the standard of review for prison regulations that restrict First Amendment freedoms for both prisoners and nonprisoners. It concludes ...


Section 1983 In The Second Circuit, Martin A. Schwartz Jan 1994

Section 1983 In The Second Circuit, Martin A. Schwartz

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No abstract provided.


Constitutional Implications Of Acquisition-Value Real Property Taxation: The Elusive Rational Basis, Mary Lafrance Jan 1994

Constitutional Implications Of Acquisition-Value Real Property Taxation: The Elusive Rational Basis, Mary Lafrance

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This article is the first in a two-part series addressing the constitutional implications of acquisition-value real property taxation. Acquisition-value real property taxation systems represent a departure from the traditional practice of taxing real property on its current fair market value. In contrast to traditional systems, which are still employed by the vast majority of states, under acquisition- value taxation a real estate owner's property tax liability is determined by the value of the property when the taxpayer acquired it. In periods of rising real estate prices, such a scheme compels later buyers to shoulder a higher annual tax liability ...


Mandatory Non-Anonymous Testing Of Newborns For Hiv: Should It Ever Be Allowed?, Jean R. Sternlight Jan 1994

Mandatory Non-Anonymous Testing Of Newborns For Hiv: Should It Ever Be Allowed?, Jean R. Sternlight

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In response to cries from both the public and the medical community for increased research and improved treatments with respect to pediatric AIDS, some state legislatures have attempted to enact legislation that would require routine mandatory testing of newborns for HIV on a non-anonymous basis.

Those who favor mandatory testing of newborns contend that such testing is necessary in order to protect the health of newborns and to ensure that the newborns' doctors provide them with adequate care. Moreover, testing advocates argue that because most hospitals already screen anonymously, failing to inform parents of the test results is inappropriate and ...


Advising The President: Separation Of Powers And The Federal Advisory Committee Act, Jay S. Bybee Jan 1994

Advising The President: Separation Of Powers And The Federal Advisory Committee Act, Jay S. Bybee

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This Article examines the tensions between Congress, the judiciary, and the President over presidential use of advisory committees. It argues that courts, in attempting to avoid difficult constitutional questions, have misread the Federal Advisory Committee Act (“FACA”). Properly construed, FACA violates separation of powers by limiting the terms on which the President can acquire information from nongovernmental advisory committees.

The author argues that the President does have the power to consult with outside advisers, and that FACA unconstitutionally infringes upon that power. FACA fails to draw a distinction between congressionally created advisory committees and presidentially created advisory committees, and assumes ...


Constitutional Implications Of Acquisition-Value Real Property Taxation: Assessing The Burdens On Travel And Commerce, Mary Lafrance Jan 1994

Constitutional Implications Of Acquisition-Value Real Property Taxation: Assessing The Burdens On Travel And Commerce, Mary Lafrance

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This article is the second in a two-part series addressing the constitutional implications of acquisition-value real property taxation. This Article addresses constitutional issues raised by systems of real property taxation that base a property owner's tax assessment not on the current value of the property but on its value on the date the taxpayer acquired it. The first Article in this series described the operation of acquisition-value systems of real property taxation such as those adopted by California in 1978 and Florida in 1992, and evaluated the equal protection challenges to the California system (“Proposition 13”) which culminated in ...


Employment Discrimination: Recent Developments In The Supreme Court (Symposium: The Supreme Court And Local Government Law: The 1992-93 Term), Eileen Kaufman Jan 1994

Employment Discrimination: Recent Developments In The Supreme Court (Symposium: The Supreme Court And Local Government Law: The 1992-93 Term), Eileen Kaufman

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At a symposium entitled, “The Supreme Court and Local Government Law; The 1992/93 Term”, Professor Eileen Kaufman spoke about the cases involving employment discrimination that were decided during that particular Term, Hazen Paper Company v. Biggins and St. Mary's Honor Center v. Hicks. While Hazen is an age discrimination case and St. Mary's is a Title VII case, they can be viewed as companion cases which serve to explain what an employment discrimination plaintiff must now establish when attempting to prove disparate treatment by indirect evidence. By way of preview, suffice it to say that plaintiff's ...