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Sacred Cows, Holy Wars: Exploring The Limits Of Law In The Regulation Of Raw Milk And Kosher Meat, Kenneth Lasson Dec 2013

Sacred Cows, Holy Wars: Exploring The Limits Of Law In The Regulation Of Raw Milk And Kosher Meat, Kenneth Lasson

Kenneth Lasson

SACRED COWS, HOLY WARS Exploring the Limits of Law in the Regulation of Raw Milk and Kosher Meat By Kenneth Lasson Abstract In a free society law and religion seldom coincide comfortably, tending instead to reflect the inherent tension that often resides between the two. This is nowhere more apparent than in America, where the underlying principle upon which the first freedom enunciated by the Constitution’s Bill of Rights is based ‒ the separation of church and state – is conceptually at odds with the pragmatic compromises that may be reached. But our adherence to the primacy of individual rights and ...


Religion, Division, And The First Amendment, Richard W. Garnett Nov 2013

Religion, Division, And The First Amendment, Richard W. Garnett

Richard W Garnett

Nearly thirty-five years ago, in Lemon v. Kurtzman, Chief Justice Warren Burger declared that state programs or policies could excessive(ly) - and, therefore, unconstitutionally - entangle government and religion, not only by requiring or allowing intrusive public monitoring of religious institutions and activities, but also through what he called their divisive political potential. Chief Justice Burger asserted also, and more fundamentally, that political division along religious lines was one of the principal evils against which the First Amendment was intended to protect. And from this Hobbesian premise about the inten(t) animating the First Amendment, he proceeded on the assumption that ...


Judicial Review, Local Values, And Pluralism, Richard W. Garnett Nov 2013

Judicial Review, Local Values, And Pluralism, Richard W. Garnett

Richard W Garnett

At the Federalist Society's 2008 National Student Symposium, a panel of scholars was asked to consider the question, does pervasive judicial review threaten to destroy local identity by homogenizing community norms? The answer to this question is yes, pervasive judicial review certainly does threaten local identity, because such review can homogenize[e] community norms, either by dragging them into conformity with national, constitutional standards or (more controversially) by subordinating them to the reviewers' own commitments. It is important to recall, however, that while it is true that an important feature of our federalism is local variation in laws and ...


The Categorical Approach To Protecting Speech In American Constitutional Law, Daniel A. Farber Sep 2013

The Categorical Approach To Protecting Speech In American Constitutional Law, Daniel A. Farber

Daniel A Farber

Symposium: An Ocean Apart? Freedom of Expression in Europe and the United States. This Article was originally written in French and delivered as a conference paper at a symposium held by the Center for American Law of the University of Paris II (Panthèon-Assas) on January 18-19, 2008.


Religious Pretenders In The Courts: Unmasking The Imposters, John O. Hayward Sep 2013

Religious Pretenders In The Courts: Unmasking The Imposters, John O. Hayward

John O. Hayward

When courts decide First Amendment “Free Exercise” cases, they often are confronted with the daunting task of defining what exactly is a “religion.” This article examines how judicial definitions and interpretations of religious faith have evolved over many decades, including legal recognition of Wicca (modern day witchcraft) and Hare Krishna as “religions,” as well as courts steering clear of the issue whenever possible, for example, when faced with an adherent of the “Church of Body Modification” who claims her employer’s dress code violates her religion. It also explores how courts have sought to uncover deception and fraud hiding behind ...


A Comprehensive Approach To Bridging The Gap Between Cyberbullying Rules And Regulations And The Protections Offered By The First Amendment For Off-Campus Student Speech, Vahagn Amirian Aug 2013

A Comprehensive Approach To Bridging The Gap Between Cyberbullying Rules And Regulations And The Protections Offered By The First Amendment For Off-Campus Student Speech, Vahagn Amirian

Vahagn Amirian

No abstract provided.


"Kill The Sea Turtles" And Other Things You Can't Make The Government Say, Scott W. Gaylord Aug 2013

"Kill The Sea Turtles" And Other Things You Can't Make The Government Say, Scott W. Gaylord

Scott W. Gaylord

In Pleasant Grove City v. Summum, the Supreme Court confirmed that there is no heckler’s veto under the government speech doctrine. When speaking, the government has the right to speak for itself and to select the views that it wants to express. But the Court acknowledged that sometimes it is difficult to determine whether the government is actually speaking. Specialty license plates have proven to be one of those difficult situations, raising novel and important First Amendment issues. Six circuits have reached four separate conclusions regarding the status of messages on specialty license plates. Three circuits have held that ...


The Conspiracy Origin Of The First Amendment, Steven R. Morrison Jul 2013

The Conspiracy Origin Of The First Amendment, Steven R. Morrison

Steven R Morrison

Scholars and jurists have misunderstood the import of three seminal 1919 First Amendment cases—Schenck v. United States, Frohwerk v. United States, and Abrams v. United States—as primarily free speech cases. They are better understood as free assembly cases. This is important for two reasons. First, individuals’ speech has the intended First Amendment effect only when speakers combine into groups. Second, the 1919 cases were the beginning of substantive First Amendment law, and so have resulted in a First Amendment jurisprudence that favors individual rights over group rights. This is a constitutional and normative mistake. Combined with the first ...


"Merchants Of Discontent": An Exploration Of The Psychology Of Advertising, Addiction, And The Implications For Commercial Speech, Tamara R. Piety Jul 2013

"Merchants Of Discontent": An Exploration Of The Psychology Of Advertising, Addiction, And The Implications For Commercial Speech, Tamara R. Piety

Tamara R. Piety

In this paper, I attempt to draw parallels between the psychology of commercial advertising and marketing and the psychology of addiction. Both appear to be characterized by denial, escapism, narcissism, isolation, insatiability, impatience, and diminished sensitivity. Advertising appeals to these impulses and addiction is marked by them. In what follows, I explore these parallels in general and then explore the potential consequences or side effects in three specific contexts: the advertising of addictive products, advertising and children, and advertising and women. In these three areas, there is some evidence that advertising may be contributing to negative social phenomena in a ...


Municipal Liability And Liability Of Supervisors: Litigation Significance Of Recent Trends And Developments, Karen Blum, Celeste Koeleveld, Joel B. Rudin, Martin A. Schwartz Jun 2013

Municipal Liability And Liability Of Supervisors: Litigation Significance Of Recent Trends And Developments, Karen Blum, Celeste Koeleveld, Joel B. Rudin, Martin A. Schwartz

Martin A. Schwartz

"The purpose of this presentation is to examine two recent Supreme Court decisions, Connick v. Thompson and Ashcroft v. Iqbal with an eye to their impact on how lower federal courts will assess such claims in the wake of new constraints imposed by these cases. The focus of the discussion will be on developments in single-incident liability cases after Connick and supervisory liability claims after Iqbal."


Use "The Filter You Were Born With": The Unconstitutionality Of Mandatory Internet Filtering For The Adult Patrons Of Public Libraries, Richard J. Peltz-Steele Jun 2013

Use "The Filter You Were Born With": The Unconstitutionality Of Mandatory Internet Filtering For The Adult Patrons Of Public Libraries, Richard J. Peltz-Steele

Richard J. Peltz-Steele

The only federal court (at the time of this writing) to consider the question ruled unconstitutional the mandatory filtering of Internet access for the adult patrons of public libraries. That 1998 decision helped the American Library Association and other free speech advocates fend off mandatory filtering for two years at the state and federal level, against the vigorous efforts of filtering proponents. Then, in 2000, the U.S. Congress conditioned federal funding of libraries on filter use, forcing the question into the courts as the latest colossal struggle over Internet regulation. This Article contends that the federal court in 1998 ...


2002 U.S. Supreme Court Term Includes Zoning Referendum Case, Patricia E. Salkin May 2013

2002 U.S. Supreme Court Term Includes Zoning Referendum Case, Patricia E. Salkin

Patricia E. Salkin

No abstract provided.


Citizen Teacher: Damned If You Do, Damned If You Don't, Susan P. Stuart Apr 2013

Citizen Teacher: Damned If You Do, Damned If You Don't, Susan P. Stuart

Susan P. Stuart

The recent Supreme Court case of Garcetti v. Ceballos is becoming one of the most-used cases in its mere two-year history. It denies to public employees the protection of the First Amendment when speaking in their official duties. In reviewing the cases both leading up to and then relying oh Garcetti, one is struck by the inherent conflict that nowpermeates some school board-employee relationships. Whereas preceding cases attempted to reach a balance between the school board and its employees' speech rights, bad management practices now seem to trump the First Amendment. Such practices have school boards discharging teachers and administrators ...


Dancing Around Equality: Public Schools And Prejudice At The Prom, Jeffrey S. Thomas Mar 2013

Dancing Around Equality: Public Schools And Prejudice At The Prom, Jeffrey S. Thomas

Jeffrey S. Thomas

No abstract provided.


The Absoluteness Of The First Amendment, Stephen W. Gard Mar 2013

The Absoluteness Of The First Amendment, Stephen W. Gard

Stephen W. Gard

Despite an urgent need, the reality is that today we have no unifying free speech theory. Instead, the recent decisions of the United States Supreme Court suggest that doctrinal confusion reigns. Ironically, I would suggest that the cause of the present doctrinal confusion is not that insufficient attention has been paid to technical free speech issues, but rather that modern first amendment thinking has been dominated by "balancers." The poverty of the balancing approach, be it ad hoc or definitional in character, stems from its reliance on pragmatic considerations rather than on fundamental principles embodied in the enduring legacy of ...


Fighting Words As Free Speech, Stephen W. Gard Mar 2013

Fighting Words As Free Speech, Stephen W. Gard

Stephen W. Gard

It is now settled that "above all else, the first amendment means that government has no power to restrict expression because of its message, its ideas, its subject matter, or its content." Despite the universal acceptance of this general principle, the United States Supreme Court has created several exceptions. In appropriate cases libel, obscenity, commercial speech, and offensive language may be censored without contravention of the first amendment guarantee of freedom of expression. The source of each of these exceptions to the general principle of governmental neutrality regarding the content of expression is Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire.


The Impact Of Pacifica Foundation On Two Traditions Of Freedom Of Expression (With Endress), Stephen W. Gard Mar 2013

The Impact Of Pacifica Foundation On Two Traditions Of Freedom Of Expression (With Endress), Stephen W. Gard

Stephen W. Gard

The purpose of this article is not to debate the wisdom of the use of sensitive language on the electronic media or elsewhere. The admonition that the perceived wisdom of governmental regulations should never be confused with the issue of their constitutionality remains appropriate. Nor is it our purpose to debate the substantive question of whether the Court reached the proper result in Pacifica, although we will necessarily have much to say by implication on this issue. The purpose of this article is rather to assess the impact of Pacifica on the two traditions of freedom of expression which continue ...


Book Review, Stephen W. Gard Mar 2013

Book Review, Stephen W. Gard

Stephen W. Gard

The author reviews Justice Hugo Black and the First Amendment, edited by Everette E. Dennis, Donald M. Gillmor and David L. Grey.


The Flag Salute Cases And The First Amendment, Stephen W. Gard Mar 2013

The Flag Salute Cases And The First Amendment, Stephen W. Gard

Stephen W. Gard

The flag salute cases have been a source of endless fascination for legal and historical scholars. Most of this large body of scholarship has focused on the apparent oddity of Justice Frankfurter's view that there was no constitutional infirmity in the "petty tyranny" of a governmental requirement that school children engage in a hypocritical affirmation of belief. Unfortunately, the doctrinal importance of the opinions of Justices Jackson and Frankfurter in the flag salute cases as contrasting statements on the interpretation of the freedom of speech guarantee of the first amendment and the function of the judiciary in preserving our ...


Counter-Demonstration As Protected Speech: Finding The Right To Confrontation In Existing First Amendment Law, Kevin F. O'Neill, R. Vasvari Feb 2013

Counter-Demonstration As Protected Speech: Finding The Right To Confrontation In Existing First Amendment Law, Kevin F. O'Neill, R. Vasvari

Kevin F. O'Neill

Accordingly, this Article is aimed at disentangling lines of precedent that are all too frequently entwined by urging an analysis of public protest cases that distinguishes among the four regulatory players. Thus, this Article devotes separate sections to the regulatory roles of legislators,16 administrators,17 judges,18 and police,19 with an introductory section on the doctrinal bedrock in this field: the public forum doctrine.20


Terrorism And Associations, Ashutosh A. Bhagwat Feb 2013

Terrorism And Associations, Ashutosh A. Bhagwat

Ashutosh Bhagwat

The domestic manifestation of the War on Terror has produced the most difficult and sustained set of controversies regarding the limits on First Amendment protections for political speech and association since the anti-Communist crusades of the Red Scare and McCarthy eras. An examination of the types of domestic terrorism prosecutions that have become common since the September 11 attacks reveals continuing and unresolved conflicts between national security needs and traditional protections for speech and (especially) associational freedoms. Yet the courts have barely begun to acknowledge, much less address, these serious issues. In the Supreme Court’s only sustained engagement with ...


Religions As Sovereigns: Why Religion Is "Special", Elizabeth A. Clark Feb 2013

Religions As Sovereigns: Why Religion Is "Special", Elizabeth A. Clark

Elizabeth A. Clark

Commentators increasingly challenge religion’s privileged legal status, arguing that it is not “special” or distinct from other associations or philosophical or conscientious claims. I propose that religion is “special” because it functions metaphorically as a legal sovereign, asserting supreme authority over a realm of human life. Under a religion-as-sovereign theory, religious freedom can be understood as at least partial deference to a religious sovereign in a system of shared or overlapping sovereignty. This Article suggests that federalism, which also involves shared sovereignty, can provide a useful heuristic device for examining religious freedom. Specifically, the Article examines a range of ...


Speech And The Self-Governance Value, Brian C. Murchison Jan 2013

Speech And The Self-Governance Value, Brian C. Murchison

Brian C. Murchison

No abstract provided.


Why Copyright Law Lacks Taste And Scents, Leon R. Calleja Dec 2012

Why Copyright Law Lacks Taste And Scents, Leon R. Calleja

Leon R Calleja

This paper explores the resistance in U.S. copyright law to extend copyright protection to scents and tastes, and advances the position that copyright law’s originality and expression requirements limit copyrightable subject matter to expressions that engage both author and audience in a way that requires reflection upon the work—or at least, the capacity for reflection—in a necessarily intersubjective and communicative fashion, what I call a “public dimension.” That the sensations of taste and smell are inescapably immediate and private suggest that they lack the kind of public dimension that visual and audio works exhibit. Indeed, this ...


Can't Escape From The Memory: Social Media And Public Sector Labor Law, William A. Herbert Dec 2012

Can't Escape From The Memory: Social Media And Public Sector Labor Law, William A. Herbert

William A. Herbert

The Web 2.0 communicative revolution is impacting many fields of law, including labor and employment law. This article focuses upon the application and impact of statutory and constitutional doctrines on the use of social media in public employment in the United States. As part of that analysis, it will compare and contrast developments under the National Labor Relations Act, state collective bargaining and tenure laws and the First Amendment concerning social media. Through this comparative analysis, the article will highlight the distinctions and similarities of public sector labor law and their implications for the future.


What Is The Meaning Of Like: The First Amendment Implications Of Social-Media Expression, Ira P. Robbins Dec 2012

What Is The Meaning Of Like: The First Amendment Implications Of Social-Media Expression, Ira P. Robbins

Ira P. Robbins

Everywhere the Internet goes, new legal problems are sure to follow. As social media expands and infiltrates our daily lives, society must grapple with how to extend the law to modern situations. This problem becomes increasingly pressing as more and more of our social interactions take place online. For example, Facebook has become a colossal gathering place for friends, families, co-workers, frenemies, and others to disseminate their ideas and share information. Sometimes Facebook replaces old institutions; other times it augments them. Where once a neighbor would show allegiance to a political candidate by staking a sign on the front lawn ...


Emerging Technologies And Dwindling Speech, Jorge R. Roig Dec 2012

Emerging Technologies And Dwindling Speech, Jorge R. Roig

Jorge R Roig

Inspired in part by the recent holding in Bland v. Roberts that the use of the “Like” feature in Facebook is not covered by the Free Speech Clause, this article makes a brief foray into the approach that courts have taken in the recent past towards questions of First Amendment coverage in the context of emerging technologies. Specifically, this article will take a closer look at how courts have dealt with the issue of functionality in the context of First Amendment coverage of computer source code. The analysis of this and other recent experiences, when put in a larger context ...


Obscenity, Internet, Free Press And Free Speech - Constitutions Of India And The United States, Khagesh Gautam Prof. Dec 2012

Obscenity, Internet, Free Press And Free Speech - Constitutions Of India And The United States, Khagesh Gautam Prof.

Khagesh Gautam

No abstract provided.