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On Checking The Artifacts Of Canaan: A Comment On Levinson's "Confrontation", Thomas L. Shaffer Nov 2013

On Checking The Artifacts Of Canaan: A Comment On Levinson's "Confrontation", Thomas L. Shaffer

Thomas L. Shaffer

No abstract provided.


Incentives To Create Under A "Lifetime-Plus-Years" Copyright Duration: Lessons From A Behavioral Economic Analysis For Eldred V. Ashcroft, Avishalom Tor, Dotan Oliar Nov 2013

Incentives To Create Under A "Lifetime-Plus-Years" Copyright Duration: Lessons From A Behavioral Economic Analysis For Eldred V. Ashcroft, Avishalom Tor, Dotan Oliar

Avishalom Tor

In this Article, we highlight for the first time some of the significant but hitherto unrecognized behavioral effects of copyright law on individuals' incentives to create and then examine the implications of our findings for the constitutional analysis of Eldred v. Ashcroft. We show that behavioral biases - namely, individuals' optimistic bias regarding their future longevity and their subadditive judgments in circumstances resembling the extant rule of copyright duration - explain the otherwise puzzling lifetime-plus-years basis for copyright protection given to individual authors, and reveal how this regime provides superior incentives to create. Thus, insofar as the provision of increased incentives to ...


Precedent And Reliance, Randy J. Kozel Nov 2013

Precedent And Reliance, Randy J. Kozel

Randy J Kozel

Among the most prevalent justifications for deference to judicial precedent is the protection of reliance interests. The theory is that when judicial pronouncements have engendered significant reliance, there should be a meaningful presumption against adjudicative change. Yet there remains a fundamental question as to why reliance on precedent warrants judicial protection in the first place. American courts have made clear that deference to precedent is a flexible policy rather than an absolute rule. The defeasibility of precedent raises the possibility that stakeholders who fail to mediate their reliance on precedent forfeit any claim to judicial protection through the doctrine of ...


Religion, Division, And The First Amendment, Richard W. Garnett Nov 2013

Religion, Division, And The First Amendment, Richard W. Garnett

Richard W Garnett

Nearly thirty-five years ago, in Lemon v. Kurtzman, Chief Justice Warren Burger declared that state programs or policies could excessive(ly) - and, therefore, unconstitutionally - entangle government and religion, not only by requiring or allowing intrusive public monitoring of religious institutions and activities, but also through what he called their divisive political potential. Chief Justice Burger asserted also, and more fundamentally, that political division along religious lines was one of the principal evils against which the First Amendment was intended to protect. And from this Hobbesian premise about the inten(t) animating the First Amendment, he proceeded on the assumption that ...


Supreme Court Wrestles With Prayer At Public Meetings, Alan E. Garfield Nov 2013

Supreme Court Wrestles With Prayer At Public Meetings, Alan E. Garfield

Alan E Garfield

No abstract provided.


The Political (And Other) Safeguards Of Religious Freedom, Richard W. Garnett Nov 2013

The Political (And Other) Safeguards Of Religious Freedom, Richard W. Garnett

Richard W Garnett

This essay is a contribution to a symposium marking the 20th anniversary of the Supreme Court’s still-controversial decision in Employment Division v. Smith. That decision, it is suggested, should not be read as reflecting or requiring hostility or indifference towards claims for legislatively enacted accommodations of religion. Smith is not an endorsement of religion-blind neutrality in constitutional law; instead, it assigns to politically accountable actors the difficult, but crucially important, task of accommodating those whose religious exercise would otherwise be burdened by generally applicable laws. The essay goes on to suggest several things that must be true of our ...


Assimilation, Toleration, And The State's Interest In The Development Of Religious Doctrine, Richard Garnett Nov 2013

Assimilation, Toleration, And The State's Interest In The Development Of Religious Doctrine, Richard Garnett

Richard W Garnett

Thirty-five years ago, in the context of a church-property dispute, Justice William Brennan observed that government interpretation of religious doctrine and judicial intervention in religious disputes are undesirable, because when civil courts undertake to resolve [doctrinal] controversies..., the hazards are ever present of inhibiting the free development of religious doctrine and of implicating secular interests in matters of purely ecclesiastical concern. This statement, at first, seems wise and fittingly cautious, even unremarkable and obvious. On examination, though, it turns out to be intriguing, elusive, and misleading. Indeed, Justice Brennan's warning presents hazards of its own, and its premises - if ...


Judicial Review, Local Values, And Pluralism, Richard W. Garnett Nov 2013

Judicial Review, Local Values, And Pluralism, Richard W. Garnett

Richard W Garnett

At the Federalist Society's 2008 National Student Symposium, a panel of scholars was asked to consider the question, does pervasive judicial review threaten to destroy local identity by homogenizing community norms? The answer to this question is yes, pervasive judicial review certainly does threaten local identity, because such review can homogenize[e] community norms, either by dragging them into conformity with national, constitutional standards or (more controversially) by subordinating them to the reviewers' own commitments. It is important to recall, however, that while it is true that an important feature of our federalism is local variation in laws and ...


The Responsibilities Of The United Kingdom Parliament And Government Under The Australian Constitution, John M. Finnis Nov 2013

The Responsibilities Of The United Kingdom Parliament And Government Under The Australian Constitution, John M. Finnis

John M. Finnis

Arguing that the United Kingdom retained constitutioanl duties to Australia following that country's independence.


Separation Of Powers In The Australian Constitution, John M. Finnis Nov 2013

Separation Of Powers In The Australian Constitution, John M. Finnis

John M. Finnis

Even those who regret it accept that the founders of the Australian Constitution "beyond question" intended the separation of powers now required by the Boilermakers' Case . This article seeks first to show that the arguments advanced to prove the alleged intention are no more probative -than the draftsman's literary arrangement which has prompted the accepted view of constitutional history; and second, to discuss the proper strategy of approach to the historical record on these matters.


Formalism And Realism In Commerce Clause Jurisprudence, Barry Cushman Nov 2013

Formalism And Realism In Commerce Clause Jurisprudence, Barry Cushman

Barry Cushman

This Article attempts a reconceptualization of developments in Commerce Clause jurisprudence between the Civil War and World War II by identifying ways in which that jurisprudence was structurally related to and accordingly deeply influenced by the categories of substantive due process and dormant Commerce Clause doctrine. Antecedent dormant Commerce Clause jurisprudence set the terms within which Commerce Clause doctrine was worked out; coordinate developments in substantive due process doctrine set limits upon the scope of Commerce Clause formulations and thus played a critical and underappreciated role in maintaining the federal equilibrium. The subsequent erosion of those due process limitations vastly ...


Direct Democracy And Hastily Enacted Statutes, John C. Nagle Nov 2013

Direct Democracy And Hastily Enacted Statutes, John C. Nagle

John Copeland Nagle

No abstract provided.


Where To Go From Here? The Roberts Court At The Crossroads Of Sentencing, Nora V. Demleitner Oct 2013

Where To Go From Here? The Roberts Court At The Crossroads Of Sentencing, Nora V. Demleitner

Nora V. Demleitner

As the Supreme Court has turned federal sentencing upside down in Booker, it has left a host of open questions in the wake of that decision. The outcome of these questions is often difficult to predict, for lower courts and commentators alike, as the Court has failed to develop an overarching sentencing philosophy to replace the rehabilitation-focused one that animated sentencing for so long. If the Court were to reach consensus on that issue, it would be better able to speak coherently on unresolved sentencing matters. This introduction to an Issue of the Federal Sentencing Reporter highlights some of the ...


Misusing International Sources To Interpret The Constituion, Roger P. Alford Oct 2013

Misusing International Sources To Interpret The Constituion, Roger P. Alford

Roger P. Alford

This article addresses the trend toward using international sources to interpret the Constitution. While recognizing that international sources may be appropriately used as persuasive authority in certain types of constitutional analysis, this article argues that such reliance is inappropriate if done improperly. There are four misuses of international sources that serve as the focus of the article. The first misuse of international sources - particularly evident in death penalty litigation - occurs when the global opinions of humankind are ascribed constitutional value to thwart the domestic opinions of Americans. The article suggests that international norms cannot be internalized within our Constitution unless ...


In Search Of A Theory For Constitutional Comparativism, Roger P. Alford Oct 2013

In Search Of A Theory For Constitutional Comparativism, Roger P. Alford

Roger P. Alford

Constitutional comparativism - the notion that international and foreign material should be used to interpret the U.S. Constitution - is gaining currency. Yet proponents of this practice rarely offer a firm theoretical justification for the practice. This Article contends that constitutional comparativism should be examined from the perspective of constitutional theory. The use of comparative and international material must be deemed appropriate or inappropriate based on a particular judge's interpretive mode of constitutional analysis. The Article presents four classic constitutional theories - originalism, natural law, majoritarianism, and pragmatism - and addresses the propriety of constitutional comparativism under each theory. This theoretical approach ...


Can We Find A Balance Between Privacy Andsecurity?, Alan E. Garfield Sep 2013

Can We Find A Balance Between Privacy Andsecurity?, Alan E. Garfield

Alan E Garfield

No abstract provided.


Can Federal Courts Create Crimes?, Steven J. Wisotsky Aug 2013

Can Federal Courts Create Crimes?, Steven J. Wisotsky

Miguel Coder

No abstract provided.


Hougang By-Election Case: What Court Decision On By-Election Reveals, Jack Tsen-Ta Lee Aug 2013

Hougang By-Election Case: What Court Decision On By-Election Reveals, Jack Tsen-Ta Lee

Jack Tsen-Ta LEE

The Singapore Court of Appeal’s judgment in Vellama d/o Marie Muthu v Attorney-General [2013] SGCA 39 – popularly known as the Hougang by-election case – shows that the Court sees its role as policing the margins rather than involving itself in the heart of politics. The Court held that the Government was incorrect in asserting the Constitution confers on it the discretion not to hold a by-election at all after a parliamentary seat falls vacant. The judgment came as a surprise to those used to a judicial stance fairly deferential towards the Government, but on balance the Court did accord ...


Weighing One Constitutional Need Against Another, Alan E. Garfield Jun 2013

Weighing One Constitutional Need Against Another, Alan E. Garfield

Alan E Garfield

No abstract provided.


No Resolution In Sight In Debate On Gun-Control Laws, Alan E. Garfield May 2013

No Resolution In Sight In Debate On Gun-Control Laws, Alan E. Garfield

Alan E Garfield

No abstract provided.


Illegal Aid: Legal Assistance To Immigrants In The United States, Geoffrey Heeren Apr 2013

Illegal Aid: Legal Assistance To Immigrants In The United States, Geoffrey Heeren

Geoffrey Heeren

There is an enormous unmet need for immigrant legal aid in the United States. This is partly due to regulations that bar federally funded legal services organizations from representing many types of immigrants. The possible repeal of these restrictions is rarely discussed as a means to expand immigrant access to counsel. Federal funding for immigrant legal aid appears to have become taboo, despite the fact that for much of its history, legal aid was deeply connected to immigration. This forgotten history reveals that there was once broad national consensus in favor of immigrant legal aid; it became contentious and faced ...


¿Por Qué Ser Monárquico En España?, Germán M. Teruel Lozano Apr 2013

¿Por Qué Ser Monárquico En España?, Germán M. Teruel Lozano

Germán M. Teruel Lozano

No abstract provided.


Constitutional Limitations On Land Use Controls, Environmental Regulations And Governmental Exactions, 2013 Edition, Garrett Power Mar 2013

Constitutional Limitations On Land Use Controls, Environmental Regulations And Governmental Exactions, 2013 Edition, Garrett Power

Garrett Power

This electronic book is published in a searchable PDF format as a part of the E-scholarship Repository of the University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law. It is an “open content” casebook intended for classroom use in courses in Constitutional Law, Land Use Control, and Environmental Law and. It consists of 130 odd judicial opinions (most rendered by the U.S. Supreme Court) carefully selected from the two hundred years of American constitutional history which address the clash between public sovereignty and private property. The text considers both the personal right to liberty and the personal right in ...


Transcending Conventional Supremacy: A Reconstruction Of The Supremacy Clause, S. Candice Hoke Mar 2013

Transcending Conventional Supremacy: A Reconstruction Of The Supremacy Clause, S. Candice Hoke

S. Candice Hoke

Perhaps because the predominant strands of contemporary Supremacy Clause jurisprudence originate in two of the most venerable cases in the Court's history, the Court and academics alike have sidestepped some of their problematic pronouncements. In Part I, this Article questions the legacy of McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden, finding their Supremacy Clause principles unacceptably nationalistic and hence unfaithful to the balance of the Constitution. While their centralizing tendencies may have been understandable during the nation's infancy, their raison d'être has evaporated; the pendulum of state versus national regulatory power on matters other than individual liberties ...


Constitutional Classifications And The "Gay Gene", Susan J. Becker Mar 2013

Constitutional Classifications And The "Gay Gene", Susan J. Becker

Susan J. Becker

In this essay the author discusses the use of genetic information to classify individuals for purposes of the law, and more specifically, the impact of the so-called “gay gene” on legal classifications.


Book Review, Stephen W. Gard Mar 2013

Book Review, Stephen W. Gard

Stephen W. Gard

The author reviews Justice Hugo Black and the First Amendment, edited by Everette E. Dennis, Donald M. Gillmor and David L. Grey.


The Flag Salute Cases And The First Amendment, Stephen W. Gard Mar 2013

The Flag Salute Cases And The First Amendment, Stephen W. Gard

Stephen W. Gard

The flag salute cases have been a source of endless fascination for legal and historical scholars. Most of this large body of scholarship has focused on the apparent oddity of Justice Frankfurter's view that there was no constitutional infirmity in the "petty tyranny" of a governmental requirement that school children engage in a hypocritical affirmation of belief. Unfortunately, the doctrinal importance of the opinions of Justices Jackson and Frankfurter in the flag salute cases as contrasting statements on the interpretation of the freedom of speech guarantee of the first amendment and the function of the judiciary in preserving our ...


Public Debt In The United States And Germany: A Constitutional Perspective, Stephen Utz Feb 2013

Public Debt In The United States And Germany: A Constitutional Perspective, Stephen Utz

Stephen Gerard Utz

The German and American constitutional frameworks permit at best quite different approaches to legislative self-discipline regarding public debt. This article compares these frameworks in an effort to identify structural features that further or hinder long-term budgetary discipline for the two countries.


The Campaign Finance Safeguards Of Federalism, Garrick B. Pursley Feb 2013

The Campaign Finance Safeguards Of Federalism, Garrick B. Pursley

Garrick B. Pursley

This article provides the first systematic account of the relationship between campaign finance and federalism. Federalism—a fundamental characteristic of the constitutional structure—depends for its stability on political mechanisms. States and their advocates and representatives in Congress, federal agencies, political parties, intergovernmental lobbying groups, and other political forums work together to check federal interference with state governments. Entire normative theories of federalism depend on the assumption that this system of political safeguards is working effectively in the background. But the federalism and constitutional theory literatures lack a rigorous account of the effects of dramatic political change on pro-federalism political ...


Foreword: The Ohio Constitution On The Occasion Of Its Bicentennial, Kevin F. O'Neill Feb 2013

Foreword: The Ohio Constitution On The Occasion Of Its Bicentennial, Kevin F. O'Neill

Kevin F. O'Neill

This symposium issue of the Cleveland State Law Review publishes the papers that were presented at a conference marking the bicentennial of the Ohio Constitution. That conference, held here at Cleveland-Marshall College of Law in April 2003, examined the history and assessed the vitality of our state constitution. The conference was conceived and its planning was supervised by our Dean, Steven H. Steinglass, who has devoted significant scholarly attention to the Ohio Constitution. In light of my own endeavors in state constitutional law, both as a lawyer and as a scholar, I gladly assisted Dean Steinglass in organizing the conference ...