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Quem Defende A Constituição?, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

Quem Defende A Constituição?, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

A fase actual de ataque à Constituição parece ser a de legislar sem lhe prestar atenção, esperando que ninguém se lembre que existe, e ninguém levante questões de inconstitucionalidade. 2012 vai ser um ano em que se vão tirar as teimas sobre quem defende e quem não defende a Constituição. Feliz Ano Novo, com controlo da Constitucionalidade!


A Constituição Laboral Em Alto Risco, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

A Constituição Laboral Em Alto Risco, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

A Constituição labora está a ser vítima de graves ataques. Já quase se pode ler o texto da nossa Constituição como se fora uma utopia de um país distante. Arriscamo-nos, por este caminho, a ter uma constituição nominal ou semântica, não normativa, não efectiva. E contudo ainda existe o texto, ainda existe o princípio da proibição do retrocesso, ainda existe um Tribunal Constitucional.


Christian Scripture And American Scripture: An Instructive Analogy?, Gregory A. Kalscheur S.J. Dec 2011

Christian Scripture And American Scripture: An Instructive Analogy?, Gregory A. Kalscheur S.J.

Gregory A. Kalscheur, S.J.

This Review Essay examines the analogy between biblical interpretation and constitutional interpretation drawn by the eminent Yale church historian Jaroslav Pelikan in his provocative book, Interpreting the Bible and the Constitution. Part I of the Essay focuses on Pelikan’s discussion of the differences and analogies between the Bible and the Constitution that provide the foundation for methodological comparison. Part II of the Essay examines Pelikan’s effort to draw on the work of 19th-century theologian John Henry Newman in order to explore the fundamental problem of the relation between the authority of the original text and the authority of ...


John Paul Ii, John Courtney Murray, And The Relationship Between Civil Law And Moral Law: A Constructive Proposal For Contemporary American Pluralism, Gregory A. Kalscheur S.J. Dec 2011

John Paul Ii, John Courtney Murray, And The Relationship Between Civil Law And Moral Law: A Constructive Proposal For Contemporary American Pluralism, Gregory A. Kalscheur S.J.

Gregory A. Kalscheur, S.J.

In his 1995 encyclical, Evangelium Vitae, Pope John Paul II outlined a jurisprudential vision which includes the “doctrine on the necessary conformity of civil law with moral law.” The Pope’s jurisprudential reflections prompt the question I consider in this Article: How should we understand the doctrine on the necessary conformity of civil law with moral law in a religiously pluralistic democratic society like that of the United States today? My objective is to articulate a vision of the relationship between moral values and civil law that is grounded in the tradition of Catholic social thought and that can allow ...


Catholics In Public Life: Judges, Legislators, And Voters, Gregory A. Kalscheur S.J. Dec 2011

Catholics In Public Life: Judges, Legislators, And Voters, Gregory A. Kalscheur S.J.

Gregory A. Kalscheur, S.J.

Does the desire to avoid culpable cooperation in moral evil make the conscientious Catholic judge unfit for judicial service in a constitutional system that will inevitably bring before the judge cases that implicate a host of issues as to which the Church offers moral teaching? Confused answers to this question reflect a larger confusion which often accompanies contemporary discussion of questions related to Catholic participation in public life. The confusion stems in large part from a failure to recognize that Catholics participate in public life in different ways that give them different sorts of public roles. This Essay tries to ...


Civil Procedure And The Establishment Clause: Exploring The Ministerial Exception, Subject-Matter Jurisdiction, And The Freedom Of The Church, Gregory A. Kalscheur Dec 2011

Civil Procedure And The Establishment Clause: Exploring The Ministerial Exception, Subject-Matter Jurisdiction, And The Freedom Of The Church, Gregory A. Kalscheur

Gregory A. Kalscheur, S.J.

What sort of defense is provided by the ministerial exception to employment discrimination claims? The ministerial exception bars civil courts from reviewing the decisions of religious organizations regarding the employment of their ministerial employees. While the exception itself is widely recognized by courts, there is confusion with respect to the proper characterization of the defense provided by the exception: should it be seen as a subject matter jurisdiction defense, or as a challenge to the legal sufficiency of the plaintiff's claim? This Article argues that articulating the right answer to this question of civil procedure is crucial to a ...


Moral Limits On Morals Legislation: Lessons For U.S. Constitutional Law From The Declaration On Religious Freedom, Gregory A. Kalscheur S.J. Dec 2011

Moral Limits On Morals Legislation: Lessons For U.S. Constitutional Law From The Declaration On Religious Freedom, Gregory A. Kalscheur S.J.

Gregory A. Kalscheur, S.J.

A persistent American confusion regarding the proper relationship between law and morality is manifest in the opinions in Lawrence v. Texas. The Second Vatican Council’s Declaration on Religious Freedom provides the foundation for an analytical framework that can bring clarity to that confusion. The heart of this framework is the moral concept of public order. This concept offers a principled explanation of both the holding in Lawrence and the limitations the Court placed on that holding. The Court could clarify the confusion manifest in Lawrence by explicitly acknowledging that a state interest only becomes legitimate for purposes of rational ...


Inconstitucionalidade Da Abolição De Feriados, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

Inconstitucionalidade Da Abolição De Feriados, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Feriados celebrando datas essenciais do Estado ou da República são símbolos nacionais. Como tais, são matéria constitucional (materialmente constitucional) ainda que não constante do texto da Constituição. Abolir feriados destes, para mais sem sequer prévia discussão nacional, além de denotar um desprezo profundo pela cultura e pela História... é inconstitucional.


De Keynes Aos Desafios Futuros, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

De Keynes Aos Desafios Futuros, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Keynes anda esquecido pelos economistas da moda. É pena, porque o resultado, catastrófico, das políticas neoliberais está à vista. Entretanto, reflecte-se sobre como a velha esquerda moderada se deixou contaminar pelo vírus do neoliberalismo (e a velha direita social também, e mais ainda), havendo porém novas teorias e propostas no horizonte, como o capitalismo humanista, no Brasil e em Espanha, e a "next left", no Reino Unido. Será possível uma confluência coerente e frutuosa dos que não querem, de uns e de outros lados, um mundo só baseado na ganância e na aniquilação do mais fraco? É o grande desafio ...


Un Hombre, Un Voto, Germán M. Teruel Lozano Dec 2011

Un Hombre, Un Voto, Germán M. Teruel Lozano

Germán M. Teruel Lozano

No abstract provided.


Constituição, Polícia Da Dívida?, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

Constituição, Polícia Da Dívida?, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Depois de em Portugal, Espanha e Alemanha (pelo menos) se falar há algum bom tempo no assunto – não sabemos de onde surgiu a primeira inspiração, mas tanto monta – , no início de Dezembro de 2011 veio da União Europeia a magna necessidade, logo secundada pelo Primeiro-ministro português, de introduzir expressamente na Constituição (já vamos ver que poderá não ser tanto assim) limites ao endividamento do Estado. Vamos fazer mais uma revisão constitucional ?


Referendar Estados De Excepção, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Dec 2011

Referendar Estados De Excepção, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

O valor do referendo, nas nossas democracias de espectáculo e demagogia, é muito discutível. Há porém casos extremos em que pode ser útil e até imprescindível. Numa crise como a presente, comandada por mercados sem rosto, é preciso dar voz ao Povo. A questão está em saber se ele falará por meios juridicamente previstos, e constitucionalmente regulados, ou se virá a tomar a Palavra por vias menos convencionais, embora sempre com relevância constitucional... Perante tais desafios, não é legítima a abstenção do constitucionalista, que não é um estrito tabelião do Direito Público.


The Hollowness Of The Harm Principle, Steven D. Smith Dec 2011

The Hollowness Of The Harm Principle, Steven D. Smith

Steven D. Smith

Among the various instruments in the toolbox of liberalism, the so-called “harm principle,” presented as the central thesis of John Stuart Mill’s classic On Liberty, has been one of the most popular. The harm principle has been widely embraced and invoked in both academic and popular debate about a variety of issues ranging from obscenity to drug regulation to abortion to same-sex marriage, and its influence is discernible in legal arguments and judicial opinions as well. Despite the principle’s apparent irresistibility, this essay argues that the principle is hollow. It is an empty vessel, alluring but without any ...


Justice Douglas, Justice O'Connor, And George Orwell: Does The Constitution Compel Us To Disown Our Past, Steven D. Smith Dec 2011

Justice Douglas, Justice O'Connor, And George Orwell: Does The Constitution Compel Us To Disown Our Past, Steven D. Smith

Steven D. Smith

Justice William O. Douglas's majority opinion in Zorach v. Clauson famously asserted that "[w]e are a religious people whose institutions presuppose a Supreme Being." What did Douglas mean, and was he right? More recently, in cases involving the Ten Commandments, the Pledge of Allegiance and other public expressions and symbols, the Supreme Court has said that the Constitution prohibits government from endorsing religion. Can Douglas's "Supreme Being" assertion be reconciled with the "no endorsement" prohibition? And does the more modern doctrine demand that we forget, falsify, or forswear our pervasively religious political heritage? This essay, presented as ...


The Tenuous Case For Conscience, Steven D. Smith Dec 2011

The Tenuous Case For Conscience, Steven D. Smith

Steven D. Smith

If there is any single theme that has provided the foundation of modern liberalism and has infused our more specific constitutional commitments to freedom of religion and freedom of speech, that theme is probably “freedom of conscience.” But some observers also perceive a progressive cheapening of conscience– even a sort of degradation. Such criticisms suggest the need for a contemporary rethinking of conscience. When we reverently invoke “conscience,” do we have any idea what we are talking about? Or are we just exploiting a venerable theme for rhetorical purposes without any clear sense of what “conscience” is or why it ...


¿Puede La Fe Aportar Algo Al Derecho? La Respuesta De La Teología Jurídica, Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba Nov 2011

¿Puede La Fe Aportar Algo Al Derecho? La Respuesta De La Teología Jurídica, Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

El artículo analiza la posibilidad de que la fe aporte contenidos a la ciencia del Derecho y al ordenamiento jurídico. La perspectiva no es histórica, sino jurídica y teológica. Consta de tres partes: (i) el planteamiento del problema del aporte de la fe; (ii) la delimitación de la teología jurídica, que es la ciencia llamada a resolver el problema; y, (iii) la respuesta al problema. En el fondo el análisis procura mostrar cómo la fe puede ser “fuente de derecho”. Termina señalando el alcance y los límites de esta fuente en el derecho sobre las cosas naturales y sobrenaturales.


Desafios Constitucionais, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2011

Desafios Constitucionais, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

É preciso empreender um contra-ataque constitucional. Não podem os democratas e amigos do Regime saído do 25 de Abril e do sistema político consagrado na Constituição de 76 entrincheirar-se na esperança da mera defesa do que ainda resta de cumprimento da Constituição para além dos formalismos políticos. Os juristas e os constitucionalistas têm especial responsabilidades, mas a todos deve ser dado participar, na medida das suas possibilidades. É preciso mais democracia, mais separação dos poderes, melhor aplicação da Constituição, e mais constitucionalização de todo o Direito. E não diuturna confiscação de direitos. O futuro passa pela Constituição, por muito que ...


The Constitutionality Of The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act In The Courts Of Appeals, Mel Cousins Nov 2011

The Constitutionality Of The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act In The Courts Of Appeals, Mel Cousins

Mel Cousins

Having undergone an extensive process of political discussion and debate, the ACA (properly the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) is now under intensive legal challenge with over 20 different cases from both states and organizations and individuals having been initiated. The challengers argue that the Act lacks a constitutional basis and/or infringes on their constitutional rights. These cases involve a fascinating intersection of legal, political and policy issues and, regardless of the outcome, will have important implications for the future direction of US health care policy. There have now been four decisions of the courts of appeal on ...


Holmes And Dissent, Allen P. Mendenhall Nov 2011

Holmes And Dissent, Allen P. Mendenhall

Allen Mendenhall

Holmes saw the dissent as a mechanism to advance and preserve arguments and as a pageant for wordplay. Dissents, for Holmes, occupied an interstitial space between law and non-law. The thought and theory of pragmatism allowed him to recreate the dissent as a stage for performative text, a place where signs and syntax could mimic the environment of the particular time and place and in so doing become, or strive to become, law. Holmes’s dissents were sites of aesthetic adaptation. The language of his dissents was acrobatic. It acted and reacted and called attention to itself. The more provocative ...


Hosanna-Tabor And Supreme Court Precedent: An Analysis Of The Ministerial Exception In The Context Of The Supreme Court’S Hands-Off Approach To Religious Doctrine, Samuel J. Levine Nov 2011

Hosanna-Tabor And Supreme Court Precedent: An Analysis Of The Ministerial Exception In The Context Of The Supreme Court’S Hands-Off Approach To Religious Doctrine, Samuel J. Levine

Samuel J. Levine

The United States Supreme Court‘s review of the decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in the case of Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC could lead to a major development in the Court‘s Religion Clause jurisprudence. On one level, Hosanna-Tabor presents important questions regarding the interrelationship between employment discrimination laws and the constitutional rights of religious organizations. The narrow issue at the center of the case is the ministerial exception, a doctrine that precludes courts from adjudicating discrimination claims arising out of disputes between religious institutions and their ministerial employees. This ...


Perfectly Legal To Mandate The Purchase Of Insurance, Alan E. Garfield Nov 2011

Perfectly Legal To Mandate The Purchase Of Insurance, Alan E. Garfield

Alan E Garfield

No abstract provided.


Political Judges And Popular Justice: A Conservative Victory Or A Conservative Dilemma?, George D. Brown Nov 2011

Political Judges And Popular Justice: A Conservative Victory Or A Conservative Dilemma?, George D. Brown

George D. Brown

Most of the judges in America are elected. Yet the institution of the elected judiciary is in trouble, perhaps in crisis. The pressures of campaigning, particularly raising money, have produced an intensity of electioneering that many observers see as damaging to the institution itself. In an extraordinary development, four justices of the Supreme Court recently expressed concern over possible loss of trust in state judicial systems. Yet mechanisms that states have put in place to strike a balance between the accountability values of an elected judiciary and rule of law values of unbiased adjudication are increasingly invalidated by the federal ...


Putting Watergate Behind Us: Salinas, Sun-Diamond, And Two Views Of The Anticorruption Model, George D. Brown Nov 2011

Putting Watergate Behind Us: Salinas, Sun-Diamond, And Two Views Of The Anticorruption Model, George D. Brown

George D. Brown

A central question in the ongoing debate over the future of the American political system is how to deal with public corruption. This Article first examines the dominant theme of the last thirty years: a relatively hard-line approach that Professor Brown refers to as the post-watergate concensus. In recent years, however, this approach has been subject to growing criminalization of government ethics; Professor Brown then turns to what can be viewed as the counterrevolutionary critique. Against this background, he considers the United States Supreme Court's contribution to the debate. Starting with the recent Sun-Diamond and Salinas cases, and drawing ...


Accountability, Liability, And The War On Terror -- Constitutional Tort Suits As Truth And Reconciliation Vehicles, George D. Brown Nov 2011

Accountability, Liability, And The War On Terror -- Constitutional Tort Suits As Truth And Reconciliation Vehicles, George D. Brown

George D. Brown

This Article examines the role of civil suits in providing accountability for the Bush administration's conduct of the "war on terror." There have been calls for a "Truth and Reconciliation Commission" to perform this function, almost like a retroactive impeachment of President Bush. For now, the idea appears to be dead, especially since many of the policies have continued under President Obama. Increasingly, the default accountability mechanism for questioning government conduct is the array of civil suits against federal officials by self-proclaimed victims of the war, cases which might be referred to as reverse war on terror suits. Many ...


Direito E Poder Em Nietzsche, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2011

Direito E Poder Em Nietzsche, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

A crítica impiedosa e fria de Nietzsche ao Direito moderno, aos direitos, à democracia e a vários esteios da nossa actual civilização ajudar-nos-à certamente a compreender melhor a situação de ataque mais subtil, politicamente correto e hipócrita que se vive já a essa "Weltanschauung", e poderá vir a agravar-se. Nietzsche fala claro, e profeticamente. Só que, felizmente, as profecias (ao menos as políticas: mas parece até que todas) podem ser contrariadas pelas vontade das pessoas. E os piores vaticínios poderão sê-lo se tivermos vontade de preservar a democracia, a liberdade, os direitos, e o Direito moderno, aprofundando-os e não deixando-os ...


A Tale Told By A President, Mark A. Graber Nov 2011

A Tale Told By A President, Mark A. Graber

Mark Graber

Part I of this essay makes the case for symbolic politics. Presidents often have political reasons for subjecting courts to mere words. Part II makes the case for constitutional hardball.


Consensual Amorous Relationships Between Faculty And Students: The Constitutional Right To Privacy, Elisabeth A. Keller Nov 2011

Consensual Amorous Relationships Between Faculty And Students: The Constitutional Right To Privacy, Elisabeth A. Keller

Elisabeth Keller

Surveys of college students in the United States revealed that a significant number of students thought they had been victims of some form of sexual harassment. Growing awareness of the magnitude, dimensions, and effects of sexual harassment at educational institutions and the potential for institutional liability have prompted educators to adopt policies to avert such problems. The policies typically prohibit sexual harassment of employees and students and alert the university community to the serious effects of sexual harassment and the potential for student exploitation. Some universities have gone beyond establishing regulations directed at widely litigated problems of sexual harassment and ...


Consensual Amorous Relationships Between Faculty And Students: The Constitutional Right To Privacy, Elisabeth A. Keller Nov 2011

Consensual Amorous Relationships Between Faculty And Students: The Constitutional Right To Privacy, Elisabeth A. Keller

Elisabeth Keller

Surveys of college students in the United States revealed that a significant number of students thought they had been victims of some form of sexual harassment. Growing awareness of the magnitude, dimensions, and effects of sexual harassment at educational institutions and the potential for institutional liability have prompted educators to adopt policies to avert such problems. The policies typically prohibit sexual harassment of employees and students and alert the university community to the serious effects of sexual harassment and the potential for student exploitation. Some universities have gone beyond establishing regulations directed at widely litigated problems of sexual harassment and ...


Our Conflicting Judgements About Pornography, Kent Greenfield Nov 2011

Our Conflicting Judgements About Pornography, Kent Greenfield

Kent Greenfield

No abstract provided.


The Better Part Of Valor: The Real Id Act, Discretion, And The “Rule” Of Immigration Law, Daniel Kanstroom Nov 2011

The Better Part Of Valor: The Real Id Act, Discretion, And The “Rule” Of Immigration Law, Daniel Kanstroom

Daniel Kanstroom

This article considers the problems raised by a federal law--the “REAL ID Act”--that seeks to preclude judicial review of discretionary immigration law decisions. Discretion, the flexible shock absorber of the administrative state, must be respected by our legal system. However, as Justice Felix Frankfurter once wrote, discretion is, “only to be respected when it is conscious of the traditions which surround it and of the limits which an informed conscience sets to its exercise.” The article suggests that judicial construction of the REAL ID Act will plumb the deep meaning of this qualification. The new law states, essentially, that ...