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Psychology

2009

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Widening Spheres Of Impact: The Role Of Forgiveness In Marital And Family, Kristina Gordon, Farrah Hughes, Nathan Tomcik, Lee Dixon, Samantha Litzinger Feb 2015

Widening Spheres Of Impact: The Role Of Forgiveness In Marital And Family, Kristina Gordon, Farrah Hughes, Nathan Tomcik, Lee Dixon, Samantha Litzinger

Lee Dixon

This study examined relations between aspects of family functioning and positive and negative dimensions of forgiveness. Increased understanding of one's partner and decreased anger about betrayal characterize positive forgiveness, whereas experiences such as holding a grudge and desiring revenge indicate negative forgiveness. The sample included 87 wives and 74 husbands who reported experiencing a significant betrayal, their partners, and their adolescent children. Analyses of reported forgiveness revealed that more negative forgiveness was associated with lower marital satisfaction for husbands and wives; trust partially mediated this relationship for husbands and wives. Greater positive forgiveness reported by husbands and wives predicted ...


Behavioral And Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies, Kristina Gordon, Lee Dixon, Jennifer Willett, Farrah Hughes Feb 2015

Behavioral And Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies, Kristina Gordon, Lee Dixon, Jennifer Willett, Farrah Hughes

Lee Dixon

The Handbook of Family Psychology provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical underpinnings and established practices relating to family psychology.

-Provides a thorough orientation to the field of family psychology for clinicians

-Includes summaries of the most recent research literature and clinical interventions for specific areas of interest to family psychology clinicians

-Features essays by recognized experts in a variety of specialized fields

-Suitable as a required text for courses in family psychology, family therapy, theories of psychotherapy, couples therapy, systems theory, and systems therapy


Thoughts Of Suicidality And Self-Harm In Middle Childhood: Relationship With Child Maltreatment And Maternal Substance Abuse And Depression, Tara Cossel, Natasha Elkovitch, David Hansen Mar 2012

Thoughts Of Suicidality And Self-Harm In Middle Childhood: Relationship With Child Maltreatment And Maternal Substance Abuse And Depression, Tara Cossel, Natasha Elkovitch, David Hansen

David J. Hansen

Child maltreatment victims are at increased risk for a multitude of symptoms, including: internalizing problems (e.g., depression, anxiety), behavior problems (e.g., aggression) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (Paolucci, Genuis, & Violato, 2001). Not all maltreated children present with the same outcomes, and research consistently demonstrates child abuse does not have an inevitable pattern or a unified presentation of symptoms. Some youth may be asymptomatic following abuse; others display a myriad of symptoms at varying levels of severity (Kendall-Tackett, Williams, & Finkelhor, 1993). A small percentage of this group becomes suicidal.

Recent studies have presented accumulating evidence that suicidality and self-harm warrant concern in the maltreated population. Child maltreatment has bivariate associations with suicidal ideation (Brezo, Paris, Tremblay, Vitaro, Zoccolillo, Hebert, et al., 2006), and childhood sexual abuse is a consistent correlate of suicide attempts (Brezo, Paris, Tremblay, Vitaro, Hébert, and Turecki, 2007). However, the majority of the literature addresses adults and adolescents; little is known about early onset of self-harm and suicidality.

In addition to maltreatment, maternal factors, such as substance abuse and depression, form a potentially important construct with regards to childhood suicidality and self-harm. Goodman (1994) found 20 percent of depressed mothers had a child with major depression or dysthymia. Research has further shown children of depressed ...


Specific, Common, And Unintended Factors In Psychotherapy: Descriptive And Correlational Approaches To What Creates Change, Kevin S. Mccarthy Dec 2009

Specific, Common, And Unintended Factors In Psychotherapy: Descriptive And Correlational Approaches To What Creates Change, Kevin S. Mccarthy

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

From the psychotherapy outcome literature, many have inferred that either theory-specific techniques or interventions common to all therapies are what produce symptom change. However, such conclusions are premature because (a) too few direct tests have been conducted of how variation in the levels of either specific or common factor interventions relate to outcome, (b) those prior investigations of specific and common factors and outcome have often been limited to examining linear relations between intervention use and outcome when curvilinear functions might better model their association, and (c) most studies of psychotherapy and outcome have failed to consider how interventions specific ...


Evaluating The School Performance Of Elementary And Middle School Children Of Incarcerated Parents., Melissa F. Neal Dec 2009

Evaluating The School Performance Of Elementary And Middle School Children Of Incarcerated Parents., Melissa F. Neal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Children of incarcerated parents are at significantly increased risk of negative long-term outcomes. With about 1% of the adult population incarcerated, the United States has millions of children at risk for these negative outcomes. Research on this population is increasing; however, it is still unclear whether children of incarcerated parents are at an increased risk for poor school performance as a specific result of parental incarceration above that associated with their social and economic status. Because parental incarceration may result in a variety of outcomes that can negatively impact school performance including school mobility, prolonged exposure to stress, and insufficient ...


Effects Of Anxiety Reducing Interventions On Performance Anxiety In Graduate Nurses., Georgita Tolbert Washington Dec 2009

Effects Of Anxiety Reducing Interventions On Performance Anxiety In Graduate Nurses., Georgita Tolbert Washington

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Every new nursing graduate is challenged to successfully transition from student to professional nurse. The stress involved in that transition can manifest itself as performance anxiety, a type of anxiety occurring when someone is the focus of attention and is fearful of interactions or of being humiliated or embarrassed. It occurs only in specific situations. The new graduate's performance is the focus of attention and evaluation. Further, the need to interact with other professionals, patients, and families can create anxiety about performance. No studies have examined performance anxiety in graduate nurses.

Use of cognitive behavioral therapy, progressive muscle relaxation ...


Psychosocial Concerns And Childhood Overweight In Pediatric Primary Care Clinics Serving Rural Appalachia., Suzanne Allen Dec 2009

Psychosocial Concerns And Childhood Overweight In Pediatric Primary Care Clinics Serving Rural Appalachia., Suzanne Allen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To examine the prevalence of psychosocial concerns presenting in 3 pediatric primary care clinics serving rural Appalachia. The association between pediatric weight status and psychosocial concerns was examined. Methods: Caregivers of children presenting in one of 3 pediatric primary care facilities completed a demographic questionnaire and the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results: Approximately 21.4% of children were identified as having a clinically significant behavioral health concern. Among children with available weight status data, ~53% of the children were identified as overweight. Children identified having significant behavioral concerns were more likely to have a lower weight status than those with ...


Positive Psychological And Religious Characteristics As Moderators Of Negative Life Events And Depressive Symptoms: A Multiethnic Comparison., Preston Lee Visser Dec 2009

Positive Psychological And Religious Characteristics As Moderators Of Negative Life Events And Depressive Symptoms: A Multiethnic Comparison., Preston Lee Visser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hope, optimism, and several markers of religiosity and spirituality were examined as potential moderators of the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms in a secondary data analysis of an ethnically diverse sample. Participants (267 female, 119 male) were college students enrolled at an urban Northeastern university. It was hypothesized that negative life events would be associated with increased depressive symptoms and that higher levels of hope, optimism, and religious and spiritual variables would attenuate this relationship. Ethnically-stratified moderation analyses were conducted to assess for differences in moderation between Blacks, Hispanics, Whites, and Asians. Hypotheses were generally supported, with ...


Psychometrics Of The Missouri Student Survey: Examining Validity, Reliability And Consent, Susan Marie Depue Dec 2009

Psychometrics Of The Missouri Student Survey: Examining Validity, Reliability And Consent, Susan Marie Depue

Dissertations

Risk and protective factors for adolescent drug and alcohol abuse have gained prominence in the prevention field as a framework for prevention. Communities that Care® is the original survey that collected data on risk and protective factors in the adolescent community. The Missouri Student Survey is based upon the Communities that Care® survey and is administered to students across the state of Missouri every two years. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Missouri Student Survey in a sample of 126,923 students from across the state of Missouri. In addition, this study also considers the question of ...


Family Separation And Changes In Peer Relationships Among Early Adolescent Latino Youth: Examining The Mediating Role Of Family Relationships, Lawrence Duane House Dec 2009

Family Separation And Changes In Peer Relationships Among Early Adolescent Latino Youth: Examining The Mediating Role Of Family Relationships, Lawrence Duane House

Psychology Dissertations

This longitudinal study examines whether family processes (family cohesion and family conflict) mediate the relationship between family separation experiences and the development of peer relationships (quality and conflict). The study includes a sample of 199 early adolescent Latinos from immigrant families. Family conflict mediated the relationship between separation experiences from fathers and peer conflict at year 1 but not year 2 such that more separation from father was associated with higher family conflict and higher peer conflict at year 1. Family cohesion did not mediate associations between mother or father separation and peer relationship outcomes. Family cohesion predicted more positive ...


Learning From Our Conflicts, Gerald R. Williams Dec 2009

Learning From Our Conflicts, Gerald R. Williams

Vol. 2: Service & Integrity

This devotional address was given to the BYU student body on June 27, 2006.


The Reduction Of Anti-Gay Bias Through Interpersonal Contact: The Moderating Roles Of Hiv Stigma And Motivation To Respond Without Prejudice., Lisa Ann Elliott Dec 2009

The Reduction Of Anti-Gay Bias Through Interpersonal Contact: The Moderating Roles Of Hiv Stigma And Motivation To Respond Without Prejudice., Lisa Ann Elliott

Psychology Theses

The intergroup contact effect is well-documented in the research literature (for a meta-analysis see Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Although researchers have identified a few moderators of the contact effect, the constraints under which the contact effect is optimally effective are not well understood. The current research explored two individual difference measures related to anti-gay attitudes, AIDS stigma and motivation to respond without prejudice (internal and external motivation), as potential moderators of the contact effect on heterosexual men’s attitudes towards gay men. Results indicated that increased external motivation and AIDS stigma hinder the benefits of contact for anti-gay attitudes. Implications of ...


Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen Dec 2009

Acoustic Mediation Of Vocalized Emotion Identification: Do Decoders Identify Emotions Idiographically Or Nomothetically?, Michael Kenneth Lauritzen

Theses and Dissertations

Most research investigating vocal expressions of emotion has focused on one or more of three questions: whether there exist unique acoustic profiles of individual encoded emotions, whether the nature of emotion expression is universal across cultures, and how accurately decoders can identify expressed emotions. This dissertation begins to answer a fourth question, whether there exist unique patterns in the types of acoustic properties persons focus on to identify vocalized emotions. Three hypotheses were tested: first, whether acoustic patterns are interpreted idiographically or nomothetically as reflected in a comparison of individual vs. group lens model identification ratios; second, whether there exists ...


Evaluation Of The Psychometric Properties Of The Emotion Regulation Scale, Bebhinn Martha Timmins Dec 2009

Evaluation Of The Psychometric Properties Of The Emotion Regulation Scale, Bebhinn Martha Timmins

Masters Theses

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood disorder effecting 3-7% of school aged children and accounting for 30-50% of mental health referrals. Recent research in the area of emotional regulation has found that youth with ADHD have more difficulty regulating emotion than youth without ADHD. This is unfortunate, as emotional dysregulation has been linked to psychopathology, poor social functioning, substance abuse and suicide. Given this information, it is extremely important that measurement of emotion regulation is adequate because without good measurement it is impossible to improve our understanding of how emotional regulation is developed, maintained and how ...


Creating A Community Of Support For National Guard And Reserve Military Families, Kelly Christine Atwood Dec 2009

Creating A Community Of Support For National Guard And Reserve Military Families, Kelly Christine Atwood

Educational Specialist

This project provides community mental health professionals with information regarding the current supports and difficulties National Guard and Reserve military families face and the resources available to them. Literature on the stresses confronted by National Guard families, social support, the deployment cycle, and needs of National Guard families is reviewed. The current study investigated social support using the Social Support Questionnaire (Short Form) (Sarason, Levine, Basham, & Sarason, 1983). Participants reported the number of people they could really count on when they needed help and how satisfied they were with the help. In addition, qualitative written responses and interviews provided information ...


Unexpected: Identity Transformation Of Postpartum Women, Laura J. Cammaroto Dec 2009

Unexpected: Identity Transformation Of Postpartum Women, Laura J. Cammaroto

Educational Specialist

This purpose of this paper is to explore the physical, emotional and societal issues women face as they transition to motherhood and the accompanying redefinition of self. Themes of acceptance of new roles and responsibilities, resolution of losses, adjusting marriage/partnership, renegotiation of relationships and professional standing are discussed. Women experiencing postpartum depression and anxiety appear to have difficulty navigating or adapting to the new maternal identity. Therefore, this paper summarizes some of the physical responses of the postpartum period as well as possible puerperal mental disorders such as: postpartum dysphoria (Baby Blues), postpartum depression disorder (PPD), post traumatic stress ...


Evaluating Systemic Change In The Virginia Department Of Corrections: Creating Agents Of Change, Philip Andrew Mayles Dec 2009

Evaluating Systemic Change In The Virginia Department Of Corrections: Creating Agents Of Change, Philip Andrew Mayles

Educational Specialist

The Virginia Department of Corrections (VADOC) is attempting to change the practice of working with offenders placed on probation and parole to effect a reduction in the rate of recidivism. The VADOC’s proposal is to get the probation and parole officers to become “change agents” in motivating the offender toward pro-social behavior using evidence-based practices and Motivational Interviewing (MI). The purpose of this paper is to describe the ways in which organizations attempt change and explores the reasons for the resistance displayed by the probation and parole officers. The author argues that the VADOC should employ a second-order change ...


Reimagining Ourselves At Madison (Roam): An Innovative Adventure-Based Peer Counseling Program For University Students Demonstrating High Risk Alcohol-Related Behaviors, Amy Tice Dec 2009

Reimagining Ourselves At Madison (Roam): An Innovative Adventure-Based Peer Counseling Program For University Students Demonstrating High Risk Alcohol-Related Behaviors, Amy Tice

Educational Specialist

In the United States, heavy drinking appears to be normative behavior for college students, and high-risk drinking is a growing problem on college campuses. This paper introduces Re-imagining Ourselves at Madison (ROAM), an adventure-based peer counseling program for James Madison University students who demonstrate high risk-alcohol-related behaviors. The primary objective of this pilot program is to increase participants’ awareness and acknowledgement of their high risk behavior surrounding alcohol through an experience that is different than traditional alcohol education classes or alcohol counseling. ROAM also provides participants with an experience in which they are introduced to healthy alternatives to their high ...


Measuring Marriage Or Measuring Individuals: An Ontological Analysis Of Marital Therapy Outcome Measures, Joseph Andrew Ostenson Dec 2009

Measuring Marriage Or Measuring Individuals: An Ontological Analysis Of Marital Therapy Outcome Measures, Joseph Andrew Ostenson

Theses and Dissertations

Many scholars have noted the pervasiveness of individualism in American culture, particularly in the marriage culture. Unfortunately, assuming individualism in the marriage culture poses very specific threats to marriage as an institution. Some claim that these individualistic assumptions have also infiltrated the marital sciences, undermining the efforts of researchers who hope to defend marriage. This dissertation explores that claim by analyzing seven of the most popular marital outcome instruments used by marital researchers today for individualistic assumptions. Using a conceptual analysis called "contrasting relations," the meanings of both the content and the process of the instruments are laid out according ...


An Empirical Methodology For Engineering Human Systems Integration, Nicholas S. Hardman Dec 2009

An Empirical Methodology For Engineering Human Systems Integration, Nicholas S. Hardman

Theses and Dissertations

The systems engineering technical processes are not sufficiently supported by methods and tools that quantitatively integrate human considerations into early system design. Because of this, engineers must often rely on qualitative judgments or delay critical decisions until late in the system lifecycle. Studies reveal that this is likely to result in cost, schedule, and performance consequences. This dissertation presents a methodology to improve the application of systems engineering technical processes for design. This methodology is mathematically rigorous, is grounded in relevant theory, and applies extant human subjects data to critical systems development challenges. The methodology is expressed in four methods ...


Laterality Enhances Cognition In Australian Parrots, Maria Magat, Culum Brown Dec 2009

Laterality Enhances Cognition In Australian Parrots, Maria Magat, Culum Brown

Sentience Collection

Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that ...


Identifying The Indicators Of Individual Readiness For Positive Life Change Amongst Defenders Within A Remand Setting, Stephen Norman Barlow Dec 2009

Identifying The Indicators Of Individual Readiness For Positive Life Change Amongst Defenders Within A Remand Setting, Stephen Norman Barlow

Theses

Over 60 years ago Mr L. Nott, the Comptroller-General of New South Wales prisons, observed that prisoners do not change because the state wants them to change, but because they are not ready to change. He emphasised that what happens in the internal world of the prisoner affects their ability to change more than anything the correctional system can do. This thesis looks to the internal world of a small group of remand prisoners (called 'defenders') and examines how they express their readiness for change. This study examines defenders' strengths: what is right with them rather than what is wrong ...


Production System Models Of Complex Cognition, John R. Anderson, Bonnie E. John, Marcel Adam Just, Patricia A. Carpenter, David E. Kieras, David E. Meyer Dec 2009

Production System Models Of Complex Cognition, John R. Anderson, Bonnie E. John, Marcel Adam Just, Patricia A. Carpenter, David E. Kieras, David E. Meyer

Marcel Adam Just

No abstract provided.


Mindfulness, Health, Well-Being, And Patient Care Of Oncologists, Amanda Kracen Dec 2009

Mindfulness, Health, Well-Being, And Patient Care Of Oncologists, Amanda Kracen

Theses and Dissertations

Demands on physicians in the workplace are growing, as are the occupational and psychosocial stressors they encounter. However, there is scant research regarding physicians, their patient care, and strategies that enhance their well-being. Mindfulness, the ability to be present in the moment, is increasingly being encouraged among healthcare workers for personal benefits and possible positive effects for patients. Thus, the present study examined (a) the health, well-being, and patient care practices of oncologists, (b) the relationship between oncologists’ mindfulness and health indicators (general health and sleep problems) with three outcomes (satisfaction with life [SWL], job satisfaction, and suboptimal patient care ...


An Examination Of Factors That Influence Friendships In Young Adults From Intact And Divorced Families, Stephanie Wolf Dec 2009

An Examination Of Factors That Influence Friendships In Young Adults From Intact And Divorced Families, Stephanie Wolf

Theses and Dissertations

Specific factors affecting young adult friendship development have been identified by the literature with little focus on which are most influential in determining friendship composition.. Hierarchical regression was used to examine such factors. Participants included 400 undergraduate Psychology students at a state university in the mid-Atlantic region. Findings indicated parental relationships were the strongest predictor of friendship quality. Parent-child bonds, conflict between parents, and emotion regulation skills best predicted levels of intimacy. Parent-child bond-especially with mother-best predicted satisfaction with friendship network as did conflict between parents. In addition, parent-child bond with mother and conflict between parents were found more important ...


Facilitating The Generalization Of Social Skills With Bibliotherapy And Positive Peer Reporting, Angelina C. Krieger Dec 2009

Facilitating The Generalization Of Social Skills With Bibliotherapy And Positive Peer Reporting, Angelina C. Krieger

Theses and Dissertations

Social competence is needed for interaction among peers, teachers, and families in order for children to be successful in school. Children enter school with various levels of social competence. Social skills training is an effective method for building social skills; however, many programs fail to generalize these skills across settings and time. This study investigated the effects of a social skills training intervention for first and second grade students with emotional and behavioral problems. The intervention blended direct instruction, role-plays, and children's literature, with peers supporting both the acquisition and generalization of the social skills through positive peer reporting ...


College Students And Stress Management: Utilizing Biofeedback And Relaxation Skills Training, Shannon Jones Anstead Dec 2009

College Students And Stress Management: Utilizing Biofeedback And Relaxation Skills Training, Shannon Jones Anstead

Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of biofeedback and relaxation skills training to help alleviate college students' stress symptoms. Data was collected from 659 full-time college students who attended a total of 1,170 biofeedback sessions over the course of two years. Results of the study indicated that the top three stress-related symptoms students experienced were (a) feeling overwhelmed, (b) feeling anxious, and (c) difficulty concentrating. Furthermore, the top three stressors rated by students were (a) too much to do, (b) homework, and (c) classes and school. In addition, the top three coping strategies utilized by students to ...


Juveniles Who Commit Sex Offenses Against Minors., David Finkelhor, Richard Ormrod, Mark Chaffin Dec 2009

Juveniles Who Commit Sex Offenses Against Minors., David Finkelhor, Richard Ormrod, Mark Chaffin

Crimes Against Children Research Center

Presents population-based epidemiological information about the characteristics of juvenile offenders who commit sex offenses against minors. The authors analyzed data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and provided topical statistics highlighting the fact that juveniles account for more than one-third (35.6 percent) of this type of offender. Findings may support the development of research-based interventions and policies to reduce sexual assault and child molestation as perpetrated by juvenile offenders.


Law Enforcement Responses To Online Child Sexual Exploitation Crimes: The National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, 2000 & 2006., Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, Kimberly J. Mitchell Dec 2009

Law Enforcement Responses To Online Child Sexual Exploitation Crimes: The National Juvenile Online Victimization Study, 2000 & 2006., Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor, Kimberly J. Mitchell

Crimes Against Children Research Center

No abstract provided.


Sociality, Cognition And Social Learning In Turtles (Emydidae), Karen Marie Davis Dec 2009

Sociality, Cognition And Social Learning In Turtles (Emydidae), Karen Marie Davis

Doctoral Dissertations

Turtles are little studied with respect to learning, cognition and social behavior in spite of being phylogenetically a central group. Populations of many species of these long-lived animals are declining due to commercial activities (pet trade and food), pollution, and habitat destruction. This integrative study of freshwater turtle (Emydidae) behavior investigated their sociality, individual learning and memory capabilities, and the ability of turtles to learn from others.

First, I studied turtle underwater social behavior which involved naturalistic observations and ethogram development of the underwater social behavior of (Family Emydidae) at the Chattanooga Aquarium. Turtle social behavioral repertoire and interaction sequencing ...