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A Study Of Flight Simulation Training Time, Aircraft Training Time, And Pilot Competence As Measured By The Naval Standard Score, Aaron D. Judy Apr 2018

A Study Of Flight Simulation Training Time, Aircraft Training Time, And Pilot Competence As Measured By The Naval Standard Score, Aaron D. Judy

Doctor of Education (Ed.D)

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between US Navy T-45C flight simulation training time, actual aircraft training time, and intermediate and advanced jet pilot competence as measured by the Naval Standard Score (NSS). Examining the relationships between US Navy T-45C flight simulation time and actual aircraft flight time may provide further information on flight simulation training versus actual aircraft training to aviation authorities, flight instructors, the military aviation community, the commercial aviation community, and academia. The study was non-experimental, correlational, causal-comparative with an emphasis upon the establishment of mathematic and predictive relationships using archival data from ...


Towards Improving Learning With Consumer-Grade, Closed-Loop, Electroencephalographic Neurofeedback, Zall Soren Hirschstein Jan 2018

Towards Improving Learning With Consumer-Grade, Closed-Loop, Electroencephalographic Neurofeedback, Zall Soren Hirschstein

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Learning is an enigmatic process composed of a multitude of cognitive systems that are functionally and neuroanatomically distinct. Nevertheless, two undeniable pillars which underpin learning are attention and memory; to learn, one must attend, and maintain a representation of, an event. Psychological and neuroscientific technologies that permit researchers to “mind-read” have revealed much about the dynamics of these distinct processes that contribute to learning. This investigation first outlines the cognitive pillars which support learning and the technologies that permit such an understanding. It then employs a novel task—the amSMART paradigm—with the goal of building a real-time, closed-loop, electroencephalographic ...


Increasing Self-Testing Behavior In Students Using An Online Educational Intervention, Adam Patrick Young Jan 2018

Increasing Self-Testing Behavior In Students Using An Online Educational Intervention, Adam Patrick Young

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Self-testing is one of the most reliable and powerful memory benefits known to cognitive science. Unfortunately, many students omit this strategy in favor of less effective study techniques such as restudying. The superiority of self-testing to restudying is known as the testing effect (e.g., Roediger & Karpicke, 2006a). Applied interventions have been used to attempt to increase self-testing behaviors in student populations, but have so far been unable to draw strong conclusions due to the indirectness of their measurements and incompleteness of their experimental design. Furthermore, these past interventions have been conducted entirely in person, limiting their practical utility relative ...


Everyday Ghosts: An Examination Of Memory In Social Interactions, Sean P. Murphy Jan 2018

Everyday Ghosts: An Examination Of Memory In Social Interactions, Sean P. Murphy

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Naturally occurring instances of memory suppression seem to be ones in which conflict arises between a memory and present motivations. For example, being reminded of an embarrassing past event may introduce feelings that are not desired or appropriate if you are hosting company. The emotions connected to the negative memory and the desired emotions expected of a host are in conflict, and so the memory in question may be suppressed to preserve your desire to be a congenial host. While research has served to characterize various aspects of suppression, the methodologies used by such studies rely on explicit instruction from ...


Comparison Of The Sensitivity Of Yes/No And Forced Choice Associative Recognition, Garrett Schliewinsky Jan 2018

Comparison Of The Sensitivity Of Yes/No And Forced Choice Associative Recognition, Garrett Schliewinsky

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Yes-no (YN) and forced choice (FC) associative recognition tasks were compared across three experiments to test the varying effects of familiarity. Schliewinsky and Hockley (2016) previously found a discrimination advantage for FC tasks over YN tasks when word pairs were familiarized. The present research is a continuation to further explore the effects of increased familiarity. Experiment 1 manipulated the familiarity of individual items in the word pairs. No discrimination advantage for the FC condition over the YN condition was found when only item familiarity was increased, emphasizing the importance of associative information for accurate associative recognition. There was, though, a ...


Metaphor To Memory: Effects Of Spatiotemporal Metaphors On The Emotional Valence Of Autobiographical Memories, Jayne B. Williamson-Lee Jan 2018

Metaphor To Memory: Effects Of Spatiotemporal Metaphors On The Emotional Valence Of Autobiographical Memories, Jayne B. Williamson-Lee

Undergraduate Honors Theses

English speakers conceptualize the passing of time in one of two ways: as events in time moving toward them (the time-moving perspective) or as themselves moving through time (the ego-moving perspective). Previous studies suggest that these construals of time have corresponding emotional valences (positive and negative, respectively), which influence perceptions of emotional experiences. This study investigates whether spatiotemporal metaphors evoke valence-specific memories – specifically whether the ego-moving perspective evokes positive memories and the time-moving perspective negative memories. Participants read statements depicting events in motion and wrote about autobiographical memories. Memories recalled were evaluated as positive or negative by the researcher. Results ...


Face Perception And Identification, Audrey Aamot Jan 2018

Face Perception And Identification, Audrey Aamot

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

The present research aimed to examine the combined effects of the own-race effect and own-age bias in relation to memory performance. The own-race effect suggests that individuals perform better when asked to remember faces of the same race as their own, as opposed to faces of a different race (Meissner, Brigham & Butz, 2005). Own-age bias is a tendency for individuals to perform better when remembering faces from the same age group as their own (Rhodes & Anastasi, 2005, 2012). It was hypothesized that when recognizing faces of a different age and race, memory accuracy would be worse, when compared to faces of either the same age or same race. Significant differences were expected across all conditions. 25 White participants (18 females, 7 males) age 18-31 were recruited online using Sona Systems and flyers posted on campus. E-prime was used to create and run the experiment on a computer. Participants were asked to remember a series of face pictures (adopted from Minear & Park, 2004), which consisted of (1) white-old; (2) white-young; (3) black-old; and (4) black-young face pictures. Their memory was assessed by a “yes-no” recognition memory test in which half of the test items were studied faces (40), and half were non-studied faces (40). Hit rate and false alarm rate were recorded, in order to calculate mean ...


Does Posture Impact Affective Word Processing? Examining The Role Of Posture Across Adulthood In An Incidental Encoding Task, Lucas John Hamilton Jan 2018

Does Posture Impact Affective Word Processing? Examining The Role Of Posture Across Adulthood In An Incidental Encoding Task, Lucas John Hamilton

ETD Archive

Research in emotional aging has primarily investigated mechanisms that could explain the age-related increase in positive emotionality despite various age-related losses. Of particular note is the increasing importance of age-related positivity effects and underlying biological influences on affective processes. Despite evidence of weakened mind-body connectivity in older adulthood presented in the maturation dualism framework, research shows age-similarities in subjective and objective reactivity for certain negative emotional states across adulthood. Thus, robust physiological-experiential associations may still exist in later life. Investigations of integrated mind-body connectivity have lead researchers to examine the influence of posture on cognitive outcomes. Prior evidence has observed ...


Recognition Memory Revisited: An Aging And Electrophysiological Investigation, Elliott C. Jardin Jan 2018

Recognition Memory Revisited: An Aging And Electrophysiological Investigation, Elliott C. Jardin

ETD Archive

This study provides a better understanding of contributing factors to age differences in human episodic memory. A recurrent finding in recognition memory is that older adults tend to have lower overall accuracy and tend to make fewer false-alarm errors in judging new items, relative miss errors (Coyne, Allen & Wickens, 1986; Danziger, 1980; Poon and Fozard 1980). Two possible causes for decline in these abilities include an age-related decrement in speed of processing (Salthouse 1991) and changes in information processing ability due to entropy (Allen, Kaufman, Smitch, & Propper 1998a; Mallik et al., in preparation). Additionally, age differences may be partially explained by a tendency for ...


Recognition Memory Revisited: An Aging And Electrophysiological Investigation, Elliot C. Jardin Jan 2018

Recognition Memory Revisited: An Aging And Electrophysiological Investigation, Elliot C. Jardin

ETD Archive

This study provides a better understanding of contributing factors to age differences in human episodic memory. A recurrent finding in recognition memory is that older adults tend to have lower overall accuracy and tend to make fewer false-alarm errors in judging new items, relative miss errors (Coyne, Allen & Wickens, 1986; Danziger, 1980; Poon and Fozard 1980). Two possible causes for decline in these abilities include an age-related decrement in speed of processing (Salthouse 1991) and changes in information processing ability due to entropy (Allen, Kaufman, Smitch, & Propper 1998a; Mallik et al., in preparation). Additionally, age differences may be partially explained by a tendency for ...


Note-Taking And The Decision To Externalize Memory, Anna Slavina Jan 2018

Note-Taking And The Decision To Externalize Memory, Anna Slavina

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between note-taking and learning, particularly as it relates to the use of technology in the classroom. Two laboratory studies explore how taking and saving notes on a computer impacts memory for facts and the folders where notes for those facts are stored. A qualitative study provided an updated look at how students think about note-taking and how technology affects their note-taking habits. Another laboratory study explored the difference in recall for facts and folders when notes were taken by hand on note-cards and saved in physical folders or on a ...


Decomposing The Effect Of Color On Memory: How Red And Blue Affect Memory Differently, Erin Krahn Jan 2018

Decomposing The Effect Of Color On Memory: How Red And Blue Affect Memory Differently, Erin Krahn

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Color has been shown to have a beneficial effect on memory in the general population and in some clinical populations, such as those with dementia and autism. Many factors within the effect of color on memory have been tested, however the differences among colors has been largely ignored. This study aimed to close this gap by comparing the effects of red, blue, and black on recognition memory. In addition, this study was designed in a way that could help test one of the main theories on how color enhances memory, the attention and arousal theory. This theory posits that the ...


An Examination Of Inattentional Blindness In Law Enforcement, Gregory Lee Jan 2018

An Examination Of Inattentional Blindness In Law Enforcement, Gregory Lee

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Inattentional blindness, or the inability to visually detect an unexpected stimulus while attending to a task or situation, can have detrimental effects on those who are subject to the phenomenon. This may be particularly true for law enforcement officers, who are often engaged in cognitively demanding tasks that draw their attention away from potentially deadly hazards. This study aimed to look at the effects of inattentional blindness within a group of officers of varying degrees of experience and expertise. The officers were presented with a video-based scenario in which an unexpected stimulus was placed. The control group was asked to ...


Assessing The Long-Term Sequelae Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Janna Mantua Jan 2018

Assessing The Long-Term Sequelae Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Janna Mantua

Doctoral Dissertations

A mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also known as a concussion, is defined as an injury that results in an alteration of consciousness or mental status. Previous studies have shown mTBI populations experience a number of chronic (> 1 year) symptoms, such as sleep disturbances (e.g., sleep stage alterations), mood alterations (e.g., depressive symptoms), and cognitive alterations (e.g., poor concentration). The three chapters of this dissertation sought to explore these long-term sequelae and the possible interrelations between them. In the first experiment, sleep-dependent memory consolidation of neutral stimuli was probed in a chronic mTBI sample and a control ...


Automaticity Of Digital Accessibility In Memorization, Kyler Miller Jan 2018

Automaticity Of Digital Accessibility In Memorization, Kyler Miller

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As computers and smartphones see more widespread use in society today, multiple studies have arisen to explore their effects on learning and memory, and if they are truly as beneficial a tool as they are understood to be. Prior research suggests that digital accessibility results in poorer encoding of information due to individuals automatically perceiving an increased availability because of computers’ more mainstream use. This study attempts to explore this effect through two experiments modeled after an experiment by Schwikert (2017) that presents stimuli to participants, telling them through pre-cues “Saved” and “Erased” that half of the stimuli will be ...


Individual Ability To Learn A Parallel Processing Technique And Musical Aptitude., Daniel Warren Emmett Jan 2018

Individual Ability To Learn A Parallel Processing Technique And Musical Aptitude., Daniel Warren Emmett

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Correlations between music training and psychosocial skills, sensory abilities, and aspects of intelligence, are sorted into primary or secondary effects. Correlations between these areas of human development and music training lack support pertaining to the underlying cognitive networks that these processes rely on. Thus, this study was based on the work of Baddeley and Hitch's model of working memory, and implemented a test of parallel processing (Articulatory Suppression Task, AST), which measures proficiency of working memory systems. Individual differences therein, were compared with music aptitude. Participants were gathered throughout urban and rural regions of the state of Oregon. Half ...


Memory In Adult Female Victims Of Intimate Partner Violence, Jill Waite Jan 2018

Memory In Adult Female Victims Of Intimate Partner Violence, Jill Waite

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a national and global health problem. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization suggest that 1 in 3 women will become a victim of violence by an intimate partner in her lifetime. Memory and learning have been shown to be affected in in-vivo animal studies under acute and chronic stress conditions. Using Bertalanffy's general systems theory, this study examined the impact of IPV on short-term memory in adult female survivors by comparing their performance to a control group (adult females with no IPV in the past 5 years) on ...


The Effect Of Recent Experience On Template Formation During Categorical Visual Search, Kenneth Eduardo Granillo-Velasquez Jan 2018

The Effect Of Recent Experience On Template Formation During Categorical Visual Search, Kenneth Eduardo Granillo-Velasquez

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Previous studies have shown that while searching for categorical objects (e.g. cars, clothing, fruits, etc.), we utilize a template as a reference to aid in our detection and identification of our target object. Even more, other research has proposed the capacity of this template to accommodate or modify based on the exemplars presented for that categorical group. In addition, they have shown the capacity of these same exemplars to broaden or further specify the template used during these searches. However, these findings do not consider the effect that recent exemplars have on existing templates. In the following experiment, we ...


Rescuing Age-Related Proteolysis Deficits With Methylene Blue, Shane E. Pullins Dec 2017

Rescuing Age-Related Proteolysis Deficits With Methylene Blue, Shane E. Pullins

Theses and Dissertations

The average lifespan is constantly increasing with the advent of new medical techniques, and age-related cognitive decline is becoming a prevalent societal issue. Even during healthy aging, humans and rats exhibit progressive deficits in episodic/declarative memory. In laboratory rats, age-related memory impairment can be assessed with trace fear conditioning (TFC). Recent research implicates ubiquitin proteasome system-mediated protein degradation in the synaptic plasticity supporting memory formation and retrieval. In rats, aging leads to decreased basal proteolytic activity in brain structures known to support the acquisition and retrieval of trace fear memories, and our preliminary data suggests activity-dependent proteasome activity declines ...


Understanding The Role Of The Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex In Emotional Memory Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation And Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, R. Rachel Weintraub-Brevda Sep 2017

Understanding The Role Of The Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex In Emotional Memory Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation And Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, R. Rachel Weintraub-Brevda

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Emotional stimuli can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on memory, such that emotional stimuli can be distracting from current neutral working memory goals, while also leading to enhanced episodic memory for the distracting emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) has multiple roles in the enhancing effects of emotion on memory through top-down/controlled processes, including 1) coping with negative distraction and 2) elaborative encoding of negative information. Additionally, previous research has alluded to hemispheric differences in the VLPFC (Chapter 1). However, previous research has been correlational, with no strong laterality tests of the VLPFC ...


The Roles Of Attention, Awareness, And Memory In Evaluative Conditioning, Katherine Anne Fritzlen Aug 2017

The Roles Of Attention, Awareness, And Memory In Evaluative Conditioning, Katherine Anne Fritzlen

Masters Theses

Evaluative conditioning (EC) is learning that occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly paired with a valenced unconditioned stimulus (US) such that the CS takes on the valence of the US. In the current investigation we were interested in investigating the combined and individual effects of attentional resources and contingency awareness on implicit and explicit EC using a disguised conditioning paradigm. We orthogonally manipulate participants’ awareness of the contingencies and attentional resources in an EC paradigm. We found mixed evidence for the necessity of higher order resources for EC. Neither orthogonally manipulated awareness nor attention had an effect ...


Cognitive Origin Of Reported Goals, Nikolas M. Pate Aug 2017

Cognitive Origin Of Reported Goals, Nikolas M. Pate

MSU Graduate Theses

Goal setting theory assumes that goals that drive self-regulation exist in ‘goal structures’ and that asking participants to report their goals draws from these pre-existing structures. This study tested this assumption of pre-existing goals against the notion that goals are generated by goal-setters at the time they are requested to report their goals. A model of working memory was used to differentiate between goals existing in memory or goals generated on the spot. Participants were 211 students from a large Midwestern public university, randomly assigned to one of two groups. The experimental group participants reported their career goals while also ...


People Change: Impression Management Influences Autobiographical Memories, Holly Elizabeth Cole Aug 2017

People Change: Impression Management Influences Autobiographical Memories, Holly Elizabeth Cole

Theses and Dissertations

This paper presents the results of an experiment that tested a new impression management strategy, termed memory enhancement, and the long-term implications of using memory enhancement. People often share the events that occur in their everyday lives to others in the form of stories. This research was designed to determine if people will alter the way they share previous events to create a specific impression. It is possible that using the impression management strategy of memory enhancement will create long lasting changes to the actual memory of the event. This was tested in an experiment in which participants were put ...


Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller Jul 2017

Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There are large individual differences in the ability to create an accurate mental representation (i.e., a cognitive map) of a novel environment, yet the factors underlying cognitive map accuracy remain unclear. Given the roles that landmarks and cognitive map accuracy play in successful navigation, the current study examined whether differences in the landmarks that individuals look at while navigating are related to differences in cognitive map accuracy. Participants completed a battery of spatial tests: some that assessed spatial skills prior to a navigation task, and others that tested memory for the environment following exploration of a virtual world. Results ...


Emotional Memory For Affective Words In Manifest And Prodromal Huntington’S Disease, Patricia Lynn Johnson Jul 2017

Emotional Memory For Affective Words In Manifest And Prodromal Huntington’S Disease, Patricia Lynn Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) patients have been found to have specific deficits in emotional processing, most consistently demonstrating impairment recognizing the emotion expressed on a static face. The purpose of this study was to examine emotional memory in HD, which has not yet been investigated, and its relationship with executive functioning, emotional facial recognition, and the disease progression in HD. An emotional memory task with pleasant, neural, and unpleasant words was administered to control (n=26), prodromal HD (n=26), and manifest HD (n=29) participants in addition to executive function measures, an apathy scale, and emotional facial recognition task ...


The Relationships Among Emotion, Cognitive Dysfunction And Anosognosia In Huntington’S Disease, Danielle C. Hergert Jun 2017

The Relationships Among Emotion, Cognitive Dysfunction And Anosognosia In Huntington’S Disease, Danielle C. Hergert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Anosognosia, or lack of awareness of symptoms, is commonly observed in neurodegenerative disorders, including HD. Most theories suggest that emotion, executive functioning, and memory play important roles in self-awareness. There is limited research of anosognosia in HD and no theoretical model of how it manifests in the disease. The purpose of this study was to examine Metacognitive Knowledge, or overall beliefs about the self, and Online Awareness, or the ability to predict (Anticipatory Awareness) and evaluate (Emergent Awareness) task performance, in HD ...


Psychiatric Disorders Memory And The Future: The Effect Of Anxiety And Depression On Self- Defining Memory And Self-Defining Future Projections, Sarah Irvine Jun 2017

Psychiatric Disorders Memory And The Future: The Effect Of Anxiety And Depression On Self- Defining Memory And Self-Defining Future Projections, Sarah Irvine

Honors Theses

Prior research has found that depression affects how individuals recall self-defining memories by preventing individuals from properly encoding and retrieving memories, resulting in a suspected inability to recall specific events and information (Conway, 1990). The current study aimed to replicate this finding and to examine whether this phenomenon exists within those with higher levels of anxiety, a concept not previously studied. Fifty-three participants were asked to recall two self-defining memories (Singer & Blagov, 2000) and forty- seven participants described where they saw themselves two years from now in order to determine whether depression and anxiety affect future projections as well as ...


Reconsolidating: The Effect Of Spatial Context And Expectations, Chris R. Kiley May 2017

Reconsolidating: The Effect Of Spatial Context And Expectations, Chris R. Kiley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Consolidation is the process by which memories become stable over time. Accessing a previously consolidated memory trace brings it back into a labile state where it must then undergo a re-stabilization process known as reconsolidation. During this process memories are again susceptible to interference and may be updated with new information. Reconsolidation has been demonstrated in animals as well as in the procedural and episodic human memory systems. The exact boundary conditions for reconsolidation are not yet known. Some studies suggest that reconsolidation is only necessary when new information is presented in a spatial context that is indistinguishable from the ...


A Study Of The Effects Of Methylene Blue, Scopolamine, And Stress On Learning And Memory In The Zebrafish, Erika Marie Caramillo May 2017

A Study Of The Effects Of Methylene Blue, Scopolamine, And Stress On Learning And Memory In The Zebrafish, Erika Marie Caramillo

Dissertations

With the ever-increasing aging population, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease are becoming more prevalent. Owing to such increases in age related cognitive decline, the need for research into new, effective treatments is more imperative now than ever. The zebrafish is an excellent animal model that can be used to study the potential pharmacological effects of novel cognition-centric treatments. However, more needs to be known about the species and its ability to learn, remember, and the effects certain drugs have on behavior. In this dissertation, I aimed to better understand zebrafish cognition through the testing of three conditions: a ...


The New Theory Of Disuse Predicts Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility (Res), Victoria Bartek May 2017

The New Theory Of Disuse Predicts Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility (Res), Victoria Bartek

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Retrieval enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to an effect where initial testing of an event leads to better learning of and higher production of misinformation regarding that event. This paper proposes the New Theory of Disuse (Bjork & Bjork, 1992) as a supplement to the retrieval fluency account for RES (Thomas et al., 2010). The amount of interference presented between the misinforming narrative and final test was manipulated in order to investigate how decays in retrieval strength (how easily a memory is recalled) affect misinformation reporting. Results suggested that the learning of interfering information may decrease RES, but that this effect may ...