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Psychology

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Memory

2017

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Rescuing Age-Related Proteolysis Deficits With Methylene Blue, Shane E. Pullins Dec 2017

Rescuing Age-Related Proteolysis Deficits With Methylene Blue, Shane E. Pullins

Theses and Dissertations

The average lifespan is constantly increasing with the advent of new medical techniques, and age-related cognitive decline is becoming a prevalent societal issue. Even during healthy aging, humans and rats exhibit progressive deficits in episodic/declarative memory. In laboratory rats, age-related memory impairment can be assessed with trace fear conditioning (TFC). Recent research implicates ubiquitin proteasome system-mediated protein degradation in the synaptic plasticity supporting memory formation and retrieval. In rats, aging leads to decreased basal proteolytic activity in brain structures known to support the acquisition and retrieval of trace fear memories, and our preliminary data suggests activity-dependent proteasome activity declines ...


Understanding The Role Of The Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex In Emotional Memory Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation And Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, R. Rachel Weintraub-Brevda Sep 2017

Understanding The Role Of The Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex In Emotional Memory Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation And Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, R. Rachel Weintraub-Brevda

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Emotional stimuli can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on memory, such that emotional stimuli can be distracting from current neutral working memory goals, while also leading to enhanced episodic memory for the distracting emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) has multiple roles in the enhancing effects of emotion on memory through top-down/controlled processes, including 1) coping with negative distraction and 2) elaborative encoding of negative information. Additionally, previous research has alluded to hemispheric differences in the VLPFC (Chapter 1). However, previous research has been correlational, with no strong laterality tests of the VLPFC ...


The Roles Of Attention, Awareness, And Memory In Evaluative Conditioning, Katherine Anne Fritzlen Aug 2017

The Roles Of Attention, Awareness, And Memory In Evaluative Conditioning, Katherine Anne Fritzlen

Masters Theses

Evaluative conditioning (EC) is learning that occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly paired with a valenced unconditioned stimulus (US) such that the CS takes on the valence of the US. In the current investigation we were interested in investigating the combined and individual effects of attentional resources and contingency awareness on implicit and explicit EC using a disguised conditioning paradigm. We orthogonally manipulate participants’ awareness of the contingencies and attentional resources in an EC paradigm. We found mixed evidence for the necessity of higher order resources for EC. Neither orthogonally manipulated awareness nor attention had an effect ...


People Change: Impression Management Influences Autobiographical Memories, Holly Elizabeth Cole Aug 2017

People Change: Impression Management Influences Autobiographical Memories, Holly Elizabeth Cole

Theses and Dissertations

This paper presents the results of an experiment that tested a new impression management strategy, termed memory enhancement, and the long-term implications of using memory enhancement. People often share the events that occur in their everyday lives to others in the form of stories. This research was designed to determine if people will alter the way they share previous events to create a specific impression. It is possible that using the impression management strategy of memory enhancement will create long lasting changes to the actual memory of the event. This was tested in an experiment in which participants were put ...


Cognitive Origin Of Reported Goals, Nikolas M. Pate Aug 2017

Cognitive Origin Of Reported Goals, Nikolas M. Pate

MSU Graduate Theses

Goal setting theory assumes that goals that drive self-regulation exist in ‘goal structures’ and that asking participants to report their goals draws from these pre-existing structures. This study tested this assumption of pre-existing goals against the notion that goals are generated by goal-setters at the time they are requested to report their goals. A model of working memory was used to differentiate between goals existing in memory or goals generated on the spot. Participants were 211 students from a large Midwestern public university, randomly assigned to one of two groups. The experimental group participants reported their career goals while also ...


Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller Jul 2017

Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There are large individual differences in the ability to create an accurate mental representation (i.e., a cognitive map) of a novel environment, yet the factors underlying cognitive map accuracy remain unclear. Given the roles that landmarks and cognitive map accuracy play in successful navigation, the current study examined whether differences in the landmarks that individuals look at while navigating are related to differences in cognitive map accuracy. Participants completed a battery of spatial tests: some that assessed spatial skills prior to a navigation task, and others that tested memory for the environment following exploration of a virtual world. Results ...


Emotional Memory For Affective Words In Manifest And Prodromal Huntington’S Disease, Patricia Lynn Johnson Jul 2017

Emotional Memory For Affective Words In Manifest And Prodromal Huntington’S Disease, Patricia Lynn Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease (HD) patients have been found to have specific deficits in emotional processing, most consistently demonstrating impairment recognizing the emotion expressed on a static face. The purpose of this study was to examine emotional memory in HD, which has not yet been investigated, and its relationship with executive functioning, emotional facial recognition, and the disease progression in HD. An emotional memory task with pleasant, neural, and unpleasant words was administered to control (n=26), prodromal HD (n=26), and manifest HD (n=29) participants in addition to executive function measures, an apathy scale, and emotional facial recognition task ...


The Relationships Among Emotion, Cognitive Dysfunction And Anosognosia In Huntington’S Disease, Danielle C. Hergert Jun 2017

The Relationships Among Emotion, Cognitive Dysfunction And Anosognosia In Huntington’S Disease, Danielle C. Hergert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Anosognosia, or lack of awareness of symptoms, is commonly observed in neurodegenerative disorders, including HD. Most theories suggest that emotion, executive functioning, and memory play important roles in self-awareness. There is limited research of anosognosia in HD and no theoretical model of how it manifests in the disease. The purpose of this study was to examine Metacognitive Knowledge, or overall beliefs about the self, and Online Awareness, or the ability to predict (Anticipatory Awareness) and evaluate (Emergent Awareness) task performance, in HD ...


Psychiatric Disorders Memory And The Future: The Effect Of Anxiety And Depression On Self- Defining Memory And Self-Defining Future Projections, Sarah Irvine Jun 2017

Psychiatric Disorders Memory And The Future: The Effect Of Anxiety And Depression On Self- Defining Memory And Self-Defining Future Projections, Sarah Irvine

Honors Theses

Prior research has found that depression affects how individuals recall self-defining memories by preventing individuals from properly encoding and retrieving memories, resulting in a suspected inability to recall specific events and information (Conway, 1990). The current study aimed to replicate this finding and to examine whether this phenomenon exists within those with higher levels of anxiety, a concept not previously studied. Fifty-three participants were asked to recall two self-defining memories (Singer & Blagov, 2000) and forty- seven participants described where they saw themselves two years from now in order to determine whether depression and anxiety affect future projections as well as ...


The New Theory Of Disuse Predicts Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility (Res), Victoria Bartek May 2017

The New Theory Of Disuse Predicts Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility (Res), Victoria Bartek

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Retrieval enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to an effect where initial testing of an event leads to better learning of and higher production of misinformation regarding that event. This paper proposes the New Theory of Disuse (Bjork & Bjork, 1992) as a supplement to the retrieval fluency account for RES (Thomas et al., 2010). The amount of interference presented between the misinforming narrative and final test was manipulated in order to investigate how decays in retrieval strength (how easily a memory is recalled) affect misinformation reporting. Results suggested that the learning of interfering information may decrease RES, but that this effect may ...


Reconsolidating: The Effect Of Spatial Context And Expectations, Chris R. Kiley May 2017

Reconsolidating: The Effect Of Spatial Context And Expectations, Chris R. Kiley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Consolidation is the process by which memories become stable over time. Accessing a previously consolidated memory trace brings it back into a labile state where it must then undergo a re-stabilization process known as reconsolidation. During this process memories are again susceptible to interference and may be updated with new information. Reconsolidation has been demonstrated in animals as well as in the procedural and episodic human memory systems. The exact boundary conditions for reconsolidation are not yet known. Some studies suggest that reconsolidation is only necessary when new information is presented in a spatial context that is indistinguishable from the ...


A Study Of The Effects Of Methylene Blue, Scopolamine, And Stress On Learning And Memory In The Zebrafish, Erika Marie Caramillo May 2017

A Study Of The Effects Of Methylene Blue, Scopolamine, And Stress On Learning And Memory In The Zebrafish, Erika Marie Caramillo

Dissertations

With the ever-increasing aging population, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease are becoming more prevalent. Owing to such increases in age related cognitive decline, the need for research into new, effective treatments is more imperative now than ever. The zebrafish is an excellent animal model that can be used to study the potential pharmacological effects of novel cognition-centric treatments. However, more needs to be known about the species and its ability to learn, remember, and the effects certain drugs have on behavior. In this dissertation, I aimed to better understand zebrafish cognition through the testing of three conditions: a ...


Image Memory For Hyperpalatable Foods In University Aged Females, Leila M. Mackay Apr 2017

Image Memory For Hyperpalatable Foods In University Aged Females, Leila M. Mackay

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

Hyperpalatable foods are high in sugar and/or fat and highly processed. These foods increase dopamine in the brain similar to other rewards, such as drugs of abuse, producing pleasure and an enhanced drive to consume them. Undergraduate students (n = 44) completed an explicit memory task where they were asked if they recalled various types of food (high sugar, high fat, sugar+fat, fruits, vegetables and breads) and non-food images. Questionnaires evaluating eating patterns were also completed. It was hypothesized that hyperpalatable foods would be recalled better and faster than less-palatable foods or non-food images. The study found that hyperpalatable ...


Human Memory In A Modern World: Identifying The Cognitive Mechanism Behind Poor Memory For Digitally Available Information, Shane Ross Schwikert Jan 2017

Human Memory In A Modern World: Identifying The Cognitive Mechanism Behind Poor Memory For Digitally Available Information, Shane Ross Schwikert

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The emergence of the Internet, and its connected devices, are fundamentally changing the way we interact with information. New technology has created affordances that both lessen the burden on human memory and facilitate access to a nearly infinite amount of knowledge. In six experiments, the current research sought to determine how increasing interactions with technology are affecting memory, and to identify the cognitive mechanisms that are driving those changes. Experiments 1a, 1b, and 2 implemented modified item-method directed forgetting paradigms to examine how future access to information affects subsequent memory. Results indicated that explicit information about future availability delivered as ...


Human Memory In A Modern World: Identifying The Cognitive Mechanism Behind Poor Memory For Digitally Available Information, Shane Ross Schwikert Jan 2017

Human Memory In A Modern World: Identifying The Cognitive Mechanism Behind Poor Memory For Digitally Available Information, Shane Ross Schwikert

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The emergence of the Internet, and its connected devices, are fundamentally changing the way we interact with information. New technology has created affordances that both lessen the burden on human memory and facilitate access to a nearly infinite amount of knowledge. In six experiments, the current research sought to determine how increasing interactions with technology are affecting memory, and to identify the cognitive mechanisms that are driving those changes. Experiments 1a, 1b, and 2 implemented modified item-method directed forgetting paradigms to examine how future access to information affects subsequent memory. Results indicated that explicit information about future availability delivered as ...


Going To The Movies: Immersion, Visual Awareness, And Memory, Matthew Whalen Moran Jan 2017

Going To The Movies: Immersion, Visual Awareness, And Memory, Matthew Whalen Moran

Online Theses and Dissertations

Immersion describes the extent of which one feels involved in a virtual experience. In immersive environments, observers report high levels of sensory interaction, story engagement, and an impression of reality. According to the concept of Inattentional Blindness (IB), many people can miss an unexpected stimulus or object even if it is in their field of vision while attending to a task. Can immersion affect susceptibility to IB, and can it affect memory performance? To answer this question, two model theaters were used in order to manipulate a person's assessment of being immersed in two experiments. A realistic condition used ...


The Familiarity Factor: How Semantic Similarity Affects Associative Memory In Older And Younger Adults, Paige Warner Jan 2017

The Familiarity Factor: How Semantic Similarity Affects Associative Memory In Older And Younger Adults, Paige Warner

Honors Theses

The role of semantic knowledge and familiarity on retrieval processes were investigated in a test of the associative deficit hypothesis (ADH), and the data were interpreted from the perspectives of fuzzy trace theory and source monitoring errors (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). Younger and older adults (N=60) studied pairs of words for two recognition tests – an item test, for recognition of individual words, and an associative test, for recognition of word pairs. In the associative test, four word pairs were presented with a forced-choice response requirement (4AFC; Patterson & Hertzog, 2010). In addition to the studied, intact cue-target pair, three cue-target pairs were ...


Source Monitoring In Bilinguals, Renee Michelle Penalver Jan 2017

Source Monitoring In Bilinguals, Renee Michelle Penalver

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Source memory is memory for the context in which a particular target item is learned (Parker, 1995). The source-monitoring framework is the leading model of source memory (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993). It remains unknown at what level context-to-word associations are made (e.g., at the word form level or conceptual level). Three experiments examined the effects of word frequency and language proficiency on source memory, with each experiment addressing one of the different types of source monitoring identified in this framework. In Experiment 1, we examined how language proficiency and word frequency affect external source discrimination. Participants had to discriminate ...


Negation-Induced Forgetting: Is There A Consequence To Saying "No"?, Rachel Elizabeth Dianiska Jan 2017

Negation-Induced Forgetting: Is There A Consequence To Saying "No"?, Rachel Elizabeth Dianiska

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The negation effect refers to the cognitive detriment associated with correctly saying “no” (a negation), compared to correctly saying “yes” (an affirmation). A recent study has shown this detriment for item memory following the negation of a feature of an item (Mayo, Schul, & Rosenthal, 2014). This research examines the replicability of the negation effect using the original paradigm, as well as an adapted list-learning paradigm. Participants studied a set of objects and were then asked questions about features of objects that elicited “yes” or “no” responses. After a filler task, participants completed a final memory test during which they indicated ...


Hearing Loss And Verbal Memory Assessment In Older Adults, Christina G. Wong Jan 2017

Hearing Loss And Verbal Memory Assessment In Older Adults, Christina G. Wong

Wayne State University Dissertations

Prior research has found that adults with hearing loss perform worse on cognitive testing than adults without hearing loss, and some studies have suggested that hearing loss is associated with dementia. Heavy emphasis on tests involving auditory stimuli for memory assessment may result in overdiagnosis of cognitive impairment in individuals with hearing loss. The present study compared visual and auditory versions of a verbal memory test among older adults with and without hearing loss. Forty-one adults with moderate-to-severe, sensorineural hearing loss (HL) and 41 age-matched adults with normal hearing (NH) participated. Age ranged from 55 – 80 years. They completed a ...


The Effects Of Music On Short-Term And Long-Term Memory, Alexandria Miller Jan 2017

The Effects Of Music On Short-Term And Long-Term Memory, Alexandria Miller

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Recent research has suggested that there could be a benefit for learning verbal information with songs rather than spoken word; also, retrieval practices have been well documented as a beneficial learning strategy. The interaction between the two, however, has not been investigated. In this project, undergraduate students were assigned to one of four groups and listened to several complex sentences. Two groups had sentences that were spoken (Speech-Restudy, and Speech-Retrieval) and two had sentences that were sung (Song-Restudy, and Song-Retrieval). The restudy groups listened to the sentences four times, whereas the retrieval groups listened to the sentences twice, and then ...


Is Note-Taking More Effective With A Keyboard Or A Pen?, Stacee M. Horwitz Jan 2017

Is Note-Taking More Effective With A Keyboard Or A Pen?, Stacee M. Horwitz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the educational system attempts to incorporate technology into the daily regimen, controversy over technology’s impact has escalated amongst students and teachers. This study researched the impact of longhand versus typed note-taking medium on test performance. Past research has discovered that longhand note taking of a video lecture outperforms typing notes for conceptual test questions (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). In Experiment 1, the purpose was to examine how longhand note taking compares to typing notes from a textbook passage, and also the effects of taking notes versus only receiving notes to review. The participants read a textbook passage and either ...


Effectiveness Of Cognitive Rehabilitation As Memory Intervention For Elderly Adults With Dementia, Luzviminda Salamat Morrow Jan 2017

Effectiveness Of Cognitive Rehabilitation As Memory Intervention For Elderly Adults With Dementia, Luzviminda Salamat Morrow

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Although cognitive rehabilitation is not a new field of intervention, as it dates back to the treatment of brain-injured soldiers during World War I, the use of cognitive rehabilitation intervention therapies for individuals with dementia and mild cognitive impairment has yet to draw definite conclusions about its effectiveness. Based on the conceptual framework of biopsychosocial theoretical model, this study explored to what extend cognitive rehabilitation intervention was effective in improving the memory and mood functioning of elderly adults with mild cognitive impairments. An archived data set of 216 elderly adults collected at a midwestern agency in the United States during ...


The Role Of Attention And Memory In Prospective Person Memory, Kara Nicole Moore Jan 2017

The Role Of Attention And Memory In Prospective Person Memory, Kara Nicole Moore

Theses and Dissertations

I examined the role of memory and attention in prospective person memory. Prospective person memory involves being on the lookout for a person with the goal of completing some task (i.e., contacting the authorities) upon encountering the person. Success at prospective person memory tasks in lab and field based studies is rather low (i.e., less than 10% of people report encountering the person). In the current study the prospective person memory task involved a simulated search for a missing person. I manipulated attention to the missing person and strategic monitoring, which involves being in retrieval mode and searching ...


An Investigation Of The Effects Of Depressive-Rumination On Prospective Memory, Mark Primosch Jan 2017

An Investigation Of The Effects Of Depressive-Rumination On Prospective Memory, Mark Primosch

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Depression is related to prospective memory (PM) impairment. However, the research on depression-related PM impairment remains inconclusive. No study to date has taken into account the possible effects of depressive-rumination, which is known to impair executive functions underlying PM. The current study addresses this gap in the literature. Participants: Participants were grouped according to self-reported depression severity per the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Fifty-five individuals with low (BDI-II < 8), 17 individuals with moderate (BDI-II 9-18), and 16 individuals with high (BDI-II > 19) symptoms of depression were included in the study. Method: Participants completed demographic and trait and state rumination questionnaires. Participants within each ...


Intention To Deceive Alters Access To Semantic Memory, James Nye Jan 2017

Intention To Deceive Alters Access To Semantic Memory, James Nye

Theses and Dissertations

I conceptualize a theory of deception within the perspective of discourse and pragmatics while choosing to examine the decision to engage in deception within the perspective of cognitive psychology. Currently, cognitive perspectives of deception have emphasized that inhibitory control of one’s motor processes are vital because in order to respond deceptively, one must prevent honest behavior from leaking into one’s actions. Although indirect evidence for inhibition is heavily linked with deception, current empirical data connecting motoric control with deceptive responses has been difficult to observe. I propose a theoretical perspective that shifts the role of inhibitory control in ...


Protein Kinase Mzeta (Pkm-Ζ) Regulates Kv1.2 Dependent Cerebellar Eyeblink Classical Conditioning, Kutibh Chihabi Jan 2017

Protein Kinase Mzeta (Pkm-Ζ) Regulates Kv1.2 Dependent Cerebellar Eyeblink Classical Conditioning, Kutibh Chihabi

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Learning and memory has been a topic that has captured the attention of the scientific and public communities since the dawn of scientific discovery. Without the faculty of memory, mammals cannot experience nor function in the world; among homosapiens specifically, language, relationships, and personal identity cannot be developed (Eysenck, 2012). After all, some philosophers such as John Locke argued we are nothing but a collection of past memories in which we have developed and improved upon (Nimbalkar, 2011).

Understanding the cellular mechanisms behind learning, and the subsequent formation of memory, has been a topic that has garnered scientific interest for ...