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Consciousness, Perception, And Short-Term Memory, Henry F. Shevlin Sep 2016

Consciousness, Perception, And Short-Term Memory, Henry F. Shevlin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Dissertation Abstract: Consciousness, Perception, and Short-Term Memory

When we engage in almost any perceptual activity – recognizing a face, listening out for a phone-call, or simply taking in a sunset – information must be briefly stored and processed in some form of short-term memory. For philosophers attempting to develop an empirically grounded account of perception and conscious experience, it is therefore crucial to engage with scientific theories of the kinds of short-term memory mechanisms that underlie our moment-to-moment retention of information about the world. To that end, in this dissertation I review recent scientific evidence for a new form of rapid but ...


Emotion Regulation In Relation To Cognitive Functioning In The Preclinical Stages Of Dementia, Erica P. Meltzer Sep 2016

Emotion Regulation In Relation To Cognitive Functioning In The Preclinical Stages Of Dementia, Erica P. Meltzer

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Emotion regulation (ER) is essential for effective functioning in daily life. Research suggests that ER improves in older adulthood despite concomitant declines in cognition and the presumed neural substrates of ER. The current understanding of ER in older adulthood, and particularly of the relationship between ER and cognition in older adulthood, is limited. This is likely because the construct of ER is challenging to operationalize and, therefore, difficult to study.

The current study investigates ER in relation to cognitive functioning, specifically executive functioning and memory, in individuals with varying degrees of cognitive difficulties (i.e., in the preclinical stages of ...


The Mechanisms Underlying Cocaine-Induced Overexpression Of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (Bfgf, Fgf2), An Effect Reversed By Extinction, Madalyn Hafenbreidel Aug 2016

The Mechanisms Underlying Cocaine-Induced Overexpression Of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (Bfgf, Fgf2), An Effect Reversed By Extinction, Madalyn Hafenbreidel

Theses and Dissertations

Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug use and chronic relapse despite negative consequences. Drug-induced structural and functional changes in the brain are thought to underlie these characteristics. One mechanism that may mediate these characteristics are growth factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2), as they are necessary for cellular growth, survival, differentiation, and have roles in memory, mood, and anxiety disorders. bFGF mRNA and protein expression is increased following stimulant administration and is necessary for stimulant-induced changes in dendrites and behavioral sensitization. Moreover, addiction is maintained by cues associated with the drug, as they can can ...


Memory Mechanisms Of Hand Gesture In Communication And Learning, Caitlin Ann Hilliard Aug 2016

Memory Mechanisms Of Hand Gesture In Communication And Learning, Caitlin Ann Hilliard

Theses and Dissertations

Spontaneous co-speech hand gestures robustly affect learning and memory. Viewing or producing hand gestures during conversation facilitates the encoding, consolidation, and retention of the information in speech. Despite these effects, the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting this relationship remains unknown. In Experiment 1, I explored the memory mechanisms supporting hand gesture by working with patients with damage to their hippocampus and thus their declarative memory system. Participants engaged in discourse tasks that disproportionately engaged the hippocampus. I found that patients gestured less overall than healthy comparisons across all tasks, suggesting that the hippocampus indeed plays a role in gesture production ...


Recognition Training For Faces Across Age Gaps, William Blake Erickson Aug 2016

Recognition Training For Faces Across Age Gaps, William Blake Erickson

Theses and Dissertations

Face recognition is a problem that has theoretical and applied value. However, the fact of facial aging is rarely addressed in research and unmentioned in the major theories of face recognition. Facial aging also has ramifications for missing persons and fugitive cases, confounding attempts by law enforcement to recover these people whose last known images are years or decades out of date. This dissertation reports three studies aimed at measuring baseline age-gap recognition ability and testing various training regimens designed to increase accuracy rates for this unique kind of recognition task.


Does Sleep Enhance The Consolidation Of Implicitly Learned Visuo-Motor Sequence Learning?, Jeremy Viczko Jul 2016

Does Sleep Enhance The Consolidation Of Implicitly Learned Visuo-Motor Sequence Learning?, Jeremy Viczko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sleep has been shown to facilitate the consolidation (i.e., enhancement) of simple explicit (i.e., conscious) motor sequence learning (MSL). It remains unclear the degree to which this applies to implicit (i.e., unconscious) MSL. Employing reaction time and response generation tasks, we investigated the extent to which sleep is involved in consolidating implicit MSL, specifically whether the motor or the spatial cognitive representations of a learned sequence are enhanced by sleep, and whether these changes support the development of explicit sequence knowledge across sleep but not wake. Our results indicate that spatial and motor representations can be behaviourally ...


Dancing In The Dark: Sleep-Dependent Motor Skill Memory Consolidation And Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, Valya Sergeeva Jul 2016

Dancing In The Dark: Sleep-Dependent Motor Skill Memory Consolidation And Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, Valya Sergeeva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by dysfunction of the striatum and brief, repetitive limb movements during sleep. PLMD can severely disrupt non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Motor skills learning and memory consolidation are dependent on striatal activation, the latter enhanced by NREM sleep. Therefore, we investigated whether individuals with PLMD had learning and sleep-related memory deficits, and whether this putative deficit was related to sleep quality or symptom severity. 14 adults with a PLM index >15/hr underwent two nights (baseline, training) of polysomnographic recording. 15 age-matched healthy controls underwent three nights (baseline, undisturbed training ...


Sex Differences In Cognitive Decline In Mild Cognitive Impairment And Alzheimer's Disease, Juliann Thompson Jul 2016

Sex Differences In Cognitive Decline In Mild Cognitive Impairment And Alzheimer's Disease, Juliann Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and results in progressive cognitive decline, particularly in regards to memory (National Institute on Aging, 2012). Prior research has shown sex differences in brain-atrophy rates of AD patients, with women experiencing a higher rate of progression in volume reduction (Skup et al., 2011). This suggests that there may also be differences in cognitive functioning between sexes, particularly in the rate of cognitive decline with a more rapid disease progression for dementing females compared to dementing males. The current study monitored memory function longitudinally in approximately 200 total participants, 100 ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry May 2016

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


A Novel Use Of The Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott Paradigm: Distinguishing Between Differential Memory Mechanisms In Emotional Literature, Alan John Yablonski Jr. May 2016

A Novel Use Of The Deese-Roediger-Mcdermott Paradigm: Distinguishing Between Differential Memory Mechanisms In Emotional Literature, Alan John Yablonski Jr.

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

To current knowledge, the emotional literature has not included the proposal to conceptualize experimental designs in terms of item vs. hippocampal-dependent relational memory representations. Through utilizing the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm the current study targets two memory mechanisms: item-specific memory (i.e., font color) and relational memory. In addition, relational-binding memory was also assessed. The current study consists of three hypotheses: (a) negatively-valenced critical lures will be correctly recalled by participants more than neutrally-valenced critical lures (increased relational memory for negatively-valenced words), (b) participants will more accurately recall studied negatively-valenced words with the correct color compared to neutrally-valenced studied words (increased ...


Eye Movement Effects In Simulated Object Recognition Memory Impairment, Dmitriy Kazakov May 2016

Eye Movement Effects In Simulated Object Recognition Memory Impairment, Dmitriy Kazakov

Theses and Dissertations

Malingering is the purposeful fabrication of symptoms for secondary gain. Memory problems are the most reported symptom, and object recognition tests are often used in clinical settings to evaluate these claims. Past research has shown that eye movements can indirectly index memory, in that greater viewing is directed at studied stimuli 500-750 ms after display onset. The present study evaluated eye movements as a potential method of detecting feigned memory impairment. Forty-eight participants, half simulators, studied standardized images and took a memory test. Several levels of analysis were used to detect broad trends and brief effects. Simulators performed significantly worse ...


The Effects Of Cognitive Rehabilitation For Improving Prospective Memory In Acquired Brain Injury, Emily M. Aiken Apr 2016

The Effects Of Cognitive Rehabilitation For Improving Prospective Memory In Acquired Brain Injury, Emily M. Aiken

Masters Theses

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) includes any damage to the brain resulting from traumatic (e.g. motor vehicle accident) or non-traumatic (e.g. stroke) incidence, that occurs after birth and is not resulting from genetic or congenital factors. Individuals with ABI report that prospective memory (PM) deficits are the most detrimental cognitive impairment following injury, persistently and negatively impacting their ability to function properly in everyday life. PM refers to the ability to remember to carry out intended tasks in the future, including the recall of both time and event regulated intentions. Using neuropsychological assessments to produce patient deficit profiles, this ...


The Influence Of Test Anxiety On Memory, James J. Malloy Mar 2016

The Influence Of Test Anxiety On Memory, James J. Malloy

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between test anxiety and memory among a college population (N = 42). Specifically, the goal was to ascertain whether text anxiety had a measurable effect on memory, which was represented by scores on the Nelson-Denny reading comprehension subtest. Participants were divided into a stressed group (N = 22) and a non-stressed group (N = 20) in order to compare scores from test-takers with anxiety to those who do not. It was hypothesized that (a) test anxiety would have a significant impact on test results, (b) the non-stressed group would score higher than the ...


Functional Role Of Neural Oscillations In Attentional Inhibition And Long Term Memory Retrieval, Nicholas Ketz Jan 2016

Functional Role Of Neural Oscillations In Attentional Inhibition And Long Term Memory Retrieval, Nicholas Ketz

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

How does the brain selectively retrieve information from long term memory? What neural mechanisms are critical for this process, and how are these mechanisms brought into service in a task dependent way? What are the implications for the representations that are processed through these mechanisms, and can we use our understanding of them to better utilize encoding and retrieval of information in long term memory? These are some of the fundamental questions being addressed in this dissertation. Through the use of neural network models of the hippocampus and surrounding cortex this dissertation proposes a framework for understanding how time frequency ...


The Effects Of Affective Arousal On Color Perception And Memory, Nicole Elizabeth Lang Jan 2016

The Effects Of Affective Arousal On Color Perception And Memory, Nicole Elizabeth Lang

Senior Projects Spring 2016

The link between affective arousal, color perception, and color memory was explored by inducing fear, sadness, or embarrassment in 158 participants who them completed a color perception and memory task. It was predicted that participants experiencing fear or embarrassment would more often correctly identify and remember red and green than a neutral condition whereas experiencing sadness would lead to less correct identification and memory for blue and yellow than neutral. There was only a marginally significant effect of fear on color memory for red. In the low arousal condition, there was an effect of fear on color memory for green ...


Comparative Memory/Behavioral Symptoms Of Alzheimer's Disease: Eoad Vs. Load, Marcia Gale Roberson Jan 2016

Comparative Memory/Behavioral Symptoms Of Alzheimer's Disease: Eoad Vs. Load, Marcia Gale Roberson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal disorder with no apparent cure. Early-onset AD (EOAD) occurs in individuals before the age of 65, and late-onset AD (LOAD) occurs in individuals age 65 and older. Past studies have proven that AD is fatal among Americans age 65 and older. The disease is characterized by impairments in memory and executive function as well as other cognitive and behavioral problems. The research questions addressed by this sequential, mixed-method study compared EOAD and LOAD by exploring common behavioral/cognitive symptoms and stage levels of AD. Research participants were recruited from the Alzheimer's Association ...


Individual Differences In Eyewitness Testimony, Noel A. Cal Jan 2016

Individual Differences In Eyewitness Testimony, Noel A. Cal

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Eyewitness testimony plays a crucial role in the justice system. Misidentification from eyewitnesses was reported in 70% of 300 DNA exonerations of wrongfully convicted individuals (Wixted et al., 2015). Similarly, many convicts can also be set free because of juror’s faulty eyewitness recall during examination. Previous research indicated that females are more reliable in recall than men. However, these findings were not extensively examined with regards to time delay prior to the trial. Thus, it is important to systematically examine the various factors that influence eyewitness testimony.

The present study was designed to empirically examine the effects of gender ...


Music And Memory: A Qualitative Look At How Music Affects Episodic Memory, Jonathan A. Coad Jan 2016

Music And Memory: A Qualitative Look At How Music Affects Episodic Memory, Jonathan A. Coad

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This study was designed to examine qualitative data regarding gender and age differences about significant life events that are recalled when music is remembered. Two groups of participants were recruited, younger adults (M = 19.78, SD = 4.99) and older adults (M = 49.31, SD = 8.72). Data were collected by creating a survey and allowing participants to choose whichever songs, from their own experience, they like and asking them to list detailed memories that are attached to the song. Using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (2015) software, data was coded into categories of word count, positive and negative emotions ...


Does Access To External Storage Lead To Less Emphasis On Learning?, Anna Slavina Jan 2016

Does Access To External Storage Lead To Less Emphasis On Learning?, Anna Slavina

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of having access to external memory storage on what students encode in internal memory. The accessibility of external information makes it very easy to get to without having to exert a lot of mental effort. I investigated how typing and saving notes about facts on a computer would impact internal memory if participants knew they would have access to their notes when tested on the facts. In Experiment 1 participants heard trivia facts and took notes on each one, which they saved to one of six folders. Half of the participants were ...


Practical Implications Of Learning From Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts, Ann C. Rossmiller, James R. Houston Jan 2016

Practical Implications Of Learning From Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts, Ann C. Rossmiller, James R. Houston

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Recent findings suggest that retesting oneself facilitates better learning than studying alone. Building off previous experiments where correcting participants has significantly increased correctness, the current study furthers our understanding about learning from unsuccessful retrieval attempts by manipulating the frequency of correction. Using a set of 42 associated word pairings, each participant was exposed to two blocks where they would memorize the word pairs. This was followed by two quizzing blocks and a final exam block where participants were asked to write down the associate to the stimulus presented on screen. Frequency of correction was manipulated during the quizzing blocks where ...


Cognitive Processes And Memory Differences In Recall And Recognition In Adults, Laura Elaine Fitzgerald Jan 2016

Cognitive Processes And Memory Differences In Recall And Recognition In Adults, Laura Elaine Fitzgerald

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Eyewitness testimony is critical in both criminal court and civil court, so determining the most reliable method to gain information from witnesses is imperative. Past research in this area has focused on false memory, assisted recall, stress, and event perception. A gap exists in the current literature regarding the best method to gain the most accuracy in recall. The purpose of this study was to evaluate free recall, cued recall, and recognition, in an attempt to examine the accuracy of eyewitness memory. The study utilized a quantitative design to assess the accuracy of eyewitness memory as measured by results on ...


The Influence Of Emotion On Memory For A Crime, Taylor Langley Jan 2016

The Influence Of Emotion On Memory For A Crime, Taylor Langley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have reported errors in recall or recognition of witnessed events, accounting for the most common cause of false convictions of innocent people. Tiwari (2010) indicated that 25% of suspects who were identified in a line-up were actually innocent. Jurors are strongly influenced by eyewitness testimony and this can lead to false convictions. The validity of eyewitness identification is critical in cases in which it is used as evidence. In the current study we examined specific emotion states by inducing fear, surprise, and neutral moods. We hypothesized that participants in the Fear group would be least susceptible to the effects ...


The Adaptive Memory Effect: Exploring Need For Cognition And Survival Processing, Nora Del Giudice Jan 2016

The Adaptive Memory Effect: Exploring Need For Cognition And Survival Processing, Nora Del Giudice

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Adaptive memory demonstrates that memory is enhanced when information is processed because of its relevance to survival (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, 2007). In the present experiments we examined whether there was a difference in individuals Need for Cognition (NFC) in regards to adaptive memory. Need for Cognition is characterized as the differences in individual’s preference for engaging in thought that requires effort. Specifically, individuals high in NFC could think of numerous ways to survive, thus being more likely to generate more thoughts and ideas, ultimately leading to better memory compared to low-NFC individuals. For both experiments participants read survival and ...