Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Context And Target Search Reversal: Implicit Flexibility And Rapid Adaptation Of Relational Memories Using Visual Search, Ryan Hanson Dec 2013

Context And Target Search Reversal: Implicit Flexibility And Rapid Adaptation Of Relational Memories Using Visual Search, Ryan Hanson

Theses and Dissertations

Repeated perceptual exposure leads to increased accuracy and decreased response latency - referred to as perceptual facilitation or priming - and generally occurs in the absence of conscious memory experience. One example of a priming task which depends upon contextual relations is termed contextual cuing. It has long been held that context-dependent relations can only be acquired with deliberative or explicit processes. While context learning has historically been attributed to declarative memory, the existence of implicit context learning tasks may be better explained as an implicit relational learning process. Although implicit memories have long been characterized as relatively rigid, such tasks raise ...


The Role Of A Camkii/Pka-Protein Degradation-Glur2 Pathway In The Control Of Memory Updating Following Retrieval, Timothy Jarome Aug 2013

The Role Of A Camkii/Pka-Protein Degradation-Glur2 Pathway In The Control Of Memory Updating Following Retrieval, Timothy Jarome

Theses and Dissertations

Reconsolidation is thought to be a process whereby consolidated memories can be modified following retrieval. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate this reconsolidation process. In the present series of experiments we tested if memories "destabilize" or become labile following retrieval through a specific signaling pathway. We found that retrieval of a contextual fear memory differentially increased proteasome activity in the amygdala and hippocampus and resulted in unique changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression in these brain regions. These changes were dependent on CaMKII activity, which was required for increases in Rpt6-S120 phosphorylation, proteasome activity and ...


Musical Mood And Musical Arousal Affects Different Stages Of Learning And Memory Performance, Tram Nguyen Jul 2013

Musical Mood And Musical Arousal Affects Different Stages Of Learning And Memory Performance, Tram Nguyen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examined whether the effect of music on memory is attributable to musical mood, musical arousal, context, or some combination of these factors. In Experiment 1, participants performed a face-name paired-association task while music was played in the background. In Experiment 2, the perceptual context (Experiment 2A) and emotional context (Experiment 2B) of music was examined more thoroughly. Experiment 3 examined whether the context effect of musical mood and musical arousal occurs in a recall task (Experiment 3A), a recognition task (Experiment 3B), and an association task (Experiment 3C). The results showed that low arousal music enhanced memory while ...


To Live Is To Die: The Effect Of Mortality Salience On Memory And Fear Of Death, Tony F. Bergamini May 2013

To Live Is To Die: The Effect Of Mortality Salience On Memory And Fear Of Death, Tony F. Bergamini

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Terror Management Theory proposes that the threat of death produces existential terror, which accentuates the need for security. This effect of mortality salience awareness of death-is well documented for non-conscious thoughts of death (Martens, Burke, Schimel, & Faucher, 2011). The objective of this study, then, is to measure anxiety-or fear of death-in reaction to non-conscious as well as conscious thoughts of death by manipulating the valence (positive vs. negative) and content (death vs. non-death) of a story that participants read. I measured any changes reported in fear of death before and after reading the story. Participants also wrote about their first realization of death after making their second fear-of-death rating. Next, they completed the fear-of-death questionnaire a third time. Lastly, participants completed a recognition test after the third questionnaire, measuring their memory for the story read earlier in the study. This assessed whether mortality salience had an effect on memory (Greenberg, Martens, Jonas, Eisenstadt, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 2003). Seventy-one undergraduate students participated in the study. There was not a significant effect of mortality salience on memory; however, results showed a significant decrease in fear of death after participants wrote about their first realization of death as well as a marginally significant effect of content such that participants in the non-death conditions had higher fear of death ratings than participants in the death conditions. Mortality salience, in the form of an explicit. personal reflection on death, significantly decreased fear of death ...


Attention And Criminal Charge, Profile And Description: The Effect On Prospective Person Memory, Lindsey Nicole Sweeney May 2013

Attention And Criminal Charge, Profile And Description: The Effect On Prospective Person Memory, Lindsey Nicole Sweeney

Theses and Dissertations

Prospective person memory is the ability to recognize and react to a missing or wanted individual that one has been asked to be on the lookout for in the future. Prospective person memory relies on several processes including face recognition, event-based prospective memory, and attention. Only recently has research on the role of visual attention on prospective person memory been examined. In this dissertation, the gap between prospective person memory and attention is addressed. Although research on prospective person memory is steadily increasing, the research in this area is still in its infancy and the exact memory mechanisms that affect ...


Olfactory Working Memory: The Role Of Perceived Odor Name-Ability, Spencer Lawrence Macadams May 2013

Olfactory Working Memory: The Role Of Perceived Odor Name-Ability, Spencer Lawrence Macadams

Masters Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among three factors: perceived odorant name ability, whether the odorant was ingested through a single nostril or both nostrils, and how the odorant is represented in working memory. Participants smelled odorants through the left or right nostril or with both nostrils and then provided an identifying label for each odor and rated how accurately their label represented the odor. After a short delay, the participants were given a new stimulus set consisting of new and old odorants. Participants were asked to provide a label for the odor and determine whether ...


Classifcation Aided Analysis Of Oscillatory Signatures In Controlled Retrieval, Nicholas Ketz Jan 2013

Classifcation Aided Analysis Of Oscillatory Signatures In Controlled Retrieval, Nicholas Ketz

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Control over memory retrieval is a ubiquitous process within humans, yet this process and its implications are not yet well understood. The current work, inspired by a similar fMRI design (Detre, Natarajan, Gershman, & Norman, in press), uses a modified Think/No-Think(TNT) paradigm to investigate the neural signatures of volition over enhancing and suppressing memory retrieval. Previous studies in this domain have shown a memory enhancement when well learned stimulus-pairs are restudied in cued recall (Think of studied pair item), and a degradation in memory performance when restudied with cued suppression (Dont think of studied pair item). As is the ...


Googling To Forget: The Cognitive Processing Of Internet Search, Elizabeth T. Friede Jan 2013

Googling To Forget: The Cognitive Processing Of Internet Search, Elizabeth T. Friede

CMC Senior Theses

Technology is currently extremely integrated with everyday life. Popular media has made bold claims that the internet is making us “dumber” and people struggle to remember information more now than they ever have in the past. Scientific research on the effect of internet search on cognition and memory is still in its infancy. This research will analyze the literature and theories discussing memory and the internet. Based on an original experiment by Sparrow, Liu, and Wegner. 20 participants (10 young adults and 10 older adults) performed a typing task with twenty trivia statements, followed by a recall and recognition memory ...


Eyewitness Memory In Adults, Carlos Manuel Vargas Jan 2013

Eyewitness Memory In Adults, Carlos Manuel Vargas

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This study encompasses the areas of eyewitness misidentifications and eyewitness suggestibility by developing a Video Suggestibility and Eyewitness Identification Scale for adults. Two hundred one college students were recruited to test this novel psychometric scale following procedures loosely based on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales. The two main subscales proposed are labeled True, which measures non-leading questions answered correctly, and Yield, which measures questions endorsed based on misinformation; two lineup identification subscales were also analyzed for exploration. Reliability estimates showed acceptable internal consistency of True and Yield subscales after negative feedback was provided; while reliability in Target Present Lineups increased and ...


Hypnosis, Hypnotizability, Memory And Involvement In Films, Reed Maxwell Jan 2013

Hypnosis, Hypnotizability, Memory And Involvement In Films, Reed Maxwell

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum and Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass and Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing of greater absorption and involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional ( Scenes of Toronto) film clip. We also examined the effects of hypnosis and film valence on memory and state depersonalization. Our study is the first to use state dissociation to index response to hypnosis. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two ...


Delaying Feedback Is Beneficial, But Only When Curious About The Answer, Kellie Marie Mullaney Jan 2013

Delaying Feedback Is Beneficial, But Only When Curious About The Answer, Kellie Marie Mullaney

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

When students are tested, delaying feedback of the correct answer by a few seconds is more beneficial than providing it immediately (e.g., Brackbill & Kappy, 1962). The current study refers to this effect as the delay-of-feedback benefit. Little is known about the theoretical nature of the delay-of-feedback benefit. The current study investigated the hypothesis that a delay of feedback is beneficial because it allows a learner to anticipate--i.e., look forward to, or devote attentional resources to--the feedback when it arrives. Participants were asked a list of obscure trivia questions. Immediately after answering each question they were asked to indicate ...


Can Interpolated Testing Reduce Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?, Matthew R. Erdman Jan 2013

Can Interpolated Testing Reduce Retrieval-Induced Forgetting?, Matthew R. Erdman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Testing can improve retention of tested information (see Roediger & Karpicke, 2006a for review), but it can also impair memory for nontested, related information: an effect termed retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). To my knowledge, retrieval-induced forgetting has only been shown in experiments where participants study all exemplars and then perform one retrieval practice phase (see Anderson, 2003; Raaijmakers & Jakab, 2013; Storm & Levy, 2012 for reviews). Researchers have demonstrated that interpolating memory tests during the learning phase can reduce the amount of proactive interference one experiences when one learns new information (Szpunar, McDermott, & Roediger, 2008). In this dissertation, I examined how studying information in multiple blocks rather than one block influenced the buildup of proactive interference. Previous researchers (Szpunar et al., 2008) examined how testing can reduce the buildup of practice interference when all previously studied information was tested. I examined whether testing only a subset of the exemplars in a ...


Behavioral Markers Of Chronic Low-Level Lead Exposure In Young Mice, Mayra Gisel Flores Montoya Jan 2013

Behavioral Markers Of Chronic Low-Level Lead Exposure In Young Mice, Mayra Gisel Flores Montoya

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Behavioral markers of chronic low-level lead exposure in young mice were examined in the present study. Three groups of C57BL/6J mice (N = 35) were exposed from birth to PND 28 to one of three lead acetate levels: 0 ppm (control), 30 ppm (low-dose), or 330 ppm (high-dose). On PND 28, and immediately prior to sacrifice, mice were tested on the novel odor recognition task [(NODR) (memory task)], on the open field task [(OF) (exploratory behavior, habituation, and anxiety behavior task)], and on the nose poke task [(NP) (exploratory behavior task)]. Blood lead levels were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma ...