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The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson Aug 2019

The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Fear generalization, the generalization of fear to innocuous stimuli, is a characteristic component of pathological anxiety. For example, after returning from war, a person might begin to experience fear in response to the sound of fireworks, a stimulus typically regarded as safe. When excessive, “overgeneralization” serves as a core feature of fear and anxiety-related disorders, such as PTSD. The present collection of studies sought to investigate the neural correlates and temporal dynamics of fear generalization in humans.

The first study sought to investigate the causal role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus in the generalization of fear. Contrary ...


Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, Nia Imani Gipson May 2019

Familiarization Through Ambient Images Alone, Nia Imani Gipson

Theses and Dissertations

The term “ambient images” has begun to show up in much of the current literature on facial recognition. Ambient images refer to naturally occurring views of a face that captures the idiosyncratic ways in which a target face may vary (Ritchie & Burton, 2017). Much of the literature on ambient images have concluded that exposing people to ambient images of a target face can lead to improved facial recognition for that target face. Some studies have even suggested that familiarity is the result of increased exposure to ambient images of a target face (Burton, Kramer, Ritchie, & Jenkins, 2016). The current study ...


Rescuing Age-Related Proteolysis Deficits With Methylene Blue, Shane E. Pullins Dec 2017

Rescuing Age-Related Proteolysis Deficits With Methylene Blue, Shane E. Pullins

Theses and Dissertations

The average lifespan is constantly increasing with the advent of new medical techniques, and age-related cognitive decline is becoming a prevalent societal issue. Even during healthy aging, humans and rats exhibit progressive deficits in episodic/declarative memory. In laboratory rats, age-related memory impairment can be assessed with trace fear conditioning (TFC). Recent research implicates ubiquitin proteasome system-mediated protein degradation in the synaptic plasticity supporting memory formation and retrieval. In rats, aging leads to decreased basal proteolytic activity in brain structures known to support the acquisition and retrieval of trace fear memories, and our preliminary data suggests activity-dependent proteasome activity declines ...


People Change: Impression Management Influences Autobiographical Memories, Holly Elizabeth Cole Aug 2017

People Change: Impression Management Influences Autobiographical Memories, Holly Elizabeth Cole

Theses and Dissertations

This paper presents the results of an experiment that tested a new impression management strategy, termed memory enhancement, and the long-term implications of using memory enhancement. People often share the events that occur in their everyday lives to others in the form of stories. This research was designed to determine if people will alter the way they share previous events to create a specific impression. It is possible that using the impression management strategy of memory enhancement will create long lasting changes to the actual memory of the event. This was tested in an experiment in which participants were put ...


Intention To Deceive Alters Access To Semantic Memory, James Nye Jan 2017

Intention To Deceive Alters Access To Semantic Memory, James Nye

Theses and Dissertations

I conceptualize a theory of deception within the perspective of discourse and pragmatics while choosing to examine the decision to engage in deception within the perspective of cognitive psychology. Currently, cognitive perspectives of deception have emphasized that inhibitory control of one’s motor processes are vital because in order to respond deceptively, one must prevent honest behavior from leaking into one’s actions. Although indirect evidence for inhibition is heavily linked with deception, current empirical data connecting motoric control with deceptive responses has been difficult to observe. I propose a theoretical perspective that shifts the role of inhibitory control in ...


The Role Of Attention And Memory In Prospective Person Memory, Kara Nicole Moore Jan 2017

The Role Of Attention And Memory In Prospective Person Memory, Kara Nicole Moore

Theses and Dissertations

I examined the role of memory and attention in prospective person memory. Prospective person memory involves being on the lookout for a person with the goal of completing some task (i.e., contacting the authorities) upon encountering the person. Success at prospective person memory tasks in lab and field based studies is rather low (i.e., less than 10% of people report encountering the person). In the current study the prospective person memory task involved a simulated search for a missing person. I manipulated attention to the missing person and strategic monitoring, which involves being in retrieval mode and searching ...


The Mechanisms Underlying Cocaine-Induced Overexpression Of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (Bfgf, Fgf2), An Effect Reversed By Extinction, Madalyn Hafenbreidel Aug 2016

The Mechanisms Underlying Cocaine-Induced Overexpression Of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (Bfgf, Fgf2), An Effect Reversed By Extinction, Madalyn Hafenbreidel

Theses and Dissertations

Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug use and chronic relapse despite negative consequences. Drug-induced structural and functional changes in the brain are thought to underlie these characteristics. One mechanism that may mediate these characteristics are growth factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2), as they are necessary for cellular growth, survival, differentiation, and have roles in memory, mood, and anxiety disorders. bFGF mRNA and protein expression is increased following stimulant administration and is necessary for stimulant-induced changes in dendrites and behavioral sensitization. Moreover, addiction is maintained by cues associated with the drug, as they can can ...


Memory Mechanisms Of Hand Gesture In Communication And Learning, Caitlin Ann Hilliard Aug 2016

Memory Mechanisms Of Hand Gesture In Communication And Learning, Caitlin Ann Hilliard

Theses and Dissertations

Spontaneous co-speech hand gestures robustly affect learning and memory. Viewing or producing hand gestures during conversation facilitates the encoding, consolidation, and retention of the information in speech. Despite these effects, the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting this relationship remains unknown. In Experiment 1, I explored the memory mechanisms supporting hand gesture by working with patients with damage to their hippocampus and thus their declarative memory system. Participants engaged in discourse tasks that disproportionately engaged the hippocampus. I found that patients gestured less overall than healthy comparisons across all tasks, suggesting that the hippocampus indeed plays a role in gesture production ...


Recognition Training For Faces Across Age Gaps, William Blake Erickson Aug 2016

Recognition Training For Faces Across Age Gaps, William Blake Erickson

Theses and Dissertations

Face recognition is a problem that has theoretical and applied value. However, the fact of facial aging is rarely addressed in research and unmentioned in the major theories of face recognition. Facial aging also has ramifications for missing persons and fugitive cases, confounding attempts by law enforcement to recover these people whose last known images are years or decades out of date. This dissertation reports three studies aimed at measuring baseline age-gap recognition ability and testing various training regimens designed to increase accuracy rates for this unique kind of recognition task.


Sex Differences In Cognitive Decline In Mild Cognitive Impairment And Alzheimer's Disease, Juliann Thompson Jul 2016

Sex Differences In Cognitive Decline In Mild Cognitive Impairment And Alzheimer's Disease, Juliann Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and results in progressive cognitive decline, particularly in regards to memory (National Institute on Aging, 2012). Prior research has shown sex differences in brain-atrophy rates of AD patients, with women experiencing a higher rate of progression in volume reduction (Skup et al., 2011). This suggests that there may also be differences in cognitive functioning between sexes, particularly in the rate of cognitive decline with a more rapid disease progression for dementing females compared to dementing males. The current study monitored memory function longitudinally in approximately 200 total participants, 100 ...


Eye Movement Effects In Simulated Object Recognition Memory Impairment, Dmitriy Kazakov May 2016

Eye Movement Effects In Simulated Object Recognition Memory Impairment, Dmitriy Kazakov

Theses and Dissertations

Malingering is the purposeful fabrication of symptoms for secondary gain. Memory problems are the most reported symptom, and object recognition tests are often used in clinical settings to evaluate these claims. Past research has shown that eye movements can indirectly index memory, in that greater viewing is directed at studied stimuli 500-750 ms after display onset. The present study evaluated eye movements as a potential method of detecting feigned memory impairment. Forty-eight participants, half simulators, studied standardized images and took a memory test. Several levels of analysis were used to detect broad trends and brief effects. Simulators performed significantly worse ...


The Influence Of Test Anxiety On Memory, James J. Malloy Mar 2016

The Influence Of Test Anxiety On Memory, James J. Malloy

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between test anxiety and memory among a college population (N = 42). Specifically, the goal was to ascertain whether text anxiety had a measurable effect on memory, which was represented by scores on the Nelson-Denny reading comprehension subtest. Participants were divided into a stressed group (N = 22) and a non-stressed group (N = 20) in order to compare scores from test-takers with anxiety to those who do not. It was hypothesized that (a) test anxiety would have a significant impact on test results, (b) the non-stressed group would score higher than the ...


Regulation Of Mtor And Erk Signaling In The Amygdala Through Proteolytic Modulation Of Pp2a Activity Following Auditory Fear Learning, David Sylvan Reis May 2015

Regulation Of Mtor And Erk Signaling In The Amygdala Through Proteolytic Modulation Of Pp2a Activity Following Auditory Fear Learning, David Sylvan Reis

Theses and Dissertations

The consolidation of fear memories is known to depend on a number of critical cellular processes including de novo protein synthesis and 26S proteasome-dependent protein degradation following auditory fear conditioning (Jarome et al., 2011; Kwapis et al., 2011). Early work has suggested that protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), may regulate the requirement for de novo protein synthesis during memory consolidation (Jarome & Helmstetter, 2014). However, the precise way in which the UPS is able to regulate mechanisms of protein synthesis remain unclear. In the present set of experiments, we investigated the role of the protein phosphatase 2A ...


Exploration Of The Wechsler Memory Scale Fourth Edition And Measures Of Executive Function Combined Components Model, Isaac Tourgeman Jan 2015

Exploration Of The Wechsler Memory Scale Fourth Edition And Measures Of Executive Function Combined Components Model, Isaac Tourgeman

Theses and Dissertations

While memory is the faculty that affords us learning, adaptation and development, it is our executive function that oversees, manages and organizes these abilities. Still, there is limited research on the interaction between memory and executive function. The present study investigated this relationship through Principal Components Analysis. Performances on accepted measures of memory and executive function were evaluated in an adult clinical sample. Components were retained using three criteria: a predetermined four-component structure, eigenvalues exceeding a value of one, and parallel analysis. Results demonstrated that a four-component model most accurately represented the data. Analyses also revealed that measures of immediate ...


Influence Of Seductive Details, Belief-Congruence, And Repeated Testing On Memory For Controversial Information, Daniel Adam Nuccio Sep 2014

Influence Of Seductive Details, Belief-Congruence, And Repeated Testing On Memory For Controversial Information, Daniel Adam Nuccio

Theses and Dissertations

People often encounter conflicting information on a wide array of topics. How they evaluate this information in relation to their current beliefs, and the effects of other influences, such as the weight given to superficial aspects of the information (e.g. pictures, anecdotes, or jargon that are at most minimally related to an author's argument), has been of interest to researchers for many years. One component of their processing

and evaluation of this information is their memory for the information. This study set out to examine the following questions: (1) Is belief-congruent in

formation remembered better or worse than ...


Memory Retrieval Is Maintained By Intrinsic And Synaptic Plasticity In Prelimbic Cortex, James Otis Aug 2014

Memory Retrieval Is Maintained By Intrinsic And Synaptic Plasticity In Prelimbic Cortex, James Otis

Theses and Dissertations

Abnormally strong memories underlie common disorders including addiction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Memory disruption would therefore be beneficial for treatment of these disorders. Evidence reveals that cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) memories are susceptible to long-lasting disruption during memory retrieval. For example, inhibition of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) activity within the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL-mPFC) prevents cocaine CPP memory retrieval, and this retrieval impairment is both long-lasting and prevents subsequent reinstatement of the CPP. Despite this, whether PL-mPFC β-AR activity is a fundamental mechanism required to maintain retrieval of other memories is unclear. Furthermore, how PL-mPFC β-AR activity maintains ...


Is Contextual Cue Learning Flexible? An Eye-Movement Study Of The Contextual Cueing Task, Youcai Yang May 2014

Is Contextual Cue Learning Flexible? An Eye-Movement Study Of The Contextual Cueing Task, Youcai Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Visual searching can be facilitated without awareness when the target is repeatedly presented in an invariant context in tasks such as contextual cueing (Chun & Jiang 1998). A behavioral cost (increased reaction time) was observed when the target was moved to a new location but no such cost was observed when the target returned to the initial location. The lack of cost for return suggests two possible explanations: One is that the learning can update the initial learning to acquire both target locations, which suggests the implicit learning is flexible. The other is that the contextual cue leaning cannot update the ...


The Effects Of Focality Of Processing And Delay On Event-Based Prospective Memory, Samantha Nicole Petrella Apr 2014

The Effects Of Focality Of Processing And Delay On Event-Based Prospective Memory, Samantha Nicole Petrella

Theses and Dissertations

The current experiment proposes an examination of the effects of focality of processing and delays on event-based prospective memory tasks. Several perspectives regarding the process of remembering to perform an intended action in the future have been proposed by researchers in this area. Smith (2007) proposed the Preparatory Attentional and Memory (PAM) process theory regarding PM. According to the PAM theory, the retrieval of a prospective memory continuously requires resource-demanding preparatory attentional processes, or effortful and deliberate focus. Further, it suggests that successful PM retrieval is never automatic and that attention to the PM task interferes with and compromises ongoing ...


The Effect Of Sleep-Dependent Consolidation On Pattern Separation And Pattern Completion In Delayed Retrieval, Jesse Ray James Feb 2014

The Effect Of Sleep-Dependent Consolidation On Pattern Separation And Pattern Completion In Delayed Retrieval, Jesse Ray James

Theses and Dissertations

While people sleep, the brain replays the same neural firings that resulted from waking activities that day. This results in greater memory strength following a sleeping delay than a waking delay. The current project built upon this fact in a series of three experiments. Experiment 1. Although previous research has demonstrated a benefit of sleep to memory strength, the literature has not established the impact of sleep on memory specificity. Computational models of medial temporal lobe function posit that discrimination and generalization across similar memories are accomplished through processes known as pattern separation and pattern completion, respectively. To discover whether ...


Context And Target Search Reversal: Implicit Flexibility And Rapid Adaptation Of Relational Memories Using Visual Search, Ryan Hanson Dec 2013

Context And Target Search Reversal: Implicit Flexibility And Rapid Adaptation Of Relational Memories Using Visual Search, Ryan Hanson

Theses and Dissertations

Repeated perceptual exposure leads to increased accuracy and decreased response latency - referred to as perceptual facilitation or priming - and generally occurs in the absence of conscious memory experience. One example of a priming task which depends upon contextual relations is termed contextual cuing. It has long been held that context-dependent relations can only be acquired with deliberative or explicit processes. While context learning has historically been attributed to declarative memory, the existence of implicit context learning tasks may be better explained as an implicit relational learning process. Although implicit memories have long been characterized as relatively rigid, such tasks raise ...


The Role Of A Camkii/Pka-Protein Degradation-Glur2 Pathway In The Control Of Memory Updating Following Retrieval, Timothy Jarome Aug 2013

The Role Of A Camkii/Pka-Protein Degradation-Glur2 Pathway In The Control Of Memory Updating Following Retrieval, Timothy Jarome

Theses and Dissertations

Reconsolidation is thought to be a process whereby consolidated memories can be modified following retrieval. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate this reconsolidation process. In the present series of experiments we tested if memories "destabilize" or become labile following retrieval through a specific signaling pathway. We found that retrieval of a contextual fear memory differentially increased proteasome activity in the amygdala and hippocampus and resulted in unique changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression in these brain regions. These changes were dependent on CaMKII activity, which was required for increases in Rpt6-S120 phosphorylation, proteasome activity and ...


Attention And Criminal Charge, Profile And Description: The Effect On Prospective Person Memory, Lindsey Nicole Sweeney May 2013

Attention And Criminal Charge, Profile And Description: The Effect On Prospective Person Memory, Lindsey Nicole Sweeney

Theses and Dissertations

Prospective person memory is the ability to recognize and react to a missing or wanted individual that one has been asked to be on the lookout for in the future. Prospective person memory relies on several processes including face recognition, event-based prospective memory, and attention. Only recently has research on the role of visual attention on prospective person memory been examined. In this dissertation, the gap between prospective person memory and attention is addressed. Although research on prospective person memory is steadily increasing, the research in this area is still in its infancy and the exact memory mechanisms that affect ...


The Longitudinal Stability Of Memory In Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexander J. Cramond Aug 2012

The Longitudinal Stability Of Memory In Males With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Alexander J. Cramond

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has demonstrated mixed evidence on impaired memory functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with the only consensus that there appears to be much heterogeneity. In addition, no research to date has examined the stability of memory in ASD. This study examined the stability of memory function in ASD compared to typically developing age-matched controls. Participants were administered the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) twice, three years apart, in an established longitudinal NIH-supported investigation of ASD. Based on available research contrasting memory development in healthy individuals versus those with ASD, it was hypothesized that memory performance in the ...


Temporal Shifts In Weapon Focus: Comparing Retrograde And Anterograde Effects, William Blake Erickson May 2012

Temporal Shifts In Weapon Focus: Comparing Retrograde And Anterograde Effects, William Blake Erickson

Theses and Dissertations

When an eyewitness suffers an impairment of memory for a criminal's face because the criminal used a weapon during the commission of the crime, this impairment is called the weapon focus effect. Literature provides two explanations for how this effect arises: some implicate the narrowing of attentional cues to the weapon during the commission of a crime because arousal of the victim increases, while others claim that the weapon is merely a novel object in most everyday contexts, and novel objects demand more attention than contextually appropriate ones. The current study employed a simulated crime paradigm taking place in ...


The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk Jan 2012

The Effects Of Context Pre-Exposure And Emotionality On Memory For Context, Amanda Funk

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Neural Correlates Of Retrospective Memory Monitoring: Convergent Findings From Erp And Fmri, Jeremy Clark Roper Jul 2011

The Neural Correlates Of Retrospective Memory Monitoring: Convergent Findings From Erp And Fmri, Jeremy Clark Roper

Theses and Dissertations

Monitoring the accuracy of memory is an automatic but essential process of memory encoding and retrieval. Retrospective memory confidence judgments are making effective and efficient decisions based on one's memories. The neural processes involved in retrospective confidence ratings were investigated with EEG and fMRI using a recognition memory task designed such that participants also rated their confidence in their memory response. Correct trials (hits and correct rejections) were examined for differences related to the participants' level of confidence in their response. There were significant differences in electrophysiological activity (in the FN400 and the late parietal component) associated with confidence ...


Cognitive Mechanisms Of Memory Impairment Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Mark D. Whiting Jan 2007

Cognitive Mechanisms Of Memory Impairment Following Traumatic Brain Injury, Mark D. Whiting

Theses and Dissertations

Memory impairment is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In recent years, researchers have demonstrated that the processes underlying memory formation (working memory, encoding, consolidation, and retrieval) are interrelated but dissociable events.The following study was designed to determine how these processes contribute to memory impairment following experimental TBI in the rat. Experiment 1 indicated thatTBI induces severe working memory deficits in a delayed non-matching-to-place task.Although all animals displayed intact acquisition, only injured animals displayed poor performance as the delay between the sample and choice phases was increased.Experiment 2 was designed to determine if TBI produces a transient ...


The Effects Of Early Postnatal Pcp Administration On Performance In Locomotor Activity, Reference Memory, And Working Memory Tasks In C57bl/6 Mice, Alan L. Pehrson Jan 2007

The Effects Of Early Postnatal Pcp Administration On Performance In Locomotor Activity, Reference Memory, And Working Memory Tasks In C57bl/6 Mice, Alan L. Pehrson

Theses and Dissertations

There is a growing consensus, based on several converging lines of evidence, which suggests schizophrenia is the product of a developmental insult occurring in the late 2 nd or early 3 rd trimester. Additionally, it has been observed that adults who abuse the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist PCP present with symptoms that mimic schizophrenia, such as hallucinations, formal thought disorder, delusions, unstable or flattened affect, social withdrawal, and impaired cognition. Thus, several labs have attempted to use early postnatal PCP administration in rodents as a drug model of schizophrenia. The current study investigated the cognitive effects of early postnatal PCP administration ...


Parental Memory Predictors Of Children's Daily Diabetes Management And Metabolic Control, Sheryl J. Kent Jan 2005

Parental Memory Predictors Of Children's Daily Diabetes Management And Metabolic Control, Sheryl J. Kent

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined, for the first time, specific links between parents' memory and children's diabetes behaviors and metabolic control. Data revealed that parental memory and responsibility predicted children's percentage of calories from fat and carbohydrates, and metabolic control, accounting for 7.3% of the variance in calories from fat and 18.5% of the variance in metabolic control for the total sample. These effects were stronger when limited to dietary behaviors of younger youth; parental memory accounted for 30.3% and 33.6% of the variance in percentage of calories from fat and carbohydrates, respectively, for younger children ...


Memory Matters Ii: Predictors Of Self-Care Behaviors In Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes, Sari A. Soutor Jan 2004

Memory Matters Ii: Predictors Of Self-Care Behaviors In Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes, Sari A. Soutor

Theses and Dissertations

Type 1 diabetes and associated hypoglycemia can result in verbal memory difficulties, yet the role of memory in daily diabetes self-care has not been evaluated for young adults. Subtests from two well-standardized memory measures were administered to 34 young adults with type 1 diabetes, aged 18-29, in this pilot study. Self-care behaviors were assessed through 24-hour diabetes care interviews, while HbAlc indicated metabolic control. Verbal associative memory uniquely accounted for 12% of the variance in blood glucose testing frequency (p p p p = .06. Single-trial verbal memory uniquely predicted 10% of the variance in metabolic control (p p < .05. Importantly, memory was the only significant predictor in each model, which indicates memory, rather than overall cognitive capacity or financial/educational resources, relates to self-care behaviors/health status. Memory, a novel factor not previously evaluated in the quest to better understand daily disease management for young adults with diabetes, is significantly related to central self-care behaviors and metabolic control. Memory predictors likely warrant additional research and clinical attention such that eventually, intervention studies might identify strategies or compensatory aids that could improve young adults' self-care behaviors and health status through facilitating better memory functioning.